Call to Tawhid

THE THREE FOUNDATIONS | SHAYKH’UL ISLÂM MUHAMMAD BIN ABD’IL WAHHÂB RAHIMAHULLÂH

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Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


The Three Foundations

Preface

In the name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

All praise is due to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds. I bear witness that there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allâh. Salvation is possible only by obeying Him. A good end is for the pious. I also testify that Muhammad al-Mustafâ, who was sent as the last messenger of Allâh to all jinn and humans and is the mercy of the worlds and also the leader of the pious, is the servant and Messenger of Allâh. O Allâh, send eternal peace and blessings upon Your Prophet Muhammad, his companions, and those who followed them, and were content with their path!

To proceed,

O people! Today, although the literacy rate is very high, there is no question that ignorance about Allâh, the religion of Allâh Islâm, and His prophet Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam is alarming. The reason being that people turn away from the religion of Islâm and the necessary knowledge that will make them a Muslim and prepare the ground for them to attain eternal bliss. Whereas, the salvation and happiness of every individual, both in this world and in the hereafter, depends only on being a Muslim. Accordingly, it is possible for a person to become a Muslim only by practicing this knowledge and acting upon it.

The religion of Islâm, which makes a person Muslim; protects from doing harmful and immoral acts, forbids unlawful lusts and passions, disciplines and nurtures the heart, makes people good by revealing good habits, makes people successful by giving hope and encouragement, makes them forget their troubles as a shield against sadness, sorrow and grief, and increases their will power. Islâm is a treasure and a divine way that nurtures and matures, causes peace and brings eternal happiness in the hereafter. When religion disappears, people enslave themselves to their whims and desires without understanding or reasoning, and they reinforce their oppression against their own selves by claiming that this phenomenon is freedom. Whereas, the religion of Islâm brings good morals, strength, courage, endurance, patience, comfort, and peace to individuals, it prevents divisiveness and destructiveness, and ensures justice.

Islâm, which we call to, is a universal religion that means wholeheartedly surrendering to Allâh with Tawhîd. This religion, on the other hand, is a divine way that guides those who possess an intellect to the best, the most correct, and the most beautiful with their own will. The religion of Islâm is submitting sovereignty, domination, administration, unconditional submission, obedience, and in short, it is to sincerely surrender Tawhîd to its rightful owner Allâh, the sole owner of divinity, without ascribing any partners to Him. Allâh is the One who gives guidance to those whose hearts are sincerely seeking the truth and worthy of His mercy.

Islâm is not a new religion, on the contrary, it was conveyed by all the prophets of Allâh. It is the only means and way for a person to know and understand his Lord, which is his personal responsibility, and to prepare himself for the inevitable Day of Judgment. The aim of the person who seeks eternal bliss is to embark on a spiritual journey to accept and know Islâm. The responsibility that he should have on this path is undoubtedly the consciousness of Tawhîd. For this reason, the knowledge of Tawhîd, which determines the qualities, souls, hearts, bodies, emotions, and actions of individuals and makes them attain the ability to know the Lord of the worlds who guides them, is essential for a person to become a Muslim and attain eternal bliss. Knowledge which is the opposite of ignorance alone does not benefit in and of itself unless it turns into knowledge. Since the knowledge underlying the attainment of eternal bliss is the basis of knowing one's Lord. One's own knowledge is determined by the guidance of one's actions and conscience. Consciences that are kneaded without Tawhîd are doomed to be drowned amidst the waves of knowledge and ignorance.

All the children of Âdam are the servants of Allâh. The duty of every servant is to properly perform the duties assigned to him. The servant who ignores his duty of worship, that is, servitude, is one who rebels against his nature and loses his worth. The basis of worshiping Allâh is to learn the creed and belief in a sound way and to possess this belief. The servitude of a person who has a flaw in his belief will not be accepted, regardless of what he does, his servitude will not be acceptable. As for a person whose belief is correct, then his servitude is acceptable in the sight of Allâh, the ruler of all rulers, the king of all kings, no matter how little he does. It is precisely for this reason that every person should endeavour to correct his belief and the aim of his ambitions should be to perform servitude properly.

The most correct approach for salvation is to obey one's Lord who created him and the messenger sent by his Lord, and to appoint Him as a final judge and an arbitrator in everything. As long as it conforms to the Qur'ân, which is the divine speech, and the Sunnah of the Prophet, he should accept the words of people and he should abstain from all customs, habits, beliefs, words, behaviors, and imitations that go against the Qur'ân and the Sunnah.

Our Almighty Lord presents His book as follows, "And certainly We have revealed to you clear verses. And no one denies them except the sinful." (al-Baqarah 2/99) Here, it is clearly seen that it is not difficult to comprehend the message in the Qur'ân. Only the servant who does not obey his Lord, the servant who considers himself too great to obey Him, the servant who refuses to surrender to His order, claims that it is difficult and avoids understanding it.

Understanding the Book of Allâh, which is the directory for guidance, and the words of His messenger does not require sharp intelligence and deep knowledge. This is because all of the prophets were sent to guide those who lost their way and went astray to the light of guidance and to educate those who struggled in ignorance with Islâm. Almighty Allâh says, "He is the One who raised amidst the unlettered people a messenger from among themselves who recites to them His verses, and purifies them, and teaches them the Book and the wisdom, while they were earlier in open error." (al-Jumu'ah 62/2)

The belief that every person must have in order to attain eternal bliss consists of two matters:

First, believing that Allâh is the true deity and lord.

The second is to believe that Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam is the messenger and prophet of Allâh.

Believing that Almighty Allâh is the deity and lord means not associating any partner with Allâh. Believing that Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam is the messenger and prophet of Allâh is to follow his path alone.

That's why every servant should have the knowledge of this and hold fast to Tawhîd, that is, worshipping Allâh without associating partners with Him, and following the Sunnah. He should strive with all his might to not equate or associate a being with Him in all kinds of polytheism, in other words, in matters that are unique to Allâh, and to stay away from innovations and things that have no origin in the religion but appear later, since Shirk and innovations affect belief, damages it, gnaws on it, and destroys it.

Shirk became widespread among people, and pure Tawhîd has remained strange. Sadly, most people are unaware of Shirk, they do not even know the meaning of Shirk. They claim to be Muslims and have faith while in this state and tainted with Shirk, contaminated with Shirk, and immersed in Shirk. Therefore, the most important thing above all else is that humanity should have a deep understanding regarding the meaning of Shirk and Tawhîd, and learn the necessities of Shirk and Tawhîd as described in the Qur'ân and Sunnah.

This treatise named "The Three Foundations" is written by Shaykh'ul Islâm, Mujaddid of the call of Tawhîd, Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb bin Sulaymân at-Tamîmî Rahimahullâh. It is an important text of creed written presenting the reader with a very simple and plain expression, three basic principles and proofs regarding knowledge that will make a person a Muslim if he reads, understands, and accepts them. These three foundations, which constitute the content of the treatise, concisely give the invitation to Islâm with evidences from the Qur'ân and the Sunnah, and consists of the explanations and answers to the questions that will be asked by the interrogating angels when the person is placed in the grave after his demise. Since the salvation of a person in the hereafter, which is the eternal abode, depends on the correct answers given to the questions asked by the questioning angels, knowledge in this matter is very important.

This valuable work, which we will present to our readers who aspire eternal salvation, is a guide for the person to reach eternal happiness and clearly presents the necessary knowledge to achieve salvation. The subject which light will be shed on in this pamphlet you will read is the three basic principles of the religion of Islâm, the knowledge about Allâh, about His religion, and about His prophet. The first foundation is knowledge about Allâh. Allâh is the Creator, His existence is witnessed by the creatures and the order of the creatures. He created us to worship Him. Since He is the only deity, all worship should be directed to Him and all servitude should be performed in a way that pleases Him. The second foundation is knowledge about the religion of Allâh. Islâm is to surrender to Allâh with Tawhîd, to submit to Him in obedience, and to be free from Shirk and its people. Islâm has three levels: Islâm, Îmân, and Ihsân. The third foundation is knowledge about Allâh's prophet Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

We will be presenting the English translation of this treatise alongside some short explanatory notes, by Allâh's permission and grace. Thus, these three very important principles will enter the agenda of people, the common people and the elite can benefit from it, and so that they will be among those who follow the straight path that Allâh provides. Thus he gets closer to Allâh with this and it becomes a source of salvation for him.

Our invitation is to Tawhîd, which is the mutual call of all prophets and the right of Allâh over His servants, with proofs from the Qur'ân and Sunnah and the comprehension of the Salaf (pious predecessors).

May Allâh's peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and his companions. Âmîn!
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


THE THREE FOUNDATIONS1

SHAYKH'UL ISLÂM MUHAMMAD BIN ABD'IL WAHHÂB RAHIMAHULLÂH

In the name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,

May Allâh have mercy on you2, know that,

FOUR ISSUES

It is compulsory for us to learn four issues:

1. Knowledge: It is knowing Allâh, knowing His Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and knowing the religion of Islâm with its proofs.

2. Acting upon this knowledge.

3. Calling/inviting to it.

4. Patience in the face of adversity that results from (knowing, acting and inviting to) it.

And the evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"(I swear) by the Time, indeed, mankind is in loss, except those who believed and did righteous deeds, and advised each other to the truth and advised each other to patience." (al-Asr 103/1-3)

In the name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,

(Imâm) ash-Shafi'î (d. 204H) Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"If no proof besides this Sûrah (Chapter of the Qur'ân) had been revealed by Allâhu Taâlâ to His creation, it would have been sufficient for them."

(Imâm) al-Bukhârî (d. 256H) Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"Chapter: Knowledge is Before Statement and Action." And the evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"So know that there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allâh." (Muhammad 47/19)

Thus, (the verse) began with knowledge before "statement and action."



1- Mu'allafât'ush Shaykh 1/185-196; ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 1/125-135, 146-151; Mahmûd Shukrî al-Âlûsî, Ghâyat'ul Amânî fî'r Raddi ala'n Nabhânî, 2/84-93.

2- The statement "May Allâh have mercy on you, know that" is not found in ad-Durar'us Saniyyah. Al-Âlûsî relates what follows in the following manner,

"(Know that) it is compulsory to learn knowledge and it is the cure for the sick hearts. And again, it is one of the most important things obligated upon you. Acting with this knowledge is the reason for entering Jannah (Paradise). Being ignorant of it and neglecting it is a reason to enter Hell. (And again know that) there are four issues compulsory upon you..." (also refer to ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 4/337)
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


Explanation:

If we are to explain the above-mentioned section of this treatise so that it is understood better, knowledge is the first in order amongst those that are obligatory for a person, then follows acting upon it, calling to it and patience. Thus the ability to act upon any subject, calling to it, and to be patient in face of challenges requires having knowledge on that subject. The basis of knowledge is the first of the seven conditions of La Ilâha Illallâh, as stated by Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan Rahimahullâh.1 Knowledge can determine and illuminate a person's path, as well as prevent him from being exposed to darkness and deviations. The servant's attainment of salvation, that is, eternal bliss, depends on this. In the age we live in, one of the diseases that humanity is most addicted to is the misconception of information being knowledge, and with this, speaking about Allâh and His religion without knowledge and acting without knowledge. However, this is a great oppression and should be avoided vigorously. The type of knowledge to be gained here and the ignorance to be eliminated is knowledge about the answers to the questions everyone will be asked when the angels of inquiry come after death.

The first knowledge to attain is the knowledge of Allâh, to know Allâh is to recognize Him. Knowing Allâh comprises knowing Allâh in terms of His essence, names, and attributes. This means that Allâh is the only true deity worthy of being loved and worshiped, that all beings depend on Allâh, the only Creator, for sustenance, and that Allâh's divine attributes and beautiful names can never be applied to His creatures.

Putting knowledge about Allâh into action is to believe that Almighty Allâh is free from all types of deficiencies and faults and that there is nothing similar to Him and to act with this awareness. Again within this scope is the love for Allâh, the Messenger of Allâh, and loving and acting upon the orders, prohibitions and religious responsibilities conveyed by the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam on behalf of Allâh.

Knowing the identity of the Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, what he was sent with, and to whom his invitation was directed to are among the knowledge which is obligatory to attain. The practice of knowledge about Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, who was sent as the messenger of Allâh and a mercy to the worlds, is to love and respect him more than anyone else, to obey his Sunnah, and to ensure that his Sunnah is superior to people's views in every situation.

Knowing the religion of Allâh with its proofs is among the issues that are obligatory for a person to know. The religion of Allâh is the religion that Allâh has recommended all prophets to convey to the nations of the world since the beginning of human history. Allâh ordered the prophets to invite to Islâm. The essence and basis of the invitation is to worship Allâh with complete surrendering, by Tawhîd in His Rubûbiyyah (Lordship), in His Ulûhiyyyah (Divinity), and Names, Attributes and Actions. In this way, the prophets and those who followed their way invited to Islâm, to act upon it, and to abandon everything else.

All these matters are knowledge that Allâh has revealed act upon. Thus, all humanity and even the jinn realm are under this obligation.

O seeker of guidance! Know that knowledge, which is also the first condition of Lâ Ilâha Illallâh, is very important and essential for the ability to act upon it, to invite to it, and for patience in the face of all adversities and trials.

Ibnu Hajar al-Asqalânî Rahimahullâh said,

"Ibn'ul Munîr said: By this, al-Bukhârî meant that knowledge is a condition for the validity of statements and deeds. Statements and deeds are only taken into consideration with knowledge. Therefore, knowledge comes before both. Since it is knowledge that corrects/validates the intention which corrects/validates deeds. Al-Bukhârî drew attention to this so that it would not be understood that knowledge is devalued and seeking it is taken lightly by the phrase "knowledge is useless without action."



1- Ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 2/243 and 246.

2- Ibnu Hajar, Fath'ul Bârî, 1/160.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


The Text:

THREE ISSUES

May Allâh have mercy on you, know that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female, to learn these three issues and to act according to them:

The First Issue

That Allâh has created us, sustains us, and has not left us neglected. On the contrary, He has sent a messenger to us; whosoever obeys him will enter al-Jannah and whosoever disobeys him will enter an-Nâr (the fire i.e., Hell).

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Indeed, We have sent to you a Messenger as a witness upon you just as We sent a messenger to Pharaoh. But Pharaoh disobeyed the messenger, so We seized him with a severe punishment." (al-Muzzammil 73/15-16)

The Second Issue

Allâhu Taâlâ is not pleased with anyone being associated with Him in worship, be it a Muqarrab (close) angel or a Mursal Nabî (Nabî sent as a Rasûl), [let alone other than them]1.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And the Masâjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allâh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allâh." (al-Jinn 72/18)

The Third Issue

Whosoever shows obedience to the Rasûl and unifies Allâh alone (believes in the Oneness of Allâh), it is not permissible for him to show Muwalât (to befriend) those who oppose Allâh and His Rasûl, even if they were his closest kin.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"You will not find a people who believe in Allâh and the Last Day having affection for those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger, even if they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred. Those - He has decreed within their hearts faith and supported them with spirit from Him. And We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. Allâh is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him - those are the party of Allâh. Unquestionably, the party of Allâh - they are the successful." (al-Mujâdilah 58/22)

May Allâh guide you in obeying Him, know that al-Hanîfiyyah, which is the Millah (religion) of Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm, is devoting the Dîn (religion) to Allâh while worshipping Him alone. This is what Allâh has enjoined upon all people and He has created them for this. As Allâhu Taâlâ stated,

"I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me." (adh-Dhâriyât 51/56)

The meaning of "...they worship Me..." is, "They should make Tawhîd of (unify) Me..."

The greatest of that which Allâh has ordered is Tawhîd. Tawhîd is devoting Ibâdah to Allâh Subhânahu.

The greatest of that which He has prohibited is ash-Shirk. Shirk is directing Du'â to (worshipping) others with Allâh.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Worship Allâh and associate nothing with Him." (an-Nisâ 4/36)

If it is said to you, "What are the three foundations that are incumbent upon a person to know?" Say:

The slave knowing his Rabb (Lord), his Dîn (religion), and his Nabî (Prophet) Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.



1- The phrase between parentheses is found in ad-Durar'us Saniyyah.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


Explanation:

If we are to explain the above-mentioned section of this treatise so that it is better understood, as previously mentioned, the salvation and eternal bliss of individuals is dependent on learning the knowledge about it and applying the learned knowledge in accordance with it. This ruling is as specific to women as it is to men. In many rulings, obligations, avoidance of the forbidden, and other responsibilities, women are equal to men. Learning about religious matters, especially about Tawhîd and creed, is also within this scope, and it is a duty that falls on both men and women regardless of their profession, position, or nationality.

The first amongst the issues essential to learn and act upon while fulfilling its requirements is that Allâh is the only Lord who created all beings and that after He created them, He sent guides and did not abandon them unattended. There is no religion nor path other than the path of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, which leads to Allâh, His pleasure, and His Paradise after Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was sent. He Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was sent as a light when the whole world was in darkness. He sowed the seed of dawn and the light of his invitation shone. Thus, the earth began to shine with the guidance of its Lord, and the darkness disappeared until it dazzled illuminating the path of those who want to follow the right path. Evidence was established against those who stray from the right path.

The second issue mentioned by the Shaykh is that Allâhu Taâlâ ordered all creatures with slavery, which is worshipping Him and not associating partners with Him, from Âdam Alayh'is Salâm until the termination of humanity in this world. It is He who created everything. The jinn and humans are among His creations. Allâh has given them intelligence with the ability to distinguish good from evil, right from wrong, and obliges His servants with Tawhîd, meaning to worship only Him, without associating anything with Him.

In his explanation of the 21st verse of the second chapter of the Qur'ân, Sûrat'ul Baqarah, "Worship your Lord!" Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ said, "The meaning of all that is mentioned in the Qur'ân regarding Ibâdah is Tawhîd."1 Again, according to what is reported, he interpreted this phrase in the verse as "Make Tawhîd of (unify) your Rabb (Lord)!"2

The individual who directs his worship to others, that is, a Mushrik (polytheist), directs his worship to idols, statues, angels, trees, stones, and similar beings, or to ideologies, meaning he directs his worship to other than Allâh, or he directs his worship to both Allâh and beings other than Allâh. This is greater shirk that makes one a Mushrik and it is an action not forgiven without repentance. In fact, Allâh Almighty states the following,

"Indeed, Allâh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills." (an-Nisâ 4/48)

When the polytheist dies upon this condition, all of his actions go to vain. Almighty Allâh says,

"And it was already revealed to you and to those before you that if you should associate (anything) with Allâh, your deeds would surely become worthless, and you would surely be among the losers." (az-Zumar 39/65)

As seen, Tawhîd, which is the mutual call of the prophets, is unification of Allâh in worship. The prophets did not simply convey this to their people with an absolute expression, saying "Worship Allâh." On the contrary, by worshiping Allâh, they taught their people not to associate anything with Him in worship, because this is the key to salvation. Allâh is not in need of the worship of His servants; on the contrary, the servants are in need of Him. Tawhîd is the foundation and origin of religion, the key to paradise, and the main reason people are saved from hell. Due to Tawhîd, a person's property, blood, and chastity are safeguarded. It is the greatest bond that binds humanity together, despite different races, languages, and distant lands. It is the greatest bond that creates unity creating brotherhood and harmony.

The third issue mentioned by the Shaykh is the restriction of befriending those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger. It is one of the requirements of Tawhîd to love the people of Tawhîd, the allies of Allâh, and befriend them, and to hate the enemies of Allâh, the people of Shirk, and to have hostility towards them.

The essence of Hanîfiyyah is to worship only Allâh, without associating partners with Him, and to stay away from Shirk. The worship of a person who worships Allâh but does not make his religion specific to Him will not be of any use. If a person who worships Allâh, fasts, performs pilgrimage, prays, performs Umrah, gives alms, pays Zakâh, and obeys a great deal, does not do these things sincerely for the sake of Allâh, if he contaminates it with shirk such as praying to someone other than Allâh, asking for help from anyone other than Allâh, or sacrificing for someone other than Allâh, that person's worship is not specific to Allâh. On the contrary, he is a Mushrik and is not upon Hanîfiyyah, the religion of Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm. For Hanîfiyyah to take place, the servant needs to recognize and know his Lord, His religion, and His Prophet alongside acting upon its requirements.

This world is the abode of deeds; as for the hereafter, it is an abode of reward for that person, being Paradise or Hellfire. Therefore, those who obey Allâh will enter Paradise, and those who disobey Allâh will enter Hell. This is the line separating the believer from the disbeliever.



1- Tafsîr'ul Baghawî, Dâru Taybah print, 1/71.

2- Imâm at-Tabarî, Tafsîr'ut Tabarî, Ahmad Shâkir print, 1/362.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


The Text:

THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE: KNOWING THE LORD

If it was said to you, "Who is your Lord?" Say:

My Lord is Allâh. He is the one who nurtured me and the entire creation with His blessings. He is my Ma'bûd (the only One who deserves to be worshiped), and I have no other Ma'bûd save Him." The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"All praise is due to Allâh, Lord of the creation." (al-Fâtihah, 1/1)

Everything other than Allâh is from creation; and I am one from that creation.

If it was said to you, "Through what did you recognize your Lord?" Say,

I have recognized Him through His signs and His creation.

Amongst His signs are the night, the day, the Sun, and the Moon. The Seven Heavens and the Seven Earths, and all that is in and between them are amongst His creation. The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate yourselves to the sun, or to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allâh who has created them, if it is Him whom you worship." (Fussilat, 41/37)

And Allâhu Taâlâ's statement,

"Indeed your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He rose over the Throne. He covers the night with the day, (another night) chasing it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, to Him alone belongs the creation and the command. Blessed is Allâh, the Lord of the worlds!" (al-A'râf, 7/54)

Ar-Rabb means al-Ma'bûd. The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"O people, worship your Rabb (Lord) Who created you and those before you, so that you may become God-fearing. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allâh while you know." (al-Baqarah, 2/21-22)

Ibnu Kathîr Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said, "It is the Creator of all these things who deserves to be worshipped."1



1- Ibnu Kathîr, Tafsîr, 1/194.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


Explanation:

As the Shaykh mentioned, it is only Allâh, the Lord, who deserves to be worshiped by everyone. He also drew attention to the fact for one's salvation it is not enough to merely affirm Rububiyyah.

In other words, it is not enough to say, "Allâh has cultivated me and all the worlds with His blessings" and to acknowledge this issue. Worshiping Him must also be acknowledged, and worship must be directed only to Him. This is the difference between a Muwahhid and a polytheist. The Muwahhid affirms Allâh's Rubûbiyyah (lordship) and at the same time affirms that servitude should be given only to Him, without associating any partners with Him. A polytheist, on the other hand, affirms that Allâh is the Lord, but he associates other beings who do not create, do not provide sustenance, and do not own anything, as partners with Allâh in worship. The Muwahhid says my Lord is Allâh, He is my Ma'bûd, and I have no other Ma'bûd other than Him. If he is a polytheist, he says my Lord is Allâh, and then claims that worship is not reserved for Allâh alone. Thus, together with Almighty Allâh, he worships trees, stones, messengers, saints, righteous people, and graves. For this reason, this person is a polytheist and his affirmation of the existence of Allâh as Lord does not benefit him, and he does not enter Islam with this acknowledgment.

The expression "He is my Ma'bûd" contains an affirmation that worship is unique to Allâh. The statement "I have no other Ma'bûd save Him" is just like the phrase La Ilaha Illallâh. Just as the word La Ilaha negates everything worshiped other than Allâh, it also negates worshiping anyone other than Allâh. The expression Illallâh confirms to worship no one but Allâh, only Allâh.

The verses of the Qur'an contain orders to worship Allâh. The Tawhîd of Rubûbiyyah and Ulûhiyyah is derived from these verses and includes the confirmation of the command to worship Allâh. The entire Qur'an revolves around this subject and it was revealed on this subject.

The meaning of the expression "ar-Rabb means al-Ma'bûd" means He is the only deity worthy of worship. As for anyone other than Allah, it is not worthy of worship because it is not Rabb.

Some signs of Allâh, such as the Qur'an, are revelations that He sent to prophets and commanded them to convey; some are miracles given to prophets; some are the stages of our creation, the signs he places within ourselves/in our nature, such as the difference of our languages, images, colors and natures; some of them are the signs we see in the universe with eyes, such as the seven layers of heaven and the seven layers of earth, like the sun and the moon. These are just some of the signs of Allâh. All of His creatures, with all their differences and variations, are proofs and evidences of Allâh's existence. It is also a sign that Allâh is the only true deity worthy of worship and that no one other than Him deserves to be worshipped.

It is the words "Worship Allâh only" or "Worship Allâh and do not associate anything with Him" that bends the backs of the polytheists and causes division with them. In the past and today, the polytheists dislike this because their hearts are attached to the superstitious deities they worship. This is the reason for the disagreements, arguments, divisions, wars and killings that took place between the prophets and their tribes, the Muwahhidûn and the polytheists.

Whoever worships other than Allâh or proves one of the things unique to Allah for someone other than Allâh has taken that being as both a Rabb and an Ilâh. Regardless of whether he gives the name of Ilâh to this being or not, the ruling is the same. The explanation of his taking as Ilâh is as follows: A person takes the thing he worships as his deity, and the meaning of the deity is Ma'bûd, that is, the one who is worshiped. The explanation for taking this being as his Rabb is that this person likens this being to Allâh in Rubûbiyyah. Since Rubûbiyyah is one of the necessities of Divinity. Whoever negates either of these from a being also negates the other. Whoever proves one to a being also proves the other. For, a divine being must have the power to give benefit and eliminate harm. He is the Ma'bûd who has the power to give benefit and to remove the harm. Whoever proves worship to a being proves Rubûbiyyah for that being. Whoever proves Rubûbiyyah for a being must worship that being. When he understands that the meaning of the word Rabb is the one who turns things around and owns everything, and that the meaning of the Ilâh is Ma'bûd, that Ulûhiyyah is Ma'bûdiyyah, and that the meaning of worship is the peak of submission, love and fear, one of those who worship other than Allâh or what is peculiar to the Rabb you will understand that the person who proves something for someone other than Allâh has taken that being as both a Rabb and an Ilâh.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


The Text:

TYPES OF WORSHIP

The types of worship ordained by Allâh such as al-Islâm, al-Îmân, and al-Ihsân (submission, belief, and excellency), and from the types of worship are ad-Du'â (supplication/worship), al-Khawf (fear), ar-Rajâ (hope), at-Tawakkul (reliance), ar-Raghbah (aspiration), ar-Rahbah (apprehensive fear), al-Khushû (submissive humility), al-Khashyah (awe), al-Inâbah (penitence), al-Isti'ânah (seeking aid), al-Isti'âdhah (appeal for refuge), al-Istighâthah (seeking rescue), adh-Dhabh (sacrifice), an-Nadhr (vowing) and other acts of worship which Allâh has commanded, all are dedicated to Allâhu Taâlâ alone.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And the Masâjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allâh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allâh." (al-Jinn, 72/18)

Whosoever directs any one of these actions to other than Allâh is a Mushrik Kâfir.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And whoever invokes another deity with Allâh, while he has no proof for it, his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, the Kâfirûn will not achieve success." (al-Mu'minûn, 23/117)

It is also narrated in the Hadith (of Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam),

"Du'â is the (core and) essence of Ibâdah (worship)."1

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And your Lord says: Call upon Me; I will answer your (prayer). Indeed, those who are too arrogant to worship Me will surely enter Jahannam (Hell) in humiliation!" (Ghâfir, 40/60)

The evidence of al-Khawf (fear, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"...So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (truly) believers." (Âli Imrân, 3/175)2

The evidence of ar-Rajâ (hope, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"...So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (al-Kahf, 18/110)3

The evidence of at-Tawakkul (reliance, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"...and put your trust in Allâh if you are indeed believers." (al-Mâ'idah, 5/23)

Allâhu Taâlâ also says,

"And whosoever puts his trust in Allâh, then He (Allâh) will suffice him." (at-Talâq, 65/3)

The evidence of ar-Raghbah (aspiration), ar-Rahbah (apprehensive fear), and al-Khushû (submissive humility, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Verily, they used to hasten to good deeds and supplicate Us in aspiration and apprehensive fear, and they were to Us humbly submissive." (al-Anbiyâ, 21/90)

The evidence of al-Khashyah (awe, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"So fear them not, but fear Me!" (al-Baqarah 2/150)5

The evidence of al-Inâbah (penitence, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And return in penitence to your Lord and submit to Him." (az-Zumar, 39/54)

The evidence of al-Isti'ânah (seeking aid, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help." (al-Fâtihah, 1/4)

It is also narrated in the Hadîth,

"If you are to seek aid, seek aid only from Allâh."6

The evidence of al-Isti'âdhah (appeal for refuge, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of daybreak." (al-Falaq, 113/1)

And,

"Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind." (an-Nâs, 114/1)

The evidence of al-Istighâthah (seeking rescue, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"(Remember,) when you sought help from your Lord, and He answered you..." (al-Anfâl, 8/9)

The evidence of adh-Dhabh (sacrifice, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Say: Truly, my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allâh, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner." (al-An'âm, 6/162-163)

And the evidence from the Sunnah is,

"Allâh's curse is upon those who offer sacrifices to other then Him."7

The evidence of an-Nadhr (vowing, being a type of worship) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"They (are those who) fulfill (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be widespread." (al-Insân, 76/7)



1- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 3371; Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 1479.

2- In ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, the verse is quoted in full,

"That is only shaytân (satan) who frightens (you) of his supporters. So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (truly) believers." (Âl-i Imrân 3/175)

3- Al-Âlûsî Rahimahullâh mentioned the following verse as an evidence for ar-Rajâ instead of the previously given verse,

"Say: O My slaves who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allâh: verily, Allâh forgives all sins." (az-Zumar, 39/53)

4- In the same sense, Allâhu Taâlâ also stated,

"So do not have awe of the people but have awe of Me!" (al-Mâ'idah, 5/44)

5- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no: 2516.

6- Muslim, Hadîth no: 1978.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


Explanation:

Shaykh Rahimahullâh has listed the main types of worship with proofs from the Qur'an and Sunnah. First, let us give the meaning and scope of the concept of worship with the narrations from the scholars.

Ibn'ul Muzayyin al-Qurtubî Rahimahullâh defines worship as follows,

"The root of Ibâdah is humility and submission. The various duties that have been prescribed upon the people are called Ibâdât (acts of worship), since what is required is that these acts of worship must be done with humility and submission to Allâhu Taâlâ."1

Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh says,

"Worship (Ibâdah) is a comprehensive term covering everything that Allâh loves and is pleased with including statements and actions, outward and inward."2

Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said,

"Worship revolves around fifteen principles. Whosoever completes them has completed the stages of Ubûdiyyah (servitude to Allâh). The explanation of this is that Ibâdah is divided between the heart, the tongue, and the limbs. And for each one of these three comes five types of rulings, covering all actions: obligatory, recommended, prohibited, disliked, and permissible."3

Fudhayl bin Iyâdh Rahimahullâh said the following about the acceptance of worship,

"Verily, when the action is done with Ikhlâs (for the sake of Allâh) yet wrongly (in accordance to the Sharî'ah), then it is not accepted. And when the action is done rightly yet without Ikhlâs, then it is not accepted. This condition is as such until the action is done with Ikhlâs and is done rightly.

When an action is done for Allâh, then it is Khâlis/with Ikhlâs. And when it is upon the Sunnah, then it is done rightly."
4

Shaykh Rahimahullâh commenced counting the most important types of Ibâdah; Islâm, Îmân and Ihsân, which are the levels of religion and he continued with different types of worship which are the actions of the heart, tongue and limbs.

Since Almighty Allâh is the true deity worthy of worship, we should direct all these forms of worship to Him alone. For He is the only Rabb and the only Ilâh. The most beautiful names and most sublime attributes belong to Him. Everything other than Allâh is His creation and has no right to anything from worship.

It is obligatory on every human and jinn to show sincere devotion to Allâh in their worship. Worship is a right that belongs only to Allâh. In that case, it is a religious duty for those who are obliged to submit to Allâh sincerely in worship. Therefore, anyone who directs worship to other than Allâh whether it be an idol, a stone, a tree, a grave, a jinn, a saint, a Muqarrab (close) angel or a Mursal Nabî (Nabî sent as a Rasûl), is a Mushrik and Kâfir. It is obligatory to direct all types of worship to Allâh alone and to do it for His sake.



1- Ibn'ul Muzayyin al-Qurtubî, al-Mufhim, 1/181; Mufassir Qurtubî also used similar expressions. See: Qurtubî, Tafsîr, 1/225, 17/56.

2- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 10/149.

3- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/165.

4- Ibnu Abi'd Dunyâ, al-Ikhlâs wa'n Niyyah, Hadîth no. 22; Abû Nu'aym, al-Hilyah, 8/95; Majmû'u Fatâwâ Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/333; Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/129-130.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

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