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STATEMENTS BY THE SCHOLARS REGARDING THE TERM IBÂDAH

Started by Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd, 16.09.2022, 00:59

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Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ للهِ وَحْدَهُ، وَالصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَى مَنْ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَهُ، وَبَعْدُ

Statements by the Scholars Regarding the Term Ibâdah (Worship)

Abû Ishâq az-Zajjâj Rahimahullâh (311H) said,

"The linguistic meaning of Ibâdah is obeying with submission. When a path is humiliated by being trampled, it is said, "This is a Tarîq'un Mu'abbad (a subjugated/humiliated path)." Likewise, when a camel is coated with tar, it is called, "Ba'îr'un Mu'abbad (a subjugated/humiliated camel)." So the meaning of "Iyyâka Na'budu" (al-Fâtihah 1/4) is: We obey You with an obedience that comes with our submission."1

Ibn'ul Anbârî Rahimahullâh (328H) said,

"It is said, "Such-and-such is an Âbid (worshipper/slave)" when he worships while he submits to his Lord, accepts His divine decree, and complies to His commands."2

Abu'l Mudhaffar as-Sam'ânî Rahimahullâh (489H) said,

"Ibâdah is obedience with humility and submission. It is said, "Tarîq'un Mu'abbad (a subjugated/humiliated path)." Meaning it is humiliated. The meaning of the verse is we worship You submissively."3

Ibn'ul Muzayyin al-Qurtubi Rahimahullâh (656H) defines worship as follows,

"The root of Ibâdah is humility and submission. The various duties that have been prescribed upon the people are called Ibâdât (acts of worship), since what is required is that these acts of worship must be done with humility and submission to Allâhu Taâlâ."4

Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh (751H) said,

"Worship revolves around fifteen principles. Whosoever completes them has completed the stages of Ubûdiyyah (servitude to Allâh). The explanation of this is that Ibâdah is divided between the heart, the tongue, and the limbs. And for each one of these three comes five types of rulings, covering all actions: obligatory, recommended, prohibited, disliked, and permissible."5

Ibnu Kathîr Rahimahullâh (774H) said,

"Linguistically, Ibâdah is derived from 'humility'. It is said, 'Tarîq'un Mu'abbad,' and 'Ba'îr'un Mu'abbad,' meaning humiliated. In the Sharî'ah, it is a phrase used for what the perfection of love, submission, and fear brings together."6



1- Az-Zajjâj, Ma'ânî'l Qur'ân, 1/48.

2- Al-Azharî, Tahdhîb'ul Lughah, 2/140.

3- As-Sam'ânî, at-Tafsîr, 1/37.

4- Ibn'ul Muzayyin al-Qurtubi, al-Mufhim, 1/181; Mufassir Qurtubi also used similar expressions. See: Qurtubi, Tafsir, 1/225, 17/56.

5- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/165.

6- Ibnu Kathîr, Tafsîr, Dâru Taybah, 1/134.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Subul’us Salâm


Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh (728H) said,

"Ibâdah is a comprehensive name for everything which Allâh loves and is pleased with from statements and actions, internal and external.

So the Salâh (prayer); Zakâh (obligatory charity); Siyâm (fasting); Hajj (pilgrimage); speaking the truth; fulfilling the trust; being kind to parents; tying the relationship with relatives; loyalty to contracts; commanding the good; forbidding from bad; waging Jihâd against the Kuffâr (pl., Kâfir; disbelievers) and Munâfiqûn (pl., Munâfiq; hypocrites); being kind to neighbours, orphans, needy ones, the wayfarer, slaves from the humans, and animals, Du'â, Dhikr (remembrance of Allâh), reciting the Qur'ân, and the likes of these are from Ibâdah.

Also loving Allâh and His Rasûl Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, having Khashyah (awe) of Allâh, having Inâbah (penitence) from Allâh, Ikhlâs in the Dîn for Him, having patience towards His judgement, being thankful to Allâh for His blessings, being pleased with the Qadhâ (jurisdiction) of Allâh, having Tawakkul (reliance) in Allâh, having Rajâ (hope) for the Mercy of Allâh, having Khawf (fear) from His punishment and acts like such are from Ibâdah to Allâh.

This is because doing Ibâdah to Allâh is the beloved and pleasing purpose by Allâh, for which He Taâlâ created the creation, as Allâhu Taâlâ stated,

"I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me." (adh-Dhâriyât 51/56)1

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh (728H) also said,

"The root meaning of Ibâdah, is also humility. It is said when a path is humiliated, trampled previously by feet, "Tarîq'un Mu'abbad (a subjugated path)." However, Ibâdah which is commanded encompasses the meanings of humiliation and love. Therefore, it encompasses the pinnacle of submission to and love of Allâh."2



1- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 10/149-150.

2- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 10/153.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

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