Call to Tawhid

IBNU TAYMIYYAH’S VIEW REGARDING THE EXCUSE OF IGNORANCE & MU’AYYAN TAKFÎR

Started by Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd, 23.10.2022, 01:37

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Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd

قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


تحقيق مذهب شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية في مسألتي
العذر بالجهل وتكفير المعين

Verifying Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah's View Regarding the Issues:
The Excuse of Ignorance and Mu'ayyan Takfîr

Shaykh Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan Rahimahullâh1

[Introduction]

In the name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

All praise is due to Allâh alone. May peace and blessings be upon the one whom there is no prophet after.

Know; o seeker of the truth and who aspires to know sincerity and truthfulness, that a document has reached us from an evil man.2 This document contains cautioning from Takfîr without verifying and redacting. This document reads,


Quote"Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah said while refuting the Râfidhah from amongst the Khawârij and Mu'tazilah."

I (Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan) say: This statement is by one who does not have knowledge. Our concern is not clarifying the ignorance and nonsense found in this document. The one who has insight will be aware of the mistakes found in it.3

He then said,


Quote"Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah said, "These people who invented methodology -and deemed that the Messenger could only be affirmed by this methodology, and that knowing this methodology is a condition of faith, which is obligatory upon individuals- are people of innovation according to the Salaf (predecessors), the Imâms, the majority of proficient scholars of the Ummah and those who followed them with excellence. These methodologies are absurd according to the intellect and invented according to the Sharî'ah."

Until the statement by Ibnu Taymiyyah, "From amongst the affairs of the people of innovation is that they innovate views and deem it to be obligatory in religion. Moreover, they deem it to be part of inevitable faith. They declare Takfîr upon those who oppose them in this issue and regard legitimize their blood. This is similar to the actions of the Khawârij, the Jahmiyyah, the Râfidhah, the Mu'tazilah, and others.

The Ahl'us Sunnah do not innovate views nor declare Takfîr upon those who make a mistake by way of Ijtihâd (independent reasoning), even though their opponents legitimize their blood. Such as the Sahâbah -may Allâh be pleased with them- not declaring Takfîr upon the Khawârij who declared Takfîr upon them and legitimized the blood of the Muslims whom oppose them."4

This man conveyed Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah's words regarding the Khawârij, the Jahmiyyah, the Mu'tazilah, and others piece by piece. From the words by Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, he took whatever he intended to use to deceive and mislead, and left whatever contained clarification and elaboration in the Shaykh's words.

We have not come across a good interpretation to be construed for this person narrating from the statements by Shaykh'ul Islâm and others and there was no need prompting him to narrate them. Since in the Arabian Peninsula and the places around it,

•    No one adopts the view of the Khawârij declaring Takfîr upon the Sahâbah and others from Ahl'ul Îmân due to sins that do not make one enter Kufr,

•    No one who claims al-Manzilatu Bayna'l Manzilatayn5 and denies fate like the Mu'tazilah,

•    No one who rejects the attributes of the High Lord like the Jahmiyyah, and

•    No one who goes to extremes with regards to the household of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and claims that they are deities like the Râfidhah.

When this is the case, it is known that by these narrations he meant the people of this Islâmic call that appeared in Najd. A large community and a great number of people from this Ummah benefited from this call. By means of this call, they adhered to the methodology from the Book and the Sunnah, and were supported with what the Salaf of the Ummah concurred upon, and what the followers of the Salaf of the Imâms such as Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah and his student Allâmah Muhammad Ibn'ul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, and their Salaf from Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamâ'ah established.

This man was ruined by the corruptness of his creed. This is why he does not view obvious (grave) Shirk as a great sin that makes its possessor enter Kufr. He directed his opposition and defamation to those who opposed Shirk, who have separated from its people, and who have declared Takfîr upon them due to the Book, Sunnah, and consensus.

It is well-known that Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah and his likes from the scholars of Sunnah are amongst those who opposed Shirk the most. When Shirk appeared in their era and calamity spread with it, they objected this and clarified that this is grave Shirk itself that the polytheists of old were upon, as will come later on in the statement by Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ.

From these polytheists occurred those who declared Takfîr upon the people of Tawhîd because they had pure sincerity, had isolated (from Shirk), and had opposed the people who associated partners and rivals with Allâh. This is why they said, "You are Khawârij! You are Mubtadi'ah!" As a matter of fact, Allâmah Ibn'ul Qayyim points to a similar situation in his era with the following words,

"Am I the one who resembles the Khawârij! They have declared Takfîr... Upon those who sin, while having a forceful interpretation and without reckoning!

They have their textual proofs, which they fell short from understanding... That is why they have been kept short of acknowledgement!

Our opponents declared Takfîr upon us with that which is... The pinnacle of Tawhîd and faith!"
6

This man has followed the path of those who have declared Takfîr with pure Tawhîd. When we say, "There is none to be worshipped except Allâh! There is none to be invoked except Him! There is none to be hoped from except Him! There is none to be trusted except Him!" and similar things that are from the types of worship that only befit Allâh and that whosoever directs them to other than Allâh is an unbelieving polytheist, they say, "You have accused the nation of Muhammad with innovation and have declared Takfîr upon them! You are Khawârij! You are Mubtadi'ah!"

Later, he took from the statements of Shaykh'ul Islâm about the people of innovation, which he used to innuendo the people of Tawhîd. Whereas, the statements by Shaykh'ul Islâm are not obscure regarding those who associate partners with Allâh, Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said, "Whoever appoints intermediaries between himself and Allâh, invokes them, asks from them and puts his trust in them becomes Kâfir by consensus."7



1- Tahqîq Madhhab Shaykh'il Islâm Ibni Taymiyyah, published by Badr al-Utaybî and ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 11/446-492. We used the version by Badr al-Utaybî as the primary manuscript during our translation.

2- According to the information provided by the verifier, this treatise by the Shaykh is in refutation to Uthmân bin Mansûr, a student of Dâwûd bin Jarjîs.

3- The issue is ignorance and nonsense as the Shaykh Rahimahullâh has stated, since the Râfidhah and Khawârij are two opposite sects. How is it possible that the person who said this expresses that these people are from the Rawâfidhah who are among the Khawârij and Mu'tazilah? Moreover, these statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh are found within his book Minhâj'us Sunnah, a refutation to the Qadarî Shî'ah. What is the relation between the Khârijî and Mu'tazilî sects with this book?

4- Ibnu Taymiyyah, Minhâj'us Sunnah, 5/94-95.

5- Al-Manzilatu Bayna'l Manzilatayn is the creed that a "Fâsiq (corrupt person)" cannot be called a "Mu'min (believer)" just as he cannot be called a "Kâfir (disbeliever)". Thereby, they positioned such person between the two categories (Mu'min and Kâfir), not including him in either one. (al-Fatâwa'l Kubrâ li Ibni Taymiyyah, 5/85)

6- Ibn'ul Qayyim, al-Kâfiyat'ush Shâfiyah [Nûniyyah], Maktabah Ibni Taymiyyah, p. 138.

7- With similar wording in Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 1/124; Badr'ud Dîn al-Ba'lî, Mukhtasar'ul Fatâwa'l Misriyyah, Rakâ'iz, 1/412; al-Fatâwâ'l Kubrâ, 5/535; al-Mardâwî, al-Insâf, Dâru Hajr, 27/108.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[His Distortion for the Ignorant by Mentioning Narrations Regarding Obscure Issues]

The pinnacle of what this man distorted to the ignorant individuals is what Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâh mentioned regarding those who have obscure views, that until the Hujjah is established to them, Takfîr should not be declared upon the possessors of this view even though the view is Kufr. This is the statement by Shaykh'ul Islâm. Shaykh'ul Islâm says,

"Denying the attributes of Allâh is Kufr. Denying Allâh being seen in the Hereafter is Kufr. Denying Allâh being upon the Throne is Kufr. Whatever is similar to this is Kufr. Declaring individual Takfîr upon these people in a manner that includes them amongst the Kuffâr; it is impermissible to embark on declaring Takfîr upon them unless the Hujjah which clarifies that they are mistaken is established to them."8

Ponder upon the statement by Shaykh'ul Islâm, "In a manner that includes them amongst the Kuffâr." And the statement by Shaykh'ul Islâm, "Until the Hujjah is established to them." Here, by the phrase Kuffâr, the Shaykh intended the Mushrikûn. As this will be clarified in the statements of this Shaykh and others.

We praise Allâh! Our lands are free from innovators, the possessors of these views. The dispute between us and most people is about worshipping idols, for which Allâh has sent His messengers and has revealed His books to prohibit from and to show enmity towards its people. We call to Tawhîd and sincerity that the messengers called to and prohibit Shirk in Rubûbiyyah and Ulûhiyyah that they prohibited from. As Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"And ask those We sent before you of Our messengers; have We made besides the Most Merciful deities to be worshipped?" (az-Zukhruf, 43/45)

From cover to cover, the Qur'ân is in clarification of this Shirk, prohibiting from it, and clarifying Tawhîd. As Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Say: Allâh (alone) do I worship, sincere to Him in my religion, So worship what you will besides Him. Say: Indeed, the losers are the ones who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Verily, that is the manifest loss." (az-Zumar, 39/14-15)

Praise be to Allâh, this Tawhîd is from amongst our foundations, while the author of these documents says: This is an innovation. Yes, this is an innovation in the presence of the likes of those who say,

"We have not heard of this in the previous faith, this is merely a fabrication." (Sâd, 38/7)

Look at the words of Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâh, which does not accept any ambiguity! When he mentioned the possessors of the views that were alluded to earlier, he said, "When this occurs in obscure views, it might be said: Indeed, he is mistaken and misguided regarding it, the Hujjah has not been established upon him. However, this (Kufr) occurs in groups from amongst them in the apparent affairs that are known by both the common folk and the elite of the Muslims to be from the religion of Islâm.

Rather, even the Jews, Christians, and polytheists know that Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was sent with it and that he declared Takfîr upon those who oppose it. Such as his commandment of worshiping Allâh -Alone Who has no partner- and his forbidding from worshipping any other than Allâhu Taâlâ such as the angels, the prophets, sun, moon, planets, idols, and other than them. Indeed, these are the most apparent signs of Islâm. Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam commanding with prayer, obligating it, and glorifying its significance is like this.

Manifesting enmity towards the Jews, Christians, polytheists, Sabians, and Zoroastrians is like this. Also the prohibition of the shameful deeds, interest, gambling, and their likes are also like this. Then you will find that many of their leaders fell into these types, thereby becoming apostates." End quote from Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ.9

Ponder upon the statement of Shaykh'ul Islâm, "Manifesting enmity towards the Jews, Christians, and polytheists is like this..." Until the end of his statement.

Our view regarding those whom Shaykh'ul Islâm said, "They become apostates by opposing a portion of the Sharî'ah," is the same. The Imams of Islâm are collectively upon this view. This is why this man and his likes who deviate from Tawhîd bear a grudge against us.



8- More explanation with similar statements is found in Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 12/497-500.

9- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 4/54; with similar words in Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 18/54.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[Those Who Believe That by Merely Uttering the Testimony of Faith, One Will Enter Paradise and Will Not Enter the Fire Is Deviated and Opposes the Book, the Sunnah, and Consensus]

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said, "Whoever believes that he will enter Paradise and will not enter the fire by merely uttering the testimony of faith is someone who is deviated and opposes the Book, the Sunnah, and consensus." End quote.10

Again, Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâh mentioned that al-Fakhr ar-Râzî authored a book called "as-Sirr'ul Maktûm fî Ibâdat'in Nujûm" and thus became an apostate. However, ar-Râzî repented after this deed. Shaykh'ul Islâm declared Takfîr upon ar-Râzî individually when ar-Râzî beautified Shirk.11

After mentioning the wisdom behind the negation of adopting graves as masjids and praying during sunrise and sunset, he said, "Not praying during this hour is blocking the means to evil. Although the person who offers the prayer does not pray to other than Allâh and does not call upon/worship other than Allâh. This is so it does not lead to praying to and calling upon/worshipping the sun. This is amongst the means of Shirk with which many of the previous ones and latter ones deviated. So much so that this spread among many of those who ascribe themselves to Islâm and people such as Abû Ma'shar al-Balkhî, Thâbit bin Qurrah, and their likes who entered Shirk and believed in Jibt and Tâghût, while ascribing themselves to the Book, authored books with regards to the beliefs of the polytheists. Just as Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Have you not seen those who have been given a share from the Book? They believe in Jibt and Tâghût." (an-Nisâ, 4/51)

End quote.12

Look at this Imâm, whom those whose heart Allâh has perverted, attributed to him the view of not declaring individual Takfîr? How has he mentioned that al-Fakhr ar-Râzî, Abû Ma'shar and other famous authors have disbelieved and have apostate from Islâm!

Ponder upon his statement, "So much so that this spread among many of those who ascribe themselves to Islâm," so that we know what has occurred in the latter part of the Ummah of associating partners to Allâh!13

Shaykh'ul Islâm mentioned al-Fakhr ar-Râzî in his refutation to the philosophers and mentioned his book "as-Sirr'ul Maktûm" and said, "This is clear apostasy with the consensus of the Muslims."14



10- Mukhtasar Fatâwâ'l Misriyyah, Rakâ'iz, 1/193.

11- Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said,

"Ar-Râzî is the one who took Abû Ma'shar -who is one of the Imâms followed with regards to worshipping idols- as a leader when he apostated from Islâm and commanded associating partners to Allâhu Taâlâ and worshipping the sun, moon, planets, and idols in his book that he named "as-Sirr'ul Maktûm fi's Sihri wa Mukhâtabat'in Nujûm (The Concealed Secret Regarding Magic and Addressing the Stars)". It is said that ar-Râzî wrote this book for the mother of King Alâ'ud Dîn Muhammad bin Tekish, who is the father of Jalâl'ud Dîn (Khwarazmshah) and that upon this, she gave him a thousand dinars. Her intent was to achieve what it contained of magic and wonders and to attain leadership and other things she wanted by this. In this book, he mentioned from Abû Ma'shar that he worshipped the moon and that in worshipping and conversing with it, there exists secrets and benefits which he mentioned. With regards to Shirk and worshipping the idols, whoever is in this state, how can it be okay for him to criticize the people of Tawhîd who worship Allâhu Taâlâ, do not associate anything alongside Him, and do not worship the sun, moon, stars, nor idols? Rather, these people of Tawhîd view it necessary to wage Jihâd against these polytheists whom Abû Ma'shar, ar-Râzî, and their likes reverted to for a period. Although they have returned from this apostasy to Islâm. For their secrets lay with Allâh. However, there is no dispute amongst the Muslims that commanding Shirk is disbelief, and if done by a Muslim, then it is apostasy and that praising, glorifying, and encouraging Shirk is disbelief, and if done by a Muslim, then it is apostasy." (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Bayânu Talbîs'il Jahmiyyah, 3/53-54)

"Also, this ar-Râzî apostated when he commanded Shirk and worshipping the planets and statues and wrote his famous treaties with regards to this." (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Bayânu Talbîs'il Jahmiyyah, 3/473)

Ibnu Kathîr (in the Tafsîr of al-Baqarah 2/102) and adh-Dhahabî (in Mîzân'ul I'tidâl, 3/340) attributed this book to ar-Râzî, but they mentioned that he might have repented from it.

12- Concisely from Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm, 2/301-302.

13- As seen, while making mention of these people, Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh referred to them as "those who ascribe themselves to Islâm" rather than "Muslims". He mentioned their affiliation with Islâm as a mere ascription and has not confirmed their claims of Islâm. Thus, it is clear that the Shaykh declared Takfîr upon them individualistically. By repeating this very phrase, the author of this treatise, Shaykh Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan Rahimahullâh, highlighted the importance of this fact.

14- The Shaykh Rahimahullâh said, "What is graver than this is that some of them wrote books regarding the religion of the Mushrikûn and apostasy from Islâm. Just as ar-Râzî wrote his book regarding worshiping the stars. He brought evidences regarding its goodness and its benefit and he encouraged this. This is apostasy from Islâm with the agreement of the Muslims. This is so, even if he may have turned to Islâm." (Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 18/53-55; also see Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 4/55)
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[Ibnu Taymiyyah Declared Individualistic Takfîr Upon Those Who Went Extreme Regarding a Prophet or a Righteous Person]

In ar-Risâlat'us Sunniyyah, Shaykh'ul Islâm said, "So, all of those who exceed the bounds with regards to a prophet or a pious man attributing to him a type of divinity such as saying things like, "My master so-and-so, help me," "aid me," "provide me with sustenance," "cure me," "I am under your guardianship," and similar statements, will be asked to repent if he repents, he repents, otherwise he will be killed because all of these are Shirk and misguidance. This is because Allâhu Taâlâ sent His messengers and revealed His books so that He is worshipped alone and that no one is adopted as a deity alongside Him.

Those who invoke deities alongside Allâh, such as the Messiah, angels and idols, did not believe that these deities created the creation, brought down rain, and cultivated the vegetation. They only worshipped them, their graves, or statues, while saying,

"We only worship them that they may bring us near to Allâh." (az-Zumar, 39/3)

They also said,

"These are our intercessors with Allâh." (Yûnus, 10/18)

This is why Allâh sent His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam to prohibit invoking upon anyone other than Allâh -both the invocation of worship and the invocation of seeking aid. Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Say: Invoke those you have claimed (as gods) besides Him, for they do not possess the (ability to) remove harm from you, nor to change it. Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, (striving as to) which of them would be nearest." (al-Isrâ, 17/56-57)

A group from the Salaf (predecessors) said, "There were tribes invoking the Messiah, Uzayr, and the angels."15

Then Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh mentioned some verses.

The Shaykh then said, "Worshipping Allâh alone, without associating partners to Him, is the essence of the religion and the essence of Tawhîd that Allâh sent His Messenger with and revealed His books with. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And verily, We have sent among every nation a Messenger (proclaiming): Worship Allâh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tâghût." (an-Nahl, 16/36)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him: There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone)." (al-Anbiyâ, 21/25)

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam used to implement Tawhîd and teach it to his nation. So, as a man said, "If you and Allâh will." He said, "Have you made me a rival to Allâh? Rather (say), whatever Allâh alone wills."16

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam also prohibited from taking an oath by anyone other than Allâh and said, "Whoever takes an oath by anyone other than Allâh has committed Shirk."17

On his death bed, he said, "May Allâh curse the Jews and Christians! They took the graves of their prophets as places of worship."18

He said this cautioning against their deeds. He also said, "O Allâh! Don't make my grave a worshipped idol!"19

He also said, "Do not adopt my grave a place of festivity! Do not adopt your houses as graves! Send salutations upon me wherever you are. For verily, your salutations reach me!"20

For this reason, the imams of Islâm have agreed that it is impermissible to build a mosque on the graves and to pray next to it.21 This is because revering the graves is one of the biggest means of worshipping idols. For this reason, the scholars have agreed that those who greet the Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam at his grave should not touch or kiss his chamber. For these actions are only done to the columns of the House of Allâh. Therefore, the house of the creation should not be likened to the House of the Creator.

All of this is for the actualization of Tawhîd, which is the essence and apex of the religion with which Allâh only accepts deeds, forgives its doer, and does not forgive one who abandons it. As Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Indeed, Allâh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allâh has indeed committed a grave sin." (an-Nisâ, 4/48)

This is why the word of Tawhîd is the most virtuous and most magnificent word." End quote.22

I (Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan) say: With the praise of Allâh, after this elaboration, explanation, and clarification, no evidence in the words by the scholars is left for this doubter. How beautiful is the following statement by Allâmah Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ,

"Knowledge enters the heart of every successful one

It does not pass through a guard, nor does it seek permission.

The deprived one rejects it because of his own failure

May Allâh not make us wretched with failure."
23



15- At-Tabarî, Tafsîr, Dâr'ut Tarbiyah wa't Turâth, 17/471; Ibnu Kathîr, Tafsîr, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah, 5/81.

16- With similar wording Ahmad, Musnad, Hadîth no. 1839,1964, 2561, 3247.

17- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 1535; Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 3251.

18- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 4177; Muslim, Hadîth no. 531.

19- Mâlik, al-Muwatta, narration by Yahyâ, Mu'assasatu Zâyid bin Sultân, Hadîth no. 593.

20- Abd'ur Razzâq, al-Musannaf, al-Majlis'ul Ilmî, Hadîth no. 6726; with similar wording Ahmad, Musnad, Hadîth no. 8804.

21- Suyûtî Rahimahullâh (911 H) said regarding building mosques upon graves and illuminating them with things such as candles and lanterns,

"Most of the scholars from various groups explicitly stated the prohibition of these, in pursuit of the Ahâdîth which have been narrated prohibiting these. The impermissibility of these is certainly undoubted." (Suyûtî, al-Amru bi'l Ittibâ wa'n Nahyu an'il Ibtidâ [Haqîqat'us Sunnati wa'l Bid'ah], p. 113-114)

22- Concisely from Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 3/395-400.

23- Ibn'ul Qayyim, al-Kâfiyat'ush Shâfiyah [Nûniyyah], Maktabah Ibni Taymiyyah, p. 165.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[An Exquisite Elaboration Found in Madârij'us Sâlikîn Discussing Actions Repented from]

Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh has an exquisite elaboration in "Madârij'us Sâlikîn"24 wherein he mentions the issues, which are of twelve types, that are repented from mentioned in the Book of Allâh Azza wa Jalla. The first is Kufr and the second is Shirk. The types of Kufr are five: Kufr by Denial, Kufr by Arrogance & Rejection with Affirmation, Kufr by Turning away (from the truth), Kufr by Doubt, and Kufr by Hypocrisy. Ibn'ul Qayyim clarified these types.25

Ibn'ul Qayyim then said, "As for Shirk, then it is two types: Major and minor. As for major Shirk, it is not forgiven by Allâh unless one repents from it. Major Shirk is to adopt a partner other than Allâh and to love it just as he loves Allâh. This is the Shirk that comprises equating the deities of the polytheists with the Lord of the worlds. That is why the polytheists say to their deities in the fire,

"By Allâh, we were truly in a manifest error, when we equated you with the Lord of the Worlds." (ash-Shu'arâ, 26/97-98)

Meanwhile, they affirm that Allâh alone is the Creator, Lord and Owner of all things, and that their deities do not create nor provide sustenance and that they do not cause death nor resurrect. This equation with Allâh only takes place in love, reverence, and worship, as is the state of the polytheists of the world.

Moreover, all of them love, revere and befriend their Ma'bûd (worshipped being)s besides Allâh. Most of them, moreover the majority of them have more love for their deities than they have love for Allâh, rejoice when they are mentioned more than they rejoice when Allâh alone is mentioned, and when one of their Ma'bûds or deities from amongst the chiefs is degraded, they will become more furious than when they get furious at someone who degrades the Lord of the worlds.

If the sanctity of one of their deities and Ma'bûds is violated, they will become furious like the fury of a lion in combat. However, if the sanctity of Allâh is violated, they will not be angry at this. Moreover, if the violator offers them food, they will turn away from the issue without having any disapproval within their hearts. We and others have witnessed this publicly.

You would see one of them mentioning his deity and his Ma'bûd besides Allâh on his tongue, when he is standing, sitting, stumbling, and frightened. The remembrance of his deity and Ma'bûd besides Allâh is dominant in his heart and tongue, and this polytheist does not deny this either. This polytheist deems his deity and Ma'bûd as a gateway to attain what he wants from Allâh, as an intercessor in Allâh's sight, and as a mean to reach Him. The idolaters are like this, they are the same. This value is what settled in their hearts. The polytheists inherited this from each other in accordance with the variety of their deities. Some of these polytheists have deities from stone, and some adopted people as deities.

Narrating from the predecessors of these polytheists, Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And those who take Awliyâ (pl. Walî; saints) besides Him (say): We only worship them that they may bring us near to Allâh. Verily, Allâh will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ." (az-Zumar, 39/3)

Thereafter, Allâhu Taâlâ testified against them with lying and disbelief and mentioned that He will not guide them, Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Truly, Allâh does not guide he who is a disbelieving liar." (az-Zumar, 39/3)

This is the state of those who adopt a Walî other than Allâh deeming that it will bring them closer to Allâh. How few are free from this! Moreover, how few are those who do not show hostility to those who oppose them?

The notion found in the hearts of these polytheists and their predecessors that their deities will intercede on their behalf in the sight of Allâh is Shirk per se. In His Book, Allâh disapproved them and abolished this, and informed that intercession in its entirety is only His, that no one can intercede in His presence except he whom Allâh allows and is pleased with his speech and actions. These are the People of Tawhîd, who have not taken intercessors besides Allâh. For Allâh Subhânahu has allowed whomever He is pleased to intercede for the People of Tawhîd because they have not obtained intercessors besides Allâh. The person who possesses Tawhîd and has not adopted an intercessor other than Allâh is the happiest of people via the intercession of one whom Allâh allowed to intercede.



24- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâr'ul Kitâb'il Arabî, 1/344-380.

25- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâr'ul Kitâb'il Arabî, 1/346-348.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[Legitimate and Illegitimate Intercession and the Ignorance of the Polytheists Regarding Them]

(Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said in continuation:)

The intercession that is affirmed by Allâh and His Messenger is the intercession that originates from the permission of Allâh for the one who unified Him. The intercession that Allâh has negated is the Shirk-related intercession found in the hearts of the polytheists who have adopted intercessors besides Allâh. The polytheists behave in a manner that is contradictory to what they aimed of intercession, while the monotheists attain intercession.

Ponder upon the statement by the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam when Abû Hurayrah Radiyallâhu Anh asked him, "O Messenger of Allâh! Who is the happiest person by your intercession?" Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, "Those who are happiest by my intercession are those who say La Ilaha Illallâh."26

Ponder upon how the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam made pure Tawhîd the greatest reason through which intercession is attained! This is in contrast to the opinion of the polytheists that intercession is achieved by adopting intercessors, by worshipping them, and taking them as Awliyâ besides Allâh. The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam turned whatever was found in their delusive claims upside down and informed that the reason for intercession was pure Tawhîd and in such a circumstance, Allâh allows the intercessor to intercede.

It is from the ignorance of the polytheist that he believes that when one acquires an ally or an intercessor, he will intercede on his behalf and benefit him in the sight of Allâh, just as the elite of the kings and the governors benefit those who ally with them. The polytheists do not know that no one can intercede in the presence of Allâh without Allâh's permission, and that Allâh does not allow anyone to intercede except the one whose statements and actions He is pleased with. As Allâhu Taâlâ says with regards to the first section,

"Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission?" (al-Baqarah, 2/255)

Allâh said with regards to the second section,

"And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased." (al-Anbiyâ, 21/28)

The third section remains, which is Allâh not being pleased with any word and action except for Tawhîd and following the Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

The previous and latter generations will be questioned about these two phrases. As Abu'l Âliyah said, "There are two phrases that the previous and latter generations will be asked about: What did you worship? How did you respond to the sent prophets?"27



26- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 6570.

27- At-Tabarî, Tafsîr, 17/150.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[The Three Principles That Will Cut the Tree of Shirk from the Heart of the One Who Is Mindful of Shirk and Comprehends]

(Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said in continuation:)

These are three principles that will cut the tree of shirk from the heart of one who is mindful of Shirk and comprehends it:

•    There is no intercession without the permission of Allâh,

•    Allâh does not allow anyone to intercede except for those whom He is pleased with their statements and actions, and

•    He is not pleased with any statement nor action except for unifying Him and following His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

For Allâhu Taâlâ does not forgive the Shirk of those who equate others with Him. As Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Yet those who disbelieve equate (others) with their Lord." (al-An'âm, 6/1)

The most correct of the two opinions is that they equate others with Allâh in worship, friendship, and love. As is in another verse,

"By Allâh, we were truly in a manifest error, when we equated you with the Lord of the worlds." (ash-Shu'arâ, 26/97-98)

And as it is in the verse of al-Baqarah (Sûrat'ul Mâ'idah),

"People whom Allâh will love and they will love Him." (al-Mâ'idah, 5/54)28

You will see that the statements of the polytheist are belied by his state and action. For he says, "We do not love them as we love Allâh. We do not regard them as equal to Allâh." Thereafter, they become more angry than they get angry for Allâh when what they associate to Allâh and their sanctities are violated. They rejoice and are delighted when what they associate to Allâh is mentioned, especially when some false praise which they are not deserving of is attributed to them, which consists of helping sorrows, relieving distresses, fulfilling needs, and them being gateways between Allâh and His servants... Thus you see the polytheist rejoicing, happy, his heart yearning, the ardent love of veneration stirred up, submitting to them, and allying with them.

To that polytheist, when you mention Allâh alone and you exclusively devote Tawhîd to Allâh, brutality, distress, and anguish overcomes him, he accuses you of degrading his deities, and he most likely may show hostility to you. By Allâh, we have seen this with our very own eyes from them. They aimed their hostility at us and wished calamities to befall us. Allâh is the One who disgraces them both in this world and in the Hereafter. Their only proof consists of saying, as was said by their brethren, "He has degraded our deities!" These polytheists said, "You have degraded our Shaykhs and our gateways of our needs to Allâh!"

In the same way, when the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said to the Christians, "Verily, the Messiah is a servant!" The Christians said, "You have degraded the Messiah and condemned him!" The same was said by those who resemble the polytheists to those who forbid adopting graves as worshipped idols and mosques and command visiting the graves in the manner that is allowed by Allâh and His Messenger. They said, "You have degraded the people in the graves!" Look at this similarity in their hearts! So much so that it is as if they are bequeathing this to each other.

"He whom Allâh guides is the (rightly) guided, but he whom He sends astray - never will you find for him a protecting guide." (al-Kahf, 18/17)

Allâhu Taâlâ has collectively cut off all of the means to which the polytheists are attached to, in a way that those who ponder upon it and recognize it will know that the condition of those who adopt an ally or intercessor other than Allâh is,

"Like the spider that has made a house, while indeed the weakest of houses is the house of the spider. If only they know." (al-Ankabût, 29/41)



28- In the manuscript we used during the translation, the verse al-Mâ'idah 6/54 is found, while in Madârij'us Sâlikîn and ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, the following verse is found,

"They love them as they love Allâh." (al-Baqarah, 2/165)
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


[A Being May Not Benefit Without Possessing One of Four Characteristics]

(Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said in continuation:)

Hence Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Say: Call upon those whom you claim (to be your gods) beside Allâh. They do not possess (anything) even to the measure of a particle, neither in the heavens nor in the earth. They have no contribution at all in either of the two, nor is any of them a helper for Him (Allâh). And intercession does not benefit with Him except for one whom He permits." (Saba, 34/22-23)

The polytheist takes a Ma'bûd only because he benefits from it. One cannot benefit without possessing one of the following four characteristics:

•    Either he owns what the one who worships him wants from him,

•    If he is not the owner, then he is a partner of the owner;

•    If he is not a partner of the owner, then he is the one who helps and supports him;

•    If he is neither the helper nor supporter, then he is an intercessor in the presence of the owner.

Allâh Subhânahu negated these four ranks in order, starting from the top to the bottom. Allâh negated what the polytheist deem his deities possessed of being the owner, a partner, a helper, and intercessor and Allâh affirmed an intercession that the polytheist has no share in. This intercession is the intercession that takes place by His permission. This verse (Saba, 34/22-23) suffices as a light, proof, salvation, purity of Tawhîd, and cutting off the bases and elements of Shirk for the one who comprehends it.

The Qur'ân is full of its likes and equivalents. However, most people are unaware that the event falls under this and that it encompasses it. They think that it is regarding a type and a nation of the past that did not leave an heir behind. This is what intervenes between the heart and comprehending the Qur'ân.

By Allâh's life! If these people have gone by, then those who are akin to them and those who are more evil and lower than themselves inherited them. The Qur'ân encompasses them as it encompassed the people in the past. However, the situation is as Umar Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh said, "When those who do not know the days of ignorance are brought up in Islâm, the knots of Islâm will be undone one by one."29

The reason behind this is that when a person does not know the days of ignorance, Shirk, and what the Qur'ân condemns and rebukes, he will fall into it, affirm it, invite [to it, approve of it, adorn it and he will not know that what he is upon is what]30 the people of ignorance, their equivalents, those who are eviler, or lower than the people of ignorance were upon.

With this, the knots of Islâm are unravelled. The good becomes reprehensible and the reprehensible becomes the good, innovations becomes the Sunnah and the Sunnah becomes an innovation, one becomes a Kâfir due to sole faith and pure Tawhîd and becomes an innovator due to purely following the Messenger and departing from desires and innovations! Whoever possesses insight and a living heart will see this with his eyes. Help is only sought from Allâh!" End quote.31



29- With similar wording Ibnu Abî Shaybah, al-Musannaf, Dâru Kunûz Ishbîliyâ, Hadîth no. 34651; al-Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, Hadîth no. 8318.

30- The addition in brackets is found within the manuscripts of Madârij'us Sâlikîn and ad-Durar'us Saniyyah.

31- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâr'ul Kitâb'il Arabî, 1/348-352.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

Mudâfa’at’ut Tawhîd


I (Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan) say: Ponder upon the previously mentioned statement of Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâh, "This is because revering the graves is one of the biggest means of worshipping idols. For this reason, the scholars have agreed that those who greet the Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam at his grave should not touch or kiss his chamber. Therefore, the house of the creation should not be likened to the House of the Creator.

All of this is for the actualization of Tawhîd, which is the essence and apex of the religion with which Allâh only accepts deeds, and does not forgive one who abandons it..." Until the end of his statement.

Also ponder upon the statement of Allâmah Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh, "As for major Shirk, it is not forgiven by Allâh unless one repents from it. This is the Shirk that comprises equating the deities of the polytheists with the Lord of the worlds. As is the state of the Arab polytheists. Moreover, all of them love, revere and befriend their Ma'bûd (worshipped being)s besides Allâh."

Until his statement, "We and others have witnessed this publicly."

Until his statement, "The idolaters are like this, they are the same. Narrating from the predecessors of these polytheists, Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And those who take Awliyâ (pl. Walî; saints) besides Him (say): We only worship them that they may bring us near to Allâh. Verily, Allâh will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ." (az-Zumar, 39/3)

Thereafter, Allâhu Taâlâ testified against them with lying and disbelief and mentioned that He will not guide them, Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Truly, Allâh does not guide he who is a disbelieving liar." (az-Zumar, 39/3)"

Until his statement, "You will see that the statements of the polytheist are belied by his state and action. For he says, "We do not love them as we love Allâh. We do not regard them as equal to Allâh." Thereafter, they become more angry than they get angry for Allâh when what they associate to Allâh and their sanctities are violated. To that polytheist, when you mention Allâh alone and you exclusively devote Tawhîd to Allâh, brutality, distress, and anguish overcomes him..." Until the end of his statement that has been mentioned. This is what occurs from most of the people of this era. So ponder upon this, sentence by sentence.

Also ponder upon Ibn'ul Qayyim's statement, "However, most people are unaware that the event falls under this and that it encompasses it." Until the end of his statement.

The intent is clarifying what Shaykh'ul Islâm and his brethren from Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamâ'ah were upon from rejecting Major Shirk that occurred in their era, and mentioning evidences from the Book and the Sunnah regarding the Kufr of the one who performs this Shirk or believes in it. Hence with the praise of Allâh, this destroys the structure that this ignoramus slanderer has built upon the edge of an abyss.
قَالَ ابْنُ عَقِيل رَحِمَهُ اللهُ: «إذَا أَرَدْت أَنْ تَعْلَمَ مَحَلَّ الْإِسْلَامِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الزَّمَانِ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إلَى زِحَامِهِمْ فِي أَبْوَابِ الْجَوَامِعِ، وَلَا ‌ضَجِيجِهِمْ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ بِلَبَّيْكَ، وَإِنَّمَا اُنْظُرْ إلَى مُوَاطَأَتِهِمْ ‌أَعْدَاءَ الشَّرِيعَةِ.»
Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh said, "If you want to learn the status of Islâm among contemporary people, then do not look at their crowds at the doors of the mosques and their crying Labbayk at the Mawqif (during Hajj). On the contrary, look at their collusion with the enemies of the Sharî'ah!" (Ibnu Muflih, al-Âdâb'ush Sharî'ah, 1/237)

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