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BENEFICIAL WORDS REGARDING THINGS THAT NECESSITATE KUFR | ABDULLÂH ÂL'USH SHAYKH

Started by Subul’us Salâm, 28.05.2023, 00:12

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Subul’us Salâm


بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
الكلمات النافعة
في المكفرات الواقعة

Beneficial Words
Regarding Things that Necessitate Kufr in Our Era
1


Shaykh Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb
Rahimahullâh
(1242 H)

About the Author

[Preface]

[Statements by the Shâfi'î Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

Chapter

[Statements by the Hanafî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

[Ibâdah (Worship) That is Impermissible to Be Directed to Anyone Other Than Allâh and Its Types]

[Statements by Abû Shâmah Rahimahullâh from the Shâfi'î Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

Chapter

[Statements by Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

Chapter

[Statements by Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh Regarding the Tatar]

[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh Regarding Those Who Withheld the Zakâh]

[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh Regarding Those Who Revile Allâh and His Messenger]

Chapter

[Ibn'ul Qayyim's Statements on Adopting Graves as Places of Festivity]

[The Companions Blocking the Ways to Shirk and Innovations]

[The Scholars Mentioned That Shirk Will Occur in This Nation]

[People Being Afflicted with Idols and Belomancy]

[Innovations Done at the Graves and Its Types]

[Most People Are Afflicted with Idol Worship]

[The Condition of Najd in the 12th Century of the Hijrah]

Chapter

[Worship Is Based on Following, Not on Ibtidâ (Inventing)]

[Asking Allâh by the Sake of His Creation Is Impermissible]

[It Is Impermissible to Take Refuge in a Created Being]

[Satan Beautified the Actions of Those Who Left What Is Legislated Until They Entered Shirk]

[Those Who Adopt the Graves as Places of Pilgrimage]

[Allâhu Taâlâ Did Not Praise the Idol Temples and Mausoleums]

[Those Who Go to the Graves of the Disbelievers and Hypocrites to Seek Aid]

[Some Superstitions Containing Shirk]

[The Polytheists Underestimate Tawhîd and Revere Shirk]

[The Polytheists Turn Away from Worshipping Allâh and Find Peace with Associating Partners to Him]

[Those Who Prefer to Seek Aid from Their Shaykhs Instead of Allâhu Taâlâ]



1- This treatise named al-Kalimât'un Nâfi'ah fi'l Mukaffirât'il Wâqi'ah, authored by Shaykh Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb Rahimahullâh was published by Dâr'ul Qalam, and was also published by Dâr'ul Bashîr with the same name. It is also found in the compilation Aqîdat'ul Muwahhidîn, pages 251-307 and the compilation ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, volume 10 pages 149-239. We used the version by Dâr'ul Qalam during our translation.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


About the Author

Shaykh Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb was born in Dir'iyyah in the year 1165 H. He became the scholar and mufti of Najd after his father Shaykh Muhammad. He is known by the names Hujjat'ul Islâm and the Unsheathed Sword Against the People of Innovation. He took lessons from his father Shaykh Muhammad and others. He was a jurist in different schools of jurisprudence. He had many students including Shaykh Abâ Butayn, his own son Shaykh Sulaymân, his nephews Shaykh Abd'ur Rahmân bin Hasan, Shaykh Abd'ul Latîf, and Shaykh Hasan bin Husayn. May Allâh have mercy upon all of them. He used to worship profusely. He authored many books and treatises. The most famous among these are:

Entrance to Mecca. In the year 1218 H, He entered Makkah with Emir Sa'ûd bin Abd'il Azîz and authored the treatise "Entrance to Mecca" -which we have translated- upon a question directed to him regarding the creed of his father Shaykh Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb. In this treatise, he explained the creed of his father and what he called to, said that the things introduced into the religion without bases must be opposed, informed that the religion must be returned to its origin practiced in the era of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, the Sahâbah, and the Tabi'ûn, and rebutted the accusations, allegations, and slanders made against Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullâh by his opponents.

Jawâbu Ahl'is Sunnat'in Nabawiyyah fî Naqdhi Kalâm'ish Shî'ah wa'z Zaydiyyah. In this book, there is a refutation of the various views and allegations of the Zaydiyyah, pertaining to various matters.

Mukhtasaru Sîrat'ir Rasûl. This is a book he authored regarding the life of the Prophet.

Al-Kalimât'un Nâfi'ah fi'l Mukaffirât'il Wâqi'ah. This treatise we translated makes mention of beliefs, statements, and actions which take one who says La Ilaha Illallâh out of the fold of the religion according to the four Madhâhib. The contents of the book resemble the chapters on the ruling of the Murtad/statements which necessitate Kufr found in the books of Fiqh. He mentions one Madhhab after the other and mentions the statements by the adherents to the four Madhâhib regarding major Shirk and their Takfîr upon those who ascribed themselves to Islâm in their era and committed acts and statements that necessitate Kufr. After the quotes, he made mention of some explanations. After finishing citing from the adherents to the Madhhâhib, he mentioned issues such as delving into extremes regarding the righteous and Shaykhs and grave-worship. He said in explanation to why he authored the book, "in our era, some of those who ascribe themselves to knowledge and jurisprudence have erred with an atrocious, disgraceful mistake and with a repulsive opposition, have opposed those who issued verdicts as such from the people of knowledge and religion."

He also has many treatises and verdicts found in famous compilations such as ad-Durar'us Saniyyah and Majmû'at'ur Rasâ'il wa'l Masâ'il'in Najdiyyah.

He was at the forefront of defenders of Najd against the army coming from Egypt, sent by the Ottomans to Dir'iyyah under the command of Ibrâhîm Pasha. The Shaykh fought bravely and said, "It is more honourable for me to be under the earth than to live on the earth in humility." He was arrested by the Egyptian army and taken to Egypt in the year 1233 H and passed away there in the year 1242 H.

May Allah have abundant mercy on him. Âmîn.2




2- Compiled from the information provided by the verifier found in the beginning of the Dâr'ul Qalam copy and the information found in ad-Durar'us Saniyyah.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


الكلمات النافعة في المكفرات الواقعة

Beneficial Words Regarding Things that Necessitate Kufr in Our Era

Shaykh Abdullâh bin Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb (1242 H)
Rahimahullâh

[Preface]

In the name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

All praise is due to Allâh. We praise Him, seek His help, seek His forgiveness, and repent to Him. We seek refuge in Allâh from the evil within ourselves and our evil deeds. Whoever Allâh guides, there is no one who can lead him astray, and whoever Allâh leads astray, then there is no one who can guide him.

I bear witness there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allâh, He is One and He has no partners. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger whom He sent as a mercy to the world and a proof against the stubborn people, whom He perfected the religion with and sealed the prophets and messengers with. May Allâh send peace upon him, his family, his companions, and those who follow them with goodness until the Day of Recompense.

Foreword: These are chapters and words that I have quoted from the statements by the Mujtahid scholars consisting of the followers of the four Imâms who are the Imâms of the people of Sunnah and religion, in clarification of some deeds and statements that necessitate a Muslim to enter Kufr and exclude him from the fold of the religion, and also in clarification that a person pronouncing the two testimonies, ascribing himself to Islâm, and acting with some of the Shar'î rulings of the religion does not prevent Takfîr being declared upon him, him being killed, nor him joining the apostates.

What motivated me to prepare this treatise is that in our era, some of those who ascribe themselves to knowledge and jurisprudence have erred with an atrocious, disgraceful mistake and with a repulsive opposition, have opposed those who issued verdicts as such from the people of knowledge and religion. With regards to opposing this, they did not have genuine legal evidence from the speech of Allâh, the speech of His Messenger, or the speech of the Imâms of knowledge and religion apart from this being in opposition to their customs and predecessors. We seek refuge in Allâh from ignorance, betrayal, and fanaticism.

Here, I will mention what circumstances necessitate. Those who have erred from amongst those whom misery, ignorance, fanaticism, and betrayal have prevailed from those who affiliate themselves to knowledge in our era have erred. This is because they are naturally disposed to opposing the Book, the Sunnah, and the actions of the Salaf and the guided Imâms, loving leadership and the lusts of this world, and desiring what is in the hands of the people and the corrupt stubborn people.

We pray to Allâh that He grants us success to the deeds He is pleased with and keeps us away from mistakes that anger Him. Verily, Allâh does not let down those who have hope in Him and does not turn back the request of those who invoke Him. Thus, we say, and success lies with Allâh:

Know that these are amongst the most important matters a believer must devote his attention to. Thereby, he will not unknowingly commit one of these deeds and Islâm and Kufr will become clear for him so that for him, what is wrong will be clear from what is correct, he becomes upon insight regarding Allâh's religion, and he is not deceived by the people of ignorance and suspicion. Even though they are the majority in number, in terms of value, they are the minority in the presence of Allâh, His Messenger, and the believers.

May Allâh be pleased with them, the scholars have devoted their attention to this issue in their books and have opened chapters for it in the books of jurisprudence in every Madhhab from the four Madhâhib, and this chapter is the chapter on the ruling of the apostate. An apostate is a Muslim who enters Kufr after his Islâm. The scholars mentioned many types in this chapter, with every type, a Muslim enters Kufr and his blood and property become permissible to take.

Inshâ Allâhu Taâlâ, I will mention what is sufficient and curing for the one whom Allâhu Taâlâ has guided and gave his maturity. I will mention the statements by each group from the followers of the four Imâms -Abû Hanîfah, Mâlik, ash-Shâfi'î and Ahmad may Allâh be pleased with them- separately so that it is easy for those who want to examine them. We will begin with their statements regarding major Shirk and them declaring Takfîr upon some who lived in their era and ascribed themselves to Islâm and the Sunnah whom these things occurred from, since this is important. Thus, we say:
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Statements by the Shâfi'î Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

As for the statements by the Shâfi'iyyah, in his book "az-Zawâjir an Iqtirâf'il Kabâ'ir," Ibnu Hajar (al-Haytamî) Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ (974 H) said,

"The first major sin: Kufr and Shirk, may Allâhu Taâlâ protect us from it. Since Kufr is the gravest of sins, it is more deserving that we expound the speech about it and its rulings. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Indeed, Allâh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills." (an-Nisâ, 4/48, 116)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is grave transgression." (Luqmân, 31/13)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Indeed, he who associates others with Allâh -Allâh has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire." (al-Mâ'idah, 5/72)

It is narrated in the Sahîh that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Shall I not inform you of the gravest of the major sins? It is to associate partners with Allâh and mistreating parents."

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was reclining, he sat up and said,

"I warn you against lying! I warn you against false testimony!"

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam repeated this to the point that we said, "How we wish he would be quiet.3"4

Then Ibnu Hajar mentioned many Ahâdîth and then said,

"Notes:

Among them is the explanation of Shirk and mentioning some types of Shirk. This is because Shirk occurs among people and in the speech of the commonfolk without them knowing that it is Shirk. If Shirk becomes clear to them, perhaps they will abstain from it so that the actions of the one who commits it does not go in vain and that they will not abide in the greatest torment and most severe punishment for eternity.

Knowing this is a very important issue, because whoever commits a deed that necessitates his Kufr, all his deeds will be in vain, and according to a group of Imâms such as Abû Hanîfah, he must make up the obligatory deeds. With this, the companions of Abû Hanîfah expounded on the things that necessitate one's Kufr, mentioned many of them, and to the greatest extent compared to the Imâms of other schools. Alongside this, they say, "Apostasy makes all actions go in vain, and whoever becomes an apostate, he will have an irrevocable divorce from his wife, and she will be forbidden to him." Despite this harshness, the companions of Abû Hanîfah went to the greatest extent in expounding upon the things that necessitate Kufr. Therefore, everyone who has an atoms weight of religion should know what the companions of Abû Hanîfah say so that they can stay away from them and not fall into them. Once a person falls in to these, -according to these Imâms- his actions go to vain, he must make up his (obligatory) actions and irrevocably divorced from his wife.

However, according to ash-Shâfi'î Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ, although apostasy does not cause the actions to go to vain, it does cause the rewards of the actions to go to vain. Thus, there is not a conflict between ash-Shâfi'î and the others except in making up the actions."5

Then Ibnu Hajar (al-Haytamî) mentioned the types of Kufr one by one, and the rest of his words on this subject will come with the permission of Allâhu Taâlâ. However, may Allâh have mercy on you, ponder upon his following statement!

"This is because Shirk occurs among people in the speech of the commonfolk without them knowing that it is Shirk."

Again, ponder upon him stating that most of the people of his era fell into Shirk and apostasy! When you ponder upon these, the truth of what we say will become clear for you with the permission of Allâhu Taâlâ!

In his commentary on Muslim, an-Nawawî Rahimahullâh (686 H) said,

"As for sacrificing to other than Allâh, what is meant by this is to slaughter in the name of anything other than Allâh, such as the one who sacrifices to an idol, the cross, Mûsâ, Îsâ, the Ka'bah, and the likes. All of these are forbidden and this sacrifice is not permissible, regardless of the sacrificer being a Muslim, Christian, or Jew. There is a Nass from ash-Shâfi'î regarding this and our companions (the Shâfi'î) have agreed upon this. However, if his intention is to exalt and worship the being he slaughtered the sacrifice for other than Allâh, this deed is Kufr. If the person who sacrificed was a Muslim prior to this, he will become an apostate because of this sacrifice."

End quote from an-Nawawî.6

Ponder upon an-Nawawî's following statement! "However, if his intention," until the end of his statement. Once you ponder upon this, you will find this a clear statement that with sacrificing to other than Allâh, if a Muslim intends to exalt and worship the being other than Allâh he has sacrificed for, then he will become an apostate Kâfir. And Allâh knows best.




3- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 5976.

4-Ibnu Hajar al-Haytamî, az-Zawâjir an Iqtirâf'il Kabâ'ir, 1/44.

5- Ibnu Hajar al-Haytamî, az-Zawâjir an Iqtirâf'il Kabâ'ir, 1/46

6- An-Nawawî, Sharhun alâ Muslim, 13/141
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


Chapter

[Statements by the Hanafî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

As for the statements by the Hanafîs, in the work titled Tabyîn'ul Mahârim'il Madhkûrah fi'l Qur'ân7, it is stated,

"Chapter on Kufr

Kufr is covering, rejecting the truth and denying it. It is the first of sins mentioned in the Qur'ân. Allâhu Taâlâ said in the verse,

"Surely for those who have disbelieved, it is all the same whether you warn them or you warn them not(; they do not believe)." (al-Baqarah, 2/6)

This is the gravest sin in the absolute sense, so there is no sin graver than Kufr."8

Until he said, "Know that the things that necessitate Kufr are of various types: A type is related to Allâh Subhânahu; a type is related to the Qur'ân and other revealed books; a type is related to our Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, other prophets, angels, and scholars; and a type is related to rulings."9

"As for the type that is related to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ:

•    If a person attributes Allâh Subhânahu with something that does not befit Him, by likening Allâh Subhânahu to something from the creation, by negating His attributes, by espousing the view of incarnation and union with the Divine, by espousing the view that there is another Qadîm being (one who has no beginning) besides Allâh, or by having espousing the view that there is a being besides Him who independently administrates;

•    Believes that Allâh Subhânahu is a Jism (entity/body), that He is Muhdath (brought about from nothing), or that He does not live;

•    Believes that Allâh Subhânahu does not know minor things;

•    Mocks one name from Allâh's names, a command from His commandments, His reward or punishment;

•    Denies Allâh's reward and punishment;

•    Prostrates to other than Allâhu Taâlâ10;

•    Reviles Allâh Subhânahu;

•    Claims that Allâh has a child and a wife, or that Allâh existed by being born from something;

•    Associates something from Allâh's creation with Him in His worship;

•    Falsely slanders Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ by claiming divinity and prophethood;

•    Negates the One who created him being his Lord and says I do not have a Lord;

•    Says regarding a speck of particles, "This was created in vain and negligently";

•    And similar things that do not befit Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, high above is Allâh from what they say by sublime greatness,

A person enters Kufr via all these aspects by consensus regardless of him doing it deliberately or jokingly. If he persists on these, he will be killed, and if he repents, Allâh will forgive him and he will be saved from being killed."

The quotation in verbatim from the book Tabyîn'ul Mahârim has ended.11

May Allâh have mercy on you! Ponder upon him openly stating that whoever associates other than Allâh with Him in worship will become Kâfir by consensus and that he will be killed if he persists on this!




7-  The book Tabyîn'ul Mahârim belongs to the Hanafî scholar Yûsuf Sinân'ud Dîn al-Amâsî Rahimahullâh. He is of Turkish descent and from Amasya. He was a Hanafî jurist and preacher. He was known as Shaykh'ul Haram. He passed away in the year 1000 H. (az-Ziriklî, al-A'lâm, 8/233; Kahhâlah, Mu'jam'ul Mu'allifîn, 13/311)

8- Yûsuf Sinân'ud Din al-Amâsî, Tabyîn'ul Mahârim, p. 209-210.

9- Yûsuf Sinân'ud Din al-Amâsî, Tabyîn'ul Mahârim, p. 212.

10- Prostration to other than Allâh is of two types. One type is the prostration of greeting which is an impermissible act, while the other is the prostration of worship and is an act of Kufr.

Burhân'ud Dîn al-Bukhârî al-Marghinânî (616 H) Rahimahullâh from the Hanafî jurists said,

"The jurist Abû Ja'far Rahimahullâh said: Whoever kisses the ground in front of the sultan or the emir or prostrates to him; if his prostration is in the manner of greeting, he does commit Kufr, but becomes a sinner who has committed a major sin. As for this person not committing Kufr, then this is because the prostration of greeting in itself is not Kufr. Do you not see that prostrating to other than Allâhu Taâlâ for greeting was permissible in the beginning? Kufr is impermissible in every era. The evidence for the soundness of what we have said is that Allâhu Taâlâ commanded the angels to prostrate to Âdam Alayh'is Salâm. It is impermissible for Kufr to be commanded." (Ibnu Mâzah, al-Muhît'ul Burhânî, 5/395-396)

Ibnu Taymiyyah (728 H) Rahimahullâh said,

"Prostration is of two types: The prostration of worship and the prostration of honouring. As for the first, then it is only for Allâh." (Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 4/361)

The intent of Shaykh al-Amâsî Rahimahullâh with this phrase is the prostration of worship. Proceeding this, the author Rahimahullâh mentions worship and its types which are impermissible to be directed to other than Allâh. And Allâh knows best.

11- Yûsuf Sinân'ud Din al-Amâsî, Tabyîn'ul Mahârim, p. 214-215.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Ibâdah (Worship) That is Impermissible to Be Directed to Anyone Other Than Allâh and Its Types]

Ibâdah that is inappropriate to be directed to other than Allâh and in which it is impermissible to associate others with Him is of various types.

One type is invoking to bring good or ward off a harm. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And the Masâjid are only for Allâh, so pray not unto anyone along with Allâh." (al-Jinn, 72/18)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Call upon Me; I will answer your (prayer)." (Ghâfir, 40/60)

He also said in the verse,

"For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way. Their case is like the one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not." (ar-Ra'd, 13/14)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"So, when you have finished (your occupation), devote yourself. And towards your Lord turn."12 (al-Inshirâh, 94/7-8)

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said to Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ,

"If you are to ask, ask only from Allâh, and if you are to seek aid, seek aid only from Allâh!"13

From the types of worship is prayer; therefore, prayer is not offered to anyone other than Allâh.

Prostration and bowing is not performed to anyone other than Allâh alone. Allâhu Taâlâ said in the verse,

"Say: Truly, my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allâh, the Lord of the Âlamîn (Cherisher of the Worlds i.e. mankind, Jinns and all that exists)." (al-An'âm, 6/162)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"Therefore, turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice to Him only." (al-Kawthar, 108/2)

Meaning, devote your prayer and sacrifice sincerely to your Lord; He has no partners in this. The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Allâh's curse is upon those who offer sacrifices to other then Him."14

In these two verses, Allâh mentioned the prayer alongside sacrifice. Therefore, if a person who prays to other than Allâh, bows to other than Him, or prostrates to other than Him associates others with Him in worshipping Allâh, then likewise, whoever sacrifices to other than Allâh has associated others with Him in worshipping Allâh.

Also, from the types of worship is Khashyah (awe); therefore, it is impermissible to have Khashyah to other than Allâh alone.  Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"So do not have awe of the people but have awe of Me!" (al-Mâ'idah, 5/44)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"That is only shaytân (satan) who frightens (you) of his supporters. So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (truly) believers." (Âl-i Imrân, 3/175)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"Whoever obeys Allâh and His messenger and has awe of Allâh and is conscious of Him, then such people are the successful." (an-Nûr, 24/52)

In this verse, Allâh has made obedience unique to Allâh and His Messenger, and made Khashyah and being of conscious unique to Allâh alone.

Also, from the types of worship is Tawakkul (reliance). Tawakkul is the slave resting his affair - in all of his worldly and religious affairs- to Allâh alone who has no partners. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And in Allâh should the believers put their trust." (Âl-i Imrân, 3/122)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"And put your trust in Allâh if you are indeed believers." (al-Mâ'idah, 5/23)

Therefore, whoever trusts in other than Allâh has associated others with Him in worshipping Allâh.

Also, from the types of worship is Isti'ânah (seeking aid). Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help." (al-Fâtihah, 1/4)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"So worship Him and place your trust in Him." (Hûd, 11/123)

The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said to Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ,

"If you are to seek aid, seek aid only from Allâh!"15

Therefore, whoever seeks aid from other than Allâh has associated others with Him in worshipping Allâh.

Also, from the types of worship is Nadhr (vowing); therefore, vowing is not performed to anyone except Allâh alone. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Whatever expenditure you spend and whatever vow you make, Allâh knows all of it." (al-Baqarah, 2/270)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"They (are those who) fulfill (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be widespread." (al-Insân, 76/7)

The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Whoever vows to obey Allâh, should obey Him; and whoever vows to disobey Allâh, should not disobey Him!"16

In conclusion, Ibâdah (worship), is a comprehensive name for everything that Allâh loves and is pleased with consisting of the words and deeds of His servants that He commanded His slaves within His Book by the tongue of His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

This Hanafi (al-Amâsî) openly stated in his book, which I have presented to you, that whoever associates other than Allâh with Him in worshipping Allâh, regardless of him doing so deliberately or jokingly, is a Kâfir by consensus and that he will be killed if he insists on this and that Allâh will forgive him and he will be saved from being killed if he repents. And Allâh knows best.

This Hanafî (al-Amâsî) also mentioned the following, "When a Muslim commits something that is Kufr to commit by consensus, all his deeds are in vain, he must reperform Hajj, and does not have to reperform prayer and fasting; since both are abolished for the apostate. Intimacy with his wife is forbidden and adultery. If he utters the word of Shahâdah customarily and does not revoke what he said (of Kufr), the judgment of Kufr is not lifted from him.17 And Allâh knows best."18

Shaykh Qâsim Rahimahullâh19 said in Sharh'ud Durar,

"As for the Nadhr which occurs from the majority of the general masses by means of going to the grave of some righteous person saying, "O my master so-and-so! If my lost is returned, my illness is healed, or my need is fulfilled; then I will give you this much gold, distribute this much food, or light this many candles..." All of these are false by consensus in some aspects. One of these aspects is that it is impermissible to make Nadhr to the creation. Another one of these aspects is that this deed is Kufr."

Until Shaykh Qâsim said,

"People have been put to the test by this; especially during the mawlid of Ahmad al-Badawî."

End quote from Shaykh Qâsim.20

He clearly stated that this vow was Kufr and something via which the Muslim enters Kufr. And Allâh knows best.




12- In the copy we based our translation upon, only the 7th verse of Sûrat'ul Inshirâh was provided. In the copy of ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, both verses were provided.

Some scholars of the Salaf such as Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ, said in explanation of these verses, "So, when you have finished your obligatory prayer, devote yourself to your Lord in invocation, and turn towards your Lord in asking so that He may give you." (Al-Baghawî, Tafsîr, Ihyâ'ut Turâth, 5/276)

13- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 2516.

14- Muslim, Hadîth no. 1978.

15- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 2516.

16- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 6696, 6700.

17- Yûsuf Sinân'ud Din al-Amâsî, Tabyîn'ul Mahârim, p. 231-232

18- Regarding the ruling of Kufr not being removed from a person who utters the testimony of faith customarily but does not revoke the statement of Kufr he uttered, Shaykhîzâdah Dâmâd Effendi (1078 H) Rahimahullâh from the Hanafî jurists said,

"If a person who utters a word that is Kufr by consensus, utters the Kalimah of Shahâdah customarily, this does not benefit him unless he retracts the word of Kufr he said. This is because the ruling of Kufr is not removed by uttering the Kalimah of Shahâdah." (Concisely, Shaykhîzâdah Dâmâd Effendi, Majma'ul Anhur, 1/687)

19- Zayn'ud Dîn Qâsim bin Qutluboga Rahimahullâh from the Hanafî jurists. Scholars such as Ibnu Hajar, Ibn'ul Humâm, az-Zarkashî and al-Maqrizî were among his teachers. Al-Biqâ'î and as-Sakhâwî were among his students. He passed away in the year 879 H. (Kâtip Çelebî, Sullam'ul Wusûl, 3/23; Ibn'ul Imâd, Shadharât'udh Dhahab, 9/487)

20- Quoted from Shaykh Qâsim Rahimahullâh by Ibnu Nujaym in al-Bahr'ur Râiq, 2/42.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Statements by Abû Shâmah Rahimahullâh from the Shâfi'î Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

Again, from the statements by the Shâfi'îs is what was stated by the Muhaddith of Shâm, Imâm, Muhaqqiq, Nâsir'us Sunnah, Shihâb'ud Dîn Abd'ur Rahmân bin Ismâ'îl bin Ibrâhîm, better known as Abû Shâmah Rahimahullâh21, in his book al-Bâ'ith alâ Inkâr'il Bida'i wa'l Hawâdith,

"Also, from this scope is the affliction that prevailed by the devil beautifying perfuming the walls, pillars, and specific places, found in every land, to the common people. A storyteller tells them that in his dream, he saw a person famous for uprightness and being a saint in that place. So, the common people adhere to this alongside neglecting the obligations of Allâhu Taâlâ and His Sunnah while deeming that they come closer to Allâh through it. Then, they surpass this until the sites of these places are glorified in their hearts. Thereby, they glorify it, seek cure for their ill and fulfilment of their needs by vowing to them. These places vary between springs, trees, walls, and stones.

In the city of Damascus, may Allâhu Taâlâ protect it, there are many places as such. Such as the spring of Hummâ located outside of Bab Tuma (Thomas Gate), the perfumed pillars located inside of Bab al-Saghir (the Small Gate)22, and the dry tree located outside Bab al-Nasr (the Victory Gate), found in the middle of the road -may Allâh facilitate felling it and uprooting it from its roots. How much does it resemble the Dhâtu Anwât mentioned in the Hadîth narrated by Muhammad bin Ishâq and Sufyân bin Uyaynah on the authority of az-Zuhrî, on the authority of Sinân bin Abî Sinân, on the authority of Abû Wâqid al-Laythî.

Abû Wâqid said, "We went out with Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam to Hunayn. Quraysh had a huge green tree. They would come to it yearly, hang their weapons on it, adhere to, and sacrifice to it."

Another narration reads, "We went out with the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam towards Hunayn. The polytheists had a lote-tree which they would adhere to and hang their weapons on. It was called Dhâtu Anwât. So, we passed by a lote-tree and said, "O Messenger of Allâh!"

It is said in the first narration, "It was called Dhâtu Anwât. So, we passed by a huge, green tree and while we were going to Hunayn, we shouted from both sides of the path, "O Messenger of Allâh! Make for us a Dhâtu Anwât, just as they have a Dhâtu Anwât!" The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, "You have said similar to what the people of Mûsâ said to him, "Make a deity for us just as they have deities!" (al-A'râf, 7/138) You shall follow the practices of those before you!"23

At-Tirmidhî recorded this with a different wording, however, the meaning is the same. At-Tirmidhî said that this Hadîth is Hasan Sahîh.24

Imâm Abû Bakr at-Turtûshî Rahimahullâh25 said in his book, "Pay attention may Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy upon you! Wherever you find a lote-tree or a tree that the people turn to, glorify because of its affair, hope for healing and cure from it, hang their weapons upon, and hang rags and nails upon, then fell it, for it is a Dhâtu Anwât!"26

I (Abû Shâmah) say:

I was amazed with what the Shaykh Abû Ishâq al-Jibniyânî Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ27, who was one of the righteous in the land of Ifriqiya (North Africa) did in the fourth century. His righteous friend Abû Abdillâh Muhammad Ibnu Abi'l Abbâs al-Mu'addib narrated that there was a spring near him named "Ayn'ul Âfiyah (the Spring of Wellness)." The common people were afflicted because of it. They would come to it from afar; those who were unable to wed or infertile would say, "Take me to Ayn'ul Âfiyah!" By this, the affliction is known.

Abû Abdillâh said: One night, at dawn, I suddenly heard the Adhân (call to prayer) of Abû Ishâq near that spring. So, I went outside and found him having demolished it and called the Adhân of the Morning Prayer upon its debris. Then he said, "O Allâh, I demolished this for You! So do not facilitate and allow it to return to its former state!" (Abû Abdillâh said:) It still has not returned to its former state.

I (Abû Shâmah) say:

What is more catastrophic and more bitter than this is their audacity to obstruct the busy road; they pass through one of the old, common gates. These gates through which passing is allowed, were built by the Jinn during the era of the Prophet of Allâh Sulaymân bin Dâwûd Alayhima's Salâm or were built by Dhu'l Qarnayn -and other things have been said with this regard. This gate is the North Gate, and we have narrated this in our book The History of the City of Damascus, may Allâhu Taâlâ protect the city of Damascus.

In one of the months of the year 636 H, an unreliable person told some people that he saw a dream wherein some of the Ahl'ul Bayt were buried in this place. A reliable person narrated to me from this person that he had confessed to him that he had made this up. Upon this, people obstructed the road al-Manârah and made the entire gate a foundation of a seized Masjid. The road was already narrow for those who passed by, but after this, the narrowness of the road and the difficulty for those entering and exiting the gate increased many times over. May Allâh multiply the punishment of those who caused the construction of this Masjid! May He also abundantly reward those who helped in demolishing and getting rid of this Masjid by following the Sunnah of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam regarding demolishing Masjid ad-Dirâr, the observatory of his Kuffâr enemies!

I (Abû Shâmah) say:

The Sharî'ah demolished it regardless of it being a Masjid, because of those who intended evil and viciousness by it. Allâhu Taâlâ said to His Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam in the verse,

"Never stand (for prayer) within it. A mosque founded on piety from the first day (is more worthy for you to stand in)." (at-Tawbah, 9/108)

I ask Allâh, the Noble, to relieve us from everything that opposes His pleasure, and to not make us among those whom He led astray and then adopt their whims as their deity!"

End quote from Abû Shâmah.28

May Allâh have mercy upon you! Ponder upon the words of this Imâm and him clearly stating that what the common people in his era did near the walls, trees, and in certain places, was similar to what the polytheists did with Dhâtu Anwât!

Also ponder upon Abû Bakr at-Turtûshî, who was of the Imâms of the Mâlikiyyah, clearly stating that every tree that people turn to and glorify because of its affair is a Dhâtu Anwât!

Also ponder upon Abû Shâmah's following statement!

"I was amazed with what the Shaykh Abû Ishâq who resided in the land of Ifriqiya (North Africa) did in the fourth century. When he saw the common people turning to it and seeking blessings from it, he demolished that spring named "Ayn'ul Âfiyah (the Spring of Wellness)."

When you ponder upon this, it becomes clear to you that Shirk has occurred in this nation since ancient times, that the people of knowledge -may Allâh be pleased with them- opposed it in the most severe manner, that when able to they demolished what people were afflicted with, that this occurred after the three virtuous generations, that this is not from the religion by consensus of the people of knowledge, and that it is obligatory upon whoever is able to get rid of such things. Woe to the rulers and judges who are able to get rid of these and prohibit from these (but do not do so)!

Also ponder upon Abû Shâmah's statements regarding the Masjid built in the middle of the road, his wish for it to be demolished and removed, and him resembling it to Masjid'udh Dhirâr! May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy on him, Abû Shâmah lived in the early seventh century. As is known, the affair only increases in intensity (as time passes). Allâh knows best.

This is what we have found regarding this issue from the statements by the Shâfi'îs, Hanâfîs, [and Mâlikîs].




21- Abû Shâmah Rahimahullâh from the Shâfi'î jurists. He was an Allâmah and Mujtahid. He studied under scholars such as Izz'ud Dîn bin Abd'is Salâm, Alam'ud Dîn as-Sakhâwî, and Muwaffaq'ud Dîn Ibnu Qudâmah. He passed away in the year 665 H. (Ibn'ul Imâd, Shadharât'udh Dhahab, 7/553; az-Ziriklî, al-A'lâm, 3/299)

22- Allâhu Taâlâ answered the invocation of Imâm an-Nawawî Rahimahullâh (676 H) who supplicated, "O Allâh! Establish for your religion a person who will destroy the perfumed pillars," and allotted the virtue of destroying them to Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh. (al-Jâmi'u li Sîrati Shaykh'il Islâm Ibni Taymiyyah Khilâli Sab'ati Qurûn, p. 147-148)

23- With similar wording in Ibnu Ishâq, Sîrah, Dar Al-Kotob Al-ilmiyah, p. 552-553.

24- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 2180.

25- Abû Bakr at-Turtûshî Rahimahullâh from the Mâlikî scholars. He was also known by the name Ibnu Abî Randaqah. He was an ascetic and an Allâmah from Andalusia. He studied under scholars like Abu'l Walîd al-Bâjî, and scholars such as Abû Tâhir as-Silafî narrated from him. He passed away in the year 520 H. (Adh-Dhahabî, Siyaru A'lâm'in Nubalâ, ar-Risâlah, 19/490; az-Ziriklî, al-A'lâm, 7/133-134)

26- Abû Bakr at-Turtûshî, al-Hawâdithu wa'l Bida p. 38-39.

27- Abû Ishâq al-Jibniyânî Rahimahullâh from the Mâlikî scholars. He was a righteous person from the allies of Allâh. He was from among the most knowledgeable concerning the scholars' differences of opinion. He passed away in the year 369 H. (Ibnu Farhûn, ad-Dîbâj'ul Mudhahhab, 1/264-265; Kâtip Celebi, Sullam'ul Wusûl, 1/22)

28- Abû Shâmah, al-Bâ'ith alâ Inkâr'il Bida'i wa'l Hawâdîth, p. 25-28.

"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


Chapter

[Statements by Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

As for the statements by the Hanâbilah, Imâm Abu'l Wafâ Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh29 said,

"When the responsibilities became difficult to the ignorant and common people, they turned away from the regulations of the Sharî'ah to glorifying the customs they laid for themselves. This was easy for them since thereby, they did not enter under the order of others. In my opinion, these people are Kuffâr because of these customs such as glorifying the graves, addressing the deceased for fulfilment of needs, writing messages that state, 'O master, do such-and-such for me,' tying rags on trees following worshipers of al-Lât and al-Uzzâ."

The words of Ibnu Aqîl have ended.30

Ponder upon Ibnu Aqîl's following statement! "In my opinion, these people are Kuffâr because of these customs!" Also ponder upon him resembling them to those who worshipped al-Lât and al-Uzzâ!




29- Ibnu Aqîl Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî scholars. He was the Shaykh of the Hanâbilah of Baghdad in his era. He studied jurisprudence under Qâdhî Abû Ya'lâ Ibn'ul Farrâ. Abû Tâhir as-Silafî narrated from him. He passed away in the year 513 H. (adh-Dhahabî, Siyaru A'lâm'in Nubalâ, ar-Risâlah, 19/443-451; az-Ziriklî, al-A'lâm, 4/313)

30- Ibn'ul Jawzî, Talbîsu Iblîs, Dâr'ul Fikr, p. 354; Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/352-353.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

When he mentioned the Hadîth regarding the Khawârij, them exiting the religion, and the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam ordering them to be killed, in his work ar-Risâlat'us Sunniyyah, Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Dîn said,

"If there were those who ascribed to Islâm in the era of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and his caliphs and left Islâm despite worshipping a lot, then let it be known that those who ascribe to Islâm and the Sunnah at these times could likewise leave Islâm. This is based on a number of reasons. One of them is extremism, which Allâhu Taâlâ condemns in His Book with His statement in the verse,

"Do not go extreme in your religion." (an-Nisâ, 4/171)

Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh burnt those who went to extremes from the Râfidhah. He ordered trenches to be dug for them near the Kindah Gate. Alî Radiyallâhu Anh threw those who went to extremes into it. The companions agreed upon killing them. However, Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ held the view that they should be killed by the sword without being burnt, which is the view of the majority of the scholars. Their story is well-known by the scholars. Likewise, is going to extremes with regards to some Shaykhs, rather, going to extremes with regards to Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh is the same and even going to extremes with regards to the Messiah Alayh'is Salâm and the likes, is the same. So, all of those who exceed the bounds with regards to a prophet or a pious man attributing to him a type of divinity such as saying things like, "My master so-and-so, help me," "aid me," "provide me with sustenance," "cure me," "I am under your guardianship," and similar statements, will be asked to repent if he repents, he repents, otherwise he will be killed because all of these are Shirk and misguidance. This is because Allâhu Taâlâ sent His messengers and revealed His books so that He is worshipped alone and that no one is adopted as a deity alongside Him. Those who invoke deities alongside Allâh, such as the Messiah, angels, and idols, did not believe that these deities created the creation, brought down rain, and cultivated the vegetation. They only worshipped them, their graves, or statues, while saying,

"We only worship them that they may bring us near to Allâh." (az-Zumar, 39/3)

They also worshipped them saying,

"These are our intercessors with Allâh." (Yûnus, 10/18)

This is why Allâh sent His Messengers to prohibit invoking upon anyone other than Allâh -both the invocation of worship and the invocation of seeking aid. Allâhu Taâlâ says in the verse,

"Say: Invoke those you have claimed (as gods) besides Him, for they do not possess the (ability to) remove harm from you, nor to change it. Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, (striving as to) which of them would be nearest."
(al-Isrâ, 17/56-57)

A group from the Salaf (predecessors) said, "There were tribes invoking the Messiah, Uzayr, and the angels." Until Allâhu Taâlâ's statement,

"And verily, We have sent among every nation a Messenger (proclaiming): Worship Allâh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tâghût." (an-Nahl, 16/36)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him: There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone)." (al-Anbiyâ, 21/25)

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam used to implement Tawhîd and teach it to his nation. So, as a man said, "If you and Allâh will." He said,

"Have you made me a rival to Allâh? Rather (say), whatever Allâh alone wills."31

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam also prohibited from taking an oath by anyone other than Allâh and said,

"Whoever takes an oath by anyone other than Allâh has committed Shirk."32

On his death bed, he said,

"May Allâh curse the Jews and Christians! They took the graves of their prophets as places of worship."33

He said this cautioning against their deeds. He also said,

"O Allâh! Don't make my grave a worshipped idol!"34

For this reason, the Imâms of Islâm have agreed that it is impermissible to build a mosque on the graves and to pray next to it. This is because revering the graves is one of the biggest means of worshipping idols. For this reason, the scholars have agreed that those who greet the Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam at his grave should not touch or kiss his chamber. For these actions are only done to the columns of the House of Allâh. Therefore, the house of the creation should not be likened to the House of the Creator. All of this is for the actualization of Tawhîd, which is the essence and apex of the religion with which Allâh only accepts deeds, forgives its doer, and does not forgive one who abandons it. As Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"Indeed, Allâh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills." (an-Nisâ, 4/48; an-Nisâ, 4/116)

Allâhu Taâlâ also says,

"And he who associates others with Allâh has indeed committed a grave sin." (an-Nisâ, 4/48)

This is why the word of Tawhîd is the most virtuous and most magnificent word. The most magnificent verse in the Qur'ân is Âyat'ul Kursî,

"Allâh -there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Self-Sustaining." (al-Baqarah, 2/255)

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Whoever's last word is La Ilaha Illallâh will enter Paradise."35

Ilah is what the hearts deify with worship, seeking help, hoping from it, fear, and reverence."

The words by Shaykh'ul Islâm have ended.36

Ponder upon the beginning and end of the statements by Shaykh'ul Islâm! Also ponder upon his statement that the one who invokes a prophet or saint, in example saying, "My master so-and-so, aid me," or something similar will be asked to repent, if he repents, he repents, otherwise he will be killed!

When you ponder upon this, you will find these statements clear with regards to declaring Takfîr upon the people of Shirk and them being killed after being asked to repent and after the Hujjah is established to them.

You will also find these statements clear regarding the fact that those who go to extreme with regards to a prophet or righteous person and give them some kind of divinity will have deified this person alongside Allâh. This is because Ilah is the being whom the hearts deify, that is, whom the hearts turn towards with worship, invoking, fear, devotion, and magnifying. Even if one alleges that he only wants intercession and closeness to Allâh, the situation is the same. This is because Shaykh'ul Islâm clarified that this was the desire of the previous polytheists and he brought clear, explicit verses as evidences for this. And Allâh knows best.




31- With similar wording Ahmad, Musnad, Hadîth no. 1839, 1964, 2561, 3247.

32- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 1535; Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 3251.

33- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 1390; Muslim, Hadîth no. 531.

34- Mâlik, al-Muwatta, narration by Yahyâ, Mu'assasatu Zâyid bin Sultân, Hadîth no. 593.

35- Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 3116.

36- Concisely from Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 3/383-400
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


In his work Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm, Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ also said,

"There used to be three major Tâghût's whom people would travel to. They were al-Lât, al-Uzzâ, and the other, third one Manât. All three were specific to one city of the Arabs. Al-Lât belonged to the people of at-Tâ'if. It is mentioned that he was actually a righteous man who kneaded mushed wheat for the pilgrims. When he died, they devoted themselves to his grave. As for al-Uzzâ, it belonged to the people of Makkah and was close to Arafât. There was a tree there which they used to slaughter next to and invoke. As for Manât, it belonged to the people of Madînah and was situated opposite to Qadîd, in the coast area.

Whoever wants to learn the state of the polytheists regarding their worship of idols and wants to learn the nature of polytheism and its types which Allâhu Taâlâ condemned, so that the commentary of the Qur'ân is clarified for him, then he should look at the Sîrah of the Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, the state of the Arabs in his era, and what was mentioned by al-Azraqî in Akhbâru Makkah and by other scholars.

The polytheists had a tree which they would hang their weapons upon and call Dhâtu Anwât. Some people said, "O Messenger of Allâh! Appoint for us a Dhâtu Anwât, just as they have a Dhâtu Anwât!" The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Allâh is the Greatest! Verily, it is the habitual practice! You will follow the tracks of those before you."37

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam rebuked their mere imitation of the disbelievers regarding attaining a tree they would devote themselves around while hanging their weapons on. Then what is the case of that which is a greater calamity than this which is resembling Shirk per se!"38

Until Shaykh'ul Islâm said,

"Some of these places are found in Damascus, in example, the mosque -until Allâh destroyed it39- that was called Masjid'ul Kaff, which is claimed to be the palm of Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh.40 There are many places as such in most cities. There are many places as such found in the Hijaz."

The words by Shaykh'ul Islâm have ended.41

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy upon you! Ponder upon this Imâm's words regarding al-Lât, al-Uzzâ and Manât! Ponder upon him rendering this identical to what is done from this scope in Damascus and other cities! Also ponder and reflect upon the words by the Imâm regarding the Hadîth of Dhât-u Anwât, for it is very beneficial.

Shaykh'ul Islâm Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said regarding the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And that upon which a name of other than Allâh has been invoked." (al-Baqarah, 2/173)

"The apparent meaning of this verse is that it does not make a difference whether the name is uttered or not, if the slaughter is done in the name of other than Allâh, then it is as such. The impermissibility of the meat of an animal slaughtered in this manner is more apparent than the impermissibility of an animal slaughtered for its meat in the name of the Messiah and the like. Just as what we slaughter to get closer to Allâh is purer than what we slaughter while mentioning the name of Allâh, for its meat. This is because worshipping Allâh through prayer and sacrifice is greater than seeking help from the name of Allâh in the beginning of affairs.

Worshipping other than Allâh is graver in Kufr compared to seeking help from other than Him. Thus, if an animal is slaughtered to other than Allâh to get closer to him, the meat of this sacrifice will be impermissible, this is the case even if he says Bismillâh like a group of the hypocrites of this Ummah do. If these people are apostates, their slaughter is impermissible in every condition. But in this case, two obstacles have come together in this sacrifice. Slaughtering to the Jinn that is performed in Makkah and other places is from this genre."

The words by Shaykh'ul Islâm have ended.42

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy upon you! Ponder upon these statements by Shaykh'ul Islâm and he clearly stating that whoever from this nation slaughters in the name of other than Allâh is an apostate Kâfir and that his slaughter is impermissible since this sacrifice combines two obstacles, the first being that it is the slaughter of an apostate -and the slaughter of the apostate is impermissible with consensus-, and the second being that is slaughtered in the name of other than Allâh! Allâh prohibited this in His statement,

"Say: I do not find in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be carrion, blood spilled out, the flesh of swine for that surely is impure or, there be an animal slaughtered sinfully by invoking on it the name of other than Allâh." (al-An'âm, 6/145)

Also ponder upon Shaykh'ul Islâm's statement! "Slaughtering to the Jinn that is performed in Makkah and other places is from this genre." And Allâh knows best!




37- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 2180.

38- Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm, 2/156-158.

39- Allâhu Taâlâ allotted the virtue of destroying this idol to Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh. (al-Jâmi'u li Sîrati Shaykh'il Islâm Ibni Taymiyyah Khilâli Sab'ati Qurûn, p. 148-149)

40- This sentence is found in the copies of Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm and ad-Durar'us Saniyyah in the following manner, "the Mosque that was called Masjid'ul Kaff, wherein a sculpture of a hand that was claimed to be the palm of Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh was found."

41- Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm, 2/164.

42- Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm, 2/64-65.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


Chapter

[Statements by Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh from the Hanbalî Scholars Regarding Declaring Takfîr upon Those Who Commit Major Shirk]

In the chapter regarding repentance found in his Sharh'ul Manâzil, Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said, "As for Shirk, then it is two types: Major and minor. As for major Shirk, it is not forgiven by Allâh unless one repents from it. Major Shirk is to adopt a partner other than Allâh and to love it just as he loves Allâh. Moreover, the majority of them have more love for their deities than they have love for Allâh, and when one of their Ma'bûds or deities from amongst the chiefs is degraded, they will become more furious than when they get furious at someone who degrades the Lord of the worlds. We and others have witnessed this publicly. You would see one of them mentioning his deity and his Ma'bûd besides Allâh on his tongue, when he is standing, sitting, stumbling, and frightened. This polytheist does not deny this either. This polytheist deems his deity and Ma'bûd as [a gateway to attain] what he wants from Allâh an as an intercessor in Allâh's sight. The idolaters are like this, they are the same. This value is what settled in their hearts. The polytheists inherited this from each other in accordance with the variety of their deities. Some of these polytheists have deities from stone, and some adopted people as deities. Narrating from the predecessors of these polytheists, Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And those who take Awliyâ (pl. Walî; saints) besides Him (say): We only worship them that they may bring us near to Allâh. Verily, Allâh will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allâh does not guide he who is a disbelieving liar." (az-Zumar, 39/3)

This is the state of those who adopt a Walî other than Allâh deeming that it will bring them closer to Allâh. How few are free from this! Moreover, how few are those who do not show hostility to those who oppose them? The notion found in the hearts of these polytheists and their predecessors that their deities will intercede on their behalf in the sight of Allâh is Shirk per se. In His Book, Allâh disapproved them and abolished this, and informed that intercession in its entirety is only His, Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Say: Invoke those you have claimed (as gods) besides Him, for they do not possess the (ability to) remove harm from you, nor to change it." (al-Isrâ, 17/56)

Also, the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Say: Call upon those whom you claim (to be your gods) beside Allâh. They do not possess (anything) even to the measure of a particle, neither in the heavens nor in the earth. They have no contribution at all in either of the two, nor is any of them a helper for Him (Allâh). And intercession does not benefit with Him except for one whom He permits." (Saba, 34/22-23)

The Qur'ân is full of the likes of this verse. However, most people are unaware that the event falls under this and that it encompasses it. They think that it is regarding a nation of the past that did not leave an heir behind. This is what intervenes between the heart and comprehending the Qur'ân. As Umar Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh said,

"When those who do not know the days of ignorance are brought up in Islâm, the knots of Islâm will be undone one by one."43

The reason behind this is that when a person does not know Shirk and what the Qur'ân condemns and rebukes, he will fall into it, affirm it and he will not know that what he is upon is what the people of ignorance. With this, the knots of Islâm are unravelled. The good becomes reprehensible and the reprehensible becomes the good, innovations become the Sunnah and the Sunnah becomes an innovation, one becomes a Kâfir due to pure faith and purifying Tawhîd and becomes an innovator due to purely following the Messenger and departing from desires and innovations! Whoever possesses insight and a living heart will see this with his eyes. Thus, help is only sought from Allâh!"44

"From the types of Major Shirk is to demand what is needed from the deceased, seek aid from them, and turn towards them. This is the essence of Shirk found in the universe. For verily, the deed of the deceased is severed. The deceased possesses neither harm nor benefit for his own self, let alone those who seek rescue from him or ask him to intercede with Allâh for him regarding this. This is due to a person's ignorance with regards to both the intercessor and the one who is interceded in the presence of Allâh. For in the presence of Allâhu Taâlâ, none is able to intercede without Allâh's permission.

Allâh did not make asking from other than Him a reason for intercession. Rather, the perfection of Tawhîd is the reason for Allâh's permission for intercession. This polytheist came with a reason that hinders the permission. The deceased is in need of the one who prays for him. Likewise, the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam instructed us when we visit the graves of Muslims to ask mercy for them and ask well-being and forgiveness for them.45

Subsequently, the polytheists opposed this; visited the graves in a manner of worship and adopted the graves of the deceased worshipped idols. Therefore, the polytheists combined associating partners with the Ma'bûd, changing His religion, showing hostility to the people of Tawhîd, and accusing them of degrading the deceased. Meanwhile they degrade the Creator by ascribing partners to Him, and degraded His monotheist allies who did not ascribe any partners to Him by criticizing them and being hostile towards them. They have also degraded those whom they ascribed as partners to Allâh in the utmost manner, since they thought they pleased their deities with this Shirk they commit and that their deities have commanded them to do so.

It is these who are the enemies of the messengers in every era and place. How many are those who have responded to them! How excellent did Allâh's close friend Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm say in the verse,

"Keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols. My Lord, indeed they have led astray many among the people." (Ibrâhîm, 14/35-36)

Nobody has been saved from the trap of this Major Shirk, except for those who have devoted Tawhîd exclusively for Allâh and comes close to Allâh by detesting the polytheists." End quote from Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh.46

May Allâh have mercy upon you! Ponder upon the words by this Imâm! Ponder upon him clearly stating that whoever invokes the deceased, turns towards them and seeks aid from them so that they intercede in the presence of Allâh for him has committed Major Shirk which Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was sent to oppose and to declare Takfîr upon the one who does not repent from it, kill and show enmity to him! Also ponder upon him clearly stating that this occurred in his era, that these people have changed the religion of the Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and that they showed enmity to the people of Tawhîd who command sincerely devoting worship to Allâh Alone who has no partners!

Also, ponder upon his statement! "How few are free from this! Moreover, how few are those who do not show hostility to those who oppose them?"

Once you ponder upon this, by the will of Allâhu Taâlâ, this will become clear for you.

However, may Allâhu Taâlâ guide you to your maturity, ponder upon his statement,

"Nobody has been saved from the trap of this Major Shirk, except for those who show enmity to the polytheists for Allâh." Until the end of his statement. Once you ponder upon this, it will be clarified to you that Islâm will only be upright by showing enmity to the people of this Shirk. If a person does not show enmity to them, even if he does not commit Shirk, then he is from the people of Shirk. And Allâh knows best.




43- With similar wording in Ibnu Abî Shaybah, al-Musannaf, Dâru Kunûz Ishbîliyâ, Hadîth no. 34651; al-Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, Hadîth no. 8318.

44- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâr'ul Kitâb'il Arabî, 1/348-352.

45- Muslim, Hadîth no. 963.

46- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâr'ul Kitâb'il Arabî, 1/353-354.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


In his book Zâd'ul Ma'âd fî Hadyi Khayr'il Ibâd, while talking about the expedition of Taif and the juristic points found therein, Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahmatullâhi Alayh said,

"From the juristic points therein is that it is impermissible to leave the places of Shirk and the Tâghût even for a day, after being capable of destroying and eliminating it. This is because these places are from the distinguishing marks of Kufr and Shirk and are from the greatest of the reprehensible actions. If there is the capability of demolishing such places, it is absolutely impermissible to leave them.

This is the ruling regarding the Mashhads constructed over graves, which people adopt as idols and Tâghûts worshipped besides Allâh, and the stones that they turn to revere, seek blessings from, vow to, and kiss. It is impermissible to leave any of these on the face of the earth when there is the capability to eradicate it. Most of these places are in the rank of al-Lât, al-Uzzâ, and the other, the third Manât, or are even graver in the Shirk committed near them or with them. Help is only sought from Allâh.

None of the followers of these Tâghûts believed that these Tâghûts created, provided sustenance, gave life, or killed. In the presence of the Tâghût and with them, they only did what their brethren from the Mushrikûn do today in the presence of their Tâghût.

Thus, the Mushrikûn nowadays followed the path of the Mushrikûn before themselves, followed their path step by step and adopted the same course inch by inch, handspan by handspan.

Due to the appearance of ignorance and concealment of knowledge, Shirk prevailed over most of the souls. Thus, the good became reprehensible and the reprehensible became good, innovations became Sunnah and the Sunnah became innovation. The youth grew upon this and the elderly grew old on this. The signs were obliterated, the strangeness of Islâm intensified, the scholars decreased, the feeble-minded ones increased, the affair became critical, the sorrow intensified, and the mischief appeared on land and sea because of what people have earned with their hands.

However, a group from the Muhammadî Ummah will always stand upright and wage jihad against the people of Shirk and innovation until Allâh will make someone the heir to this world and those upon it - and He is the best of the inheritors.

The permissibility for the Imâm to spend the wealth going to these Mashhads and the Tâghûts in the way of jihad and the benefits of the Muslims, is also from the juristic points therein. Just as the Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam took al-Lât's wealth and gave it to Abû Sufyân to conciliate his heart and also paid off the debts of Urwa and al-Aswad with it. Likewise is the ruling of their endowments. This is because their endowments and the endowments endowed to them are invalid and the wealth is in vain, since endowments are only valid when it is done in order to get closer to Allâh. This is an issue that none of the Imâms of Islâm and those who follow their path oppose. And Allâh knows best."

The speech by Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ ends here.47

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy on you, ponder upon this speech! Ponder upon him clearly stating in these words that what is done near the Mashhads and domes that are upon the graves found in many towns is the very Major Shirk committed by the Mushrikûn, and that most of these are in the rank of al-Lât, al-Uzzâ and Manât, rather, it being a greater Shirk than the Shirk of the people of al-Lât, al-Uzzâ and Manât! Also ponder upon him clearly stating that they committed the deeds of the Mushrikûn and that they followed their path step by step! Again, ponder upon his following statement! "Due to the appearance of ignorance and concealment of knowledge, Shirk prevailed over most of the souls."

And Allâh knows best.




47- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Zâd'ul Ma'âd, Atâ'ât'ul Ilm, 3/634-635.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh Regarding the Tatar]

When asked about fighting the Tatars although they held onto the two testimonies and claimed that they were from the followers of the essence of Islâm48, Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Dîn Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"Every group consisting of these people or others who refrain from adhering to the apparent mass-transmitted Shar'î rulings of Islâm; it is obligatory to fight against them until they adhere to (all) the Shar'î rulings of Islâm, even though they utter the two testimonies and adhere to some of the Shar'î rulings, just as Abû Bakr and the companions Radiyallâhu Anhum fought against those who withheld the Zakâh. The jurists after them also agreed upon this issue. Alongside this, there was previously a debate between Umar and Abû Bakr Radiyallâhu Anhumâ. Thus, the companions concurred upon fighting for the rights of Islâm, acting upon the Book and the Sunnah.

Likewise, the Hadîth from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam concerning the Khawârij and his command to fight against them is established through ten aspects. He also mentioned that they are the evilest of the creation and evilest in characteristic. Alongside this, the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"You will despise your prayer compared to their prayer and your fast compared to their fast."49

Thus, it is known that merely adhering to Islâm without adhering to its Shar'î rulings does not abolish fighting. Fighting is obligatory until the religion belongs solely to Allâh and there is no more Fitnah (Shirk). When the religion is for other than Allâh, fighting is obligatory.

For this reason, whichever refraining group refrains from some of the prescribed prayers, fasting, or Hajj, or refrains from adhering to the impermissibility of blood, wealth, intoxicants, fornication, gambling, incest, or refrains from adhering to waging Jihâd against the Kuffâr, taking Jizyah from the people of the book, or refrains from adhering to the obligations of the religion or its prohibitions -which there is no excuse for those who deny or leave it and the person who denies them enter Kufr...

Even if this refraining group admits these, they will be fought against because of them. This is a matter that I do not know to be disputed among the scholars. The scholars only disagreed as to whether or not the refraining group will be fought against when they persist on abandoning some of the Sunan, like the two units of prayer before Fajr, -according to those who do not see them obligatory- the Adhân and Iqâmah, and the likes from the distinguishing marks of Islâm.

As for the aforementioned obligations, prohibitions, and what is similar, there is no disagreement with regards to fighting them for refraining from them. According to the verifiers from the scholars, such people are not in the same rank as the rebels who revolt against the Imâm or leave his obedience, such as the case of the people of Shâm in the eyes of Amîr'ul Mu'minîn Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh. This is because the people of Shâm had left the obedience of a particular Imâm or had rebelled to abolish his authority.

However, regarding leaving Islâm, this mentioned group is in the same rank as those who withheld the Zakâh and the Khawârij with whom Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh fought against.50 For this reason, the conduct of Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh is divided between his war against the people of Basra and the people of Shâm and his war against the people of Nahrawân. His conduct towards the people of Basrah and Shâm is the conduct of a brother with his brother, and his conduct towards the Khawârij was contrary to this. The textual proofs narrated from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam upon which the consensus of the companions is fixed regarding as-Siddîq Radiyallâhu Anh fighting against those who withheld the Zakâh and Alî Radiyallâhu Anh fighting against the Khawârij, are established."

The statements by Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Dîn Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ end here.51

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy on you! Ponder upon this Imâm clearly stating in this verdict that anyone who refrains from one of the apparent Shar'î rulings of Islâm, such as the five daily prayers, fasting, Zakâh or Hajj, or renounces the impermissibility of impermissible acts such as adultery, the unlawfulness of taking (shedding) blood and property, drinking alcohol, intoxicants, or other than that; it is obligatory to fight against the group that refrains from this until the religion belongs solely to Allâh and they adhere to all of the Shar'i rulings of Islâm, even though they utter the two testimonies of faith and adhere to certain Shar'î rulings of Islâm alongside this!

Ponder upon him clearly stating that this is a matter on which the jurists of other groups, the companions and those after them, agreed upon, and that this is acting upon the Book and the Sunnah!

Thus, it becomes clear to you that merely clinging to Islâm without adhering to its Shar'î rulings does not abolish waging war and that they will be fought against due to their Kufr and them leaving Islâm! Just as the Shaykh clearly states in the end of his verdict with the following words,

"According to the verifiers from the scholars, such people are not in the same rank as the rebels who revolt against the Imâm. Rather, regarding leaving Islâm, they are in the same rank as those who withheld the Zakâh."

And Allâh knows best!




48- Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said regarding the state of the Tatar,

"The army of these people (the Mongols) inquired about includes a group from the Kuffâr consisting of Christians and Mushrikûn, as well as a group who ascribes themselves to Islâm, and they form the majority of their army. The group who ascribes themselves to Islâm pronounce the two testimonies if required and they extol the Messenger. Only a small minority of them prays and more of them fast during Ramadhân in relation to those who pray. In their eyes, a Muslim is greater than others, and in their eyes, the righteous Muslims have a higher rank. They have some Islâm and differ in relation to it. However, what most of them are upon and what most fight for consists of abandoning many or most of the Shar'î rulings of Islâm. For verily, they first oblige Islâm but do not fight those who leave it, rather, they honour and leave whoever fights for the Mongol state, even if he is a Kâfir who is an enemy of Allâh and His Messenger. They deem lawful to fight against those who oppose the Mongol state or rebel against it, even if he is of the best of Muslims. They do not wage Jihâd against the Kuffâr, nor do they enjoin the Jizyah and humility to the Ahl'ul Kitâb. They do not forbid any of their soldiers from worshipping whatever he likes, whether it is the sun, the moon, or something else. On the contrary, what is apparent from their conduct is that in their sight, the Muslim has the status of a just person, a righteous person, or a person who does voluntary deeds among the Muslims, and in their sight, the Kâfir has the status of a corrupt person among the Muslims or he has the status of a person who leaves the voluntary deeds. Likewise, the majority of them do not regard the blood and wealth of the Muslims unlawful, unless that their sultan forbids them from it. Meaning, they do not adhere to leaving off the blood and wealth of the Muslims, and if their sultan forbids them from it or from something else, they will obey him because he is the sultan, not because of the sole religion. The majority of them do not adhere to performing the obligatory duties; neither the prayer, nor the Zakâh, or the Hajj, or other than that. Similarly, they do not adhere to judging amongst themselves with the laws of Allâh, rather, they judge with their rules which agree with Islâm on some points while disagreeing on others." (Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 28/504-505)

49- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 5058, 6931; Muslim, Hadîth no. 1064.

50- In the following pages of the letter, Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said,

"For verily, the Ummah has agreed upon criticizing the Khawârij and ascribing them to misguidance. The Ummah only disagreed regarding declaring Takfîr upon the Khawârij. There are two well-known views regarding this in the Madhhab of Mâlik and Ahmad. There also exists a controversy regarding their Kufr in the Madhhab of ash-Shâfi'î. For this reason, according to the first method, there are two aspects within the Madhhab of Ahmad and others. The first aspect is that they are rebels.

The second aspect is that they are Kuffâr like the Murtaddûn, that it is permissible to kill them firsthand, kill their prisoners, and following those who flee. Whoever among them is overpowered, then he is asked to repent just like the Murtad; if he repents, he repents, otherwise he is killed. Similarly, will those who fight against the Imam in order to withhold the Zakâh while affirming its obligation enter Kufr? There are two narrations in the Madhhab of Ahmad with this regard.

All these clarify that as-Siddîq Radiyallâhu Anh's fight against those who withheld the Zakâh and Alî Radiyallâhu Anh's fight against the Khawârij does not resemble the fight that occurred on the days of Jamal and Siffîn. This is because the statements by Alî Radiyallâhu Anh and others regarding the Khawârij encompasses them not being Kuffâr like those who apostate from the essence of Islâm. This is what was narrated from the Imâms such as Ahmad and others. Alongside this, their ruling does not resemble the ruling of those who fought in Jamal and Siffîn. Rather, they are a third category. This is the most correct of the three views regarding the Khawârij." (Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 28/518)

51- Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 28/502-504.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh Regarding Those Who Withheld the Zakâh]

At the end of his words regarding the Kufr of those who withheld the Zakâh, Shaykh Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"The companions did not say, "Do you affirm the obligation of Zakâh or do you reject it?" It was not reported from the companions that they enjoined this by no means, rather, as-Siddîq said to Umar Radiyallâhu Anhumâ,

"By Allâh, even if they withhold from me a she-kid they used to give to the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, I will fight them for withholding it."52

As-Siddîq Radiyallâhu Anh made what permits fighting, them solely withholding the Zakâh, not denying its obligation. It was narrated that groups from them would affirm the obligation of Zakâh, but they forsook it. Nevertheless, the conduct of the caliphs towards them was one conduct, which was to kill their warriors, take their children captive, take their wealth as booty, and to witness that those who were killed from them are in hell-fire. They also named all of them the people of apostasy.

One of the greatest virtues of as-Siddîq Radiyallâhu Anh in the sight of the companions is that Allâh made him firm in fighting against these people. As-Siddîq did not pause as others did, so much so that he debated them until they turned to as-Siddîq's view.

As for the war waged against those who affirm the prophethood of Musaylimah, no dispute occurred regarding waging war against them and this is a proof for those who say, "If those who withhold the Zakâh wage war against the Imam for this, they enter Kufr, otherwise they will not." For verily, contrary to those who do not wage war against the Imam for this, their Kufr and them being included with the people of apostasy is established with the concurrence of the companions based on the textual proofs of the Book and the Sunnah. This is because it is narrated in the Sahîh that it was said to the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, "Ibnu Jamîl withheld (the Zakâh)." The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Ibnu Jamîl being poor and Allâh making him wealthy was what made Ibnu Jamîl dislike giving the Zakâh!"53

The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam did not order the killing of Ibnu Jamîl nor did he rule his Kufr. In addition, the following Hadîth narrated in the Sunan from Bahz bin Hakîm, from his father, from his grandfather, from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he said,

"Whoever withholds the Zakâh from us, we will take it from him and take half of his camels."53

End quote.

Ponder upon the Shaykh's statements and him clearly stating that the group that refuses to give Zakâh to the Imam, will be fought against, that they will be ruled with Kufr and apostacy from Islâm, that their offspring will be taken captive, and their property will be taken as booty, even if they affirm the obligation of Zakâh, pray the five daily prayers, and acted in accordance with all of the Islâmic Shar'î rulings other than giving the Zakâh!

Ponder upon his clear statement that this does not abolish waging war against them and ruling them with Kufr and apostasy, and that this is affirmed with the Book, Sunnah, and the agreement of the companions Radiyallâhu Anhum!

And Allâh knows best!




52- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 1399, 1456, 6924.

53- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 1468; Muslim, Hadîth no. 983.

54- An-Nasâ'î, Hadîth no. 2449; with similar wording in Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 1575.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Statements by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh Regarding Those Who Revile Allâh and His Messenger]

In his book as-Sârim'ul Maslûl alâ Shâtim'ir Rasûl, the Shaykh Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"Imâm Ishâq bin Râhwayh, one of the Imams equal to ash-Shâfi'î and Ahmad, said, "The Muslims have consensus that anyone who reviles Allâh or His Messenger or rejects something Allâh revealed is a Kâfir due to this action, even if he affirms everything Allâh revealed."55

Muhammad bin Sahnûn, one of the Imâms from Mâlik's Ashâb, said, "The scholars have consensus that the reviler of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam is a Kâfir, that his ruling is death according to the Imâms, and that the one who doubts his Kufr has committed Kufr."56 57

"Ibn'ul Mundhir said, "The generality of the people of knowledge have consensus that the one who reviles the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam deserves death."58

Imâm Ahmad said that the one who reviles the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam will be killed. When asked if there was Ahadîth regarding this, he said, "Yes, the Hadîth of the blind man who killed the woman and Ibnu Umar's statement is of them, "Whoever reviles the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam is killed."

Umar bin Abd'il Azîz also stated that this person will be killed.59

In the narration of Abdullâh, Imâm Ahmad said, "He is not asked to repent, since Khâlid Ibn'ul Walîd killed a man who reviled the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and did not ask him to repent."

End quote.60

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy on you! Ponder upon the statement by Ishâq bin Râhwayh! Ponder upon him narrating consensus that whoever reviles Allâh or His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam or rejects something Allâh revealed is a Kâfir, even if he affirms everything Allâh revealed! When you ponder upon this, it will be clarified for you that whoever reviles Allâhu Taâlâ or His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam by tongue is a Kâfir and has committed apostasy from Islâm, even if he confirms everything Allâh has revealed and even if he uttered it in a mocking manner without intending its meaning in his heart.

Just as ash-Shâfi'î Radiyallâhu Anh said, "Whoever mocks one of the verses of Allâh is a Kâfir."51

That being the case, what is to be said about mocking Allâhu Taâlâ or His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam by reviling them? This is why Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Dîn said,

"Our Ashâb (the Hanbalîs) and others said, "Whoever reviles Allâh jokingly or seriously commits Kufr. This is due to the statement of Allâh in the verse,

"Say: Is it Allâh and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking? Make no excuse; you have disbelieved (i.e., rejected faith) after your belief." (at-Tawbah, 9/65-66)

Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Dîn said, "This is the absolute correct view."

End quote.62

As for the meaning of the following statement by Ishâq Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ, "or rejects something Allâh revealed."

This is rejecting and refusing what Allâh revealed in His Book or upon the tongue of His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam consisting of what is prescribed, obligated, the Sunnah, or recommended after knowing that Allâh revealed it in His book or His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam commanded or prohibited it. So, if one rejects these after knowing them, then he is a Murtad Kâfir, even if he affirms everything Allâh revealed consisting of the Shar'î rulings save those which he rejected and denied because they opposed his desires or the customs of the people of his town.

This is the meaning of the statement by the scholars, may Allâh be pleased with them, "whoever rejects a subsidiary issue which there is consensus upon has committed Kufr."63 If the one who denies the prohibition of eating with the left hand64 or the prohibition of Isbâl of clothing (letting the garment come below the ankles out of pride)65 after knowing that the Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited from these is a Murtad Kâfir even if he is from those who worship the most and the most ascetic, then what is the circumstance of one who denies devoting worship sincerely to Allâh alone and devoting invoking, seeking rescue, vowing, placing trust, and other kinds of worship sincerely to Allâh that only befit Allâh alone and nothing of it befits a close angel nor a sent prophet; which Allâh sent all His messengers and revealed all His books to understand and act upon; and that which is the meaning of La Ilaha Illallâh, the most major sign of Islâm?

Whoever rejects this, hates it, reviles it, reviles its people, and labels them Khawârij is a true Kâfir who must be fought against until the religion is solely for Allâh with the consensus of all Muslims.

And Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ knows best.




55- Ibnu Abd'il Barr, al-Istidhkâr, 2/150.

56- Al-Qâdhî Iyâdh, ash-Shifâ, 2/476.

57- Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Sârim'ul Maslûl alâ Shâtim'ir Rasûl, p. 3-4.

58- Ibn'ul Mundhir, al-Ishrâf, 8/60, no. 5187.

59- Umar bin Abd'il Azîz stated that nobody will be killed for reviling someone other than the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam. (Ibnu Abd'il Hakam, Sîratu Umar bin Abd'il Azîz, p. 146)

60- Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Sârim'ul Maslûl alâ Shâtim'ir Rasûl, p. 3-5.

61- Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Sârim'ul Maslûl alâ Shâtim'ir Rasûl, p. 513.

62- Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Sârim'ul Maslûl alâ Shâtim'ir Rasûl, p. 513.

63- Taqiyy'ud Dîn as-Subkî stated that this principle is regarding matters that are known in the religion by necessity and said,

"Some of the Usûliyyûn (scholars specializing in the fundamentals of jurisprudence) said: Takfîr is declared upon a person who denies a ruling upon which there is consensus, only when this ruling is known in the religion by necessity. As for issues there is consensus regarding and are not known in the religion by necessity, then Takfîr is not declared upon a person due to his denial. In example, the issue of the daughter of the son (of the deceased) receiving one-sixth (of the inheritance) with the daughter (of the deceased) is an issue upon which there is consensus, however, it is not known in the religion by necessity. Therefore, Takfîr is not declared upon the one who denies it." (Fatâwa's Subkî, 2/588)

64- Muslim, Hadîth no. 2099.

65- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 3665.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

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