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BENEFICIAL WORDS REGARDING THINGS THAT NECESSITATE KUFR | ABDULLÂH ÂL'USH SHAYKH

Started by Subul’us Salâm, 28.05.2023, 00:12

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Subul’us Salâm


Chapter

[Ibn'ul Qayyim's Statements on Adopting Graves as Places of Festivity]


Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said in his book al-Igâthah,66

"Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Do not make my grave a place of festivity!"67 68

"Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam also said,

"O Allâh! Don't make my grave a worshipped-idol! The wrath of Allâh has been severe upon those who took the graves of their prophets as mosques!"69 70

"There are such great causes of evil in adopting graves as places of festivity, that every person who has veneration and jealousy for the oneness of Allâh in his heart becomes angry because of them! However, a wound does not hurt the dead person!

One of these causes of evil is praying towards the graves, circumambulating it, kissing/touching it, and smearing the cheeks with its' soil; worshipping those in the grave; and asking those in the grave for help, sustenance, health, payment of debts, and alleviation of distresses, which are the things the idol-worshippers would ask their idols for.

Anyone who has smelled the least scent of knowledge knows that closing the roads leading to this is from the most important of things. He will also know that Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam taught the consequence of performing what he prohibited and what leads to it."71

"If Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam cursed the person who took the graves of the prophets as mosques wherein Allâh is worshiped, then what is the situation of making it a habit to visit them frequently and turning towards there?"72

"Whoever combines between the Sunnah of Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam concerning the graves, what he ordered and prohibited, and what his companions were upon and between what most of today's people are upon, will find one being the opposite of the other.

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited taking the graves as mosques73, whereas these people build mosques over graves.

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited lighting the graves74, whereas, they bequeath endowments for kindling lamps on the graves.

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited us from taking the graves as places of festivity, whereas, they take them as places of festivity.

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam ordered the graves to be leveled -as Alî Radiyallâhu Anh narrated from him in the Sahîh of Muslim-75 whereas, they raise the graves and build domes over them.

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited plastering of the graves and constructing upon them, as Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh narrated from him in the Sahîh of Muslim.76

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited writing on the graves, as was narrated by at-Tirmidhî on the authority of Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh while stating that the Hadîth is authentic.77

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited the addition of other than its soil on the graves, as was narrated by Abû Dâwûd on the authority of Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh.78

Whereas, they put stones on the graves and write Qur'ân on these stones. They add plaster, bricks, and stones on top of its soil."79

"The affair became such for these deviated polytheists that they devised a pilgrimage to the graves. In this regard, they authored a book called "Manâsiku Hajj'il Mashâhid (the Pilgrimage Rites of the Mashhads)".83 It is not obscure that this is leaving the religion of Islâm and entering the religion of the idol-worshippers. Look at the grand difference between what the Rasûl prescribed for his nation and what these people prescribed!"81

"The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam commanded visiting the graves because they remind the hereafter. Again, he ordered the visitor to pray for those in the grave and forbade them of speaking ill."82

"This is visiting the graves that Allâh permitted for the nation of Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and taught it to them! Do you find therein anything that the people of Shirk and innovations rely on? Or do you find it contrary to what the people of Shirk and innovations are on in every aspect?

How nice is the statement by Imâm Mâlik! "Nothing can correct the latter part of this nation except for the thing that corrected its beginning!"83

However, as the adherence of the nations to the covenants of their prophets weakens, they replaced it with what they came up with, consisting of innovations and Shirk. The righteous Salaf isolated Tawhîd and protected its part. So much so that when one of them would greet the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and then wanted to supplicate, they would turn their backs to the grave of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and then supplicate. There are textual evidences from the four Imâms that a person will turn towards the Qiblah to supplicate and -because supplication is worship- he will not supplicate near the grave.

In short, the deeds of the deceased were cut off. So he is needy of someone to supplicate for him. For this reason, while praying upon him, supplications were prescribed for the deceased that were not prescribed for the living. The purpose of the prayer performed over the deceased is to ask forgiveness for him and supplicate for him. After the burial, the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam would stand by the grave and say, "Ask perseverance for the deceased, because he is currently being questioned."84

The people of innovations and Shirk, substituted another word for the one that was prescribed for them. They substituted supplicating for the deceased with supplicating to the deceased. They substituted interceding for the deceased with asking the deceased for intercession. They substituted visiting, which was prescribed as acting kindly to the deceased [and for the visitor], to asking the deceased, approaching Allâh with them, specifying this region with supplication, which is the essence of worship, and being more present and having more awe in the heart than in the mosque."85




66- The name of this work authored by Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh is Ighâthat'ul Luhafân fî Masâyid'ish Shaytân. It was published in English with the title: Supporting the Distressed Against the Tricks of Satan.

67- Ahmad, Musnad, Hadîth no. 8804.

68- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/347.

69- Muwatta, Mu'assasat'ur Risâlah, Hadîth no. 570, narrated by Abû Mus'ab az-Zuhrî.

70- Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/341.

71- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/350-352.

72- With similar wording, Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/349-350.

73- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 435.

74- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 320.

75- Muslim, Hadîth no. 969.

76- Muslim, Hadîth no. 970.

77- At-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no. 1052.

78- Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 3226.

79- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/353-355.

80- This book named the Pilgrimage Rites of the Mashhads was authored by an Imam of the Shî'ah, Abû Abdillâh Muhammad Ibn'un Nu'mân, who was known by the name Shaykh Mufîd. (Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 27/162; Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthath, p. 305)

81- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/357.

82- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/359-360.

83- Qâdhî Iyâdh, ash-Shifâ, Dâr'ul Fikr, 2/88.

84- Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 3221.

85- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/363-367.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[The Companions Blocking the Ways to Shirk and Innovations]

(Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"Ibnu Ishâq mentioned on the authority of Abu'l Âliyah that he said, "When we conquered Tustar, we found a bed, on which was a dead man, who had a Mushaf (book) near his head in the treasury of Hurmuzân. We carried this Mushaf (book) to Umar, who thereupon called Ka'b and he copied it in (translated it to) Arabic. I was the first man of the Arabs to have read it. I read it as I read the Qur'ân. In it was your biography, your affairs, the errors of your speech, and what is yet to come." I (the narrator Khâlid) said, "What did you do with the man?" Abu'l Âliyah said, "We dug thirteen separate graves during the day, then when night fell, we buried him and we leveled all the graves, thereby making it obscure for the people that they may not disclose him." I said, "What did they want from him?" Abu'l Âliyah said, "When the sky withheld rain from them, they would take out the bed and it would rain." I said, "Who did you think the man was?" Abu'l Âliyah said, "Danyâl." I said, "How long ago did he die?" Abu'l Âliyah said, "He died about three hundred years ago." I said, "Hasn't his body changed?" Abu'l Âliyah said, "No, except for a few hairs at the back of his head... The flesh of the prophets is not disintegrated by the earth, nor do predatory animals eat it."

In this parable is what the Muhâjirûn and Ansâr did, of obscuring his grave, so that people would not be tested with him. If the later generations had obtained him, they would have fought for him with swords and worshipped him. This is because they have taken the graves of those who are not even close to him in rank, as idols and appointed custodians for them.

The companions disapproved of what is much lesser than this. This is why Umar Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh felled the tree (of Ridhwân) under which allegiance was given to Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam."86

"When Umar saw people leaving, he inquired about that. It was said that they were praying in a mosque wherein Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam prayed in. Thereupon, Umar Radiyallâhu Anh said: Those who were before you were only destroyed by that which is similar to this. They would follow the footsteps of their prophets, and would take them as churches, and synagogues. Whoever from you enters the time of prayer while he is in these mosques, then he should pray! Whoever from you enters the time of prayer while he is not in these mosques, then he should go and not intentionally pray there!"87

Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam disapproved of the companions when they asked him for a tree which they would specifically hang their weapons upon."88

Then, Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh mentioned the Hadîth of Dhâtu Anwât (and said,)

"If the companions adopting a tree to hang weapons upon and adhering around it is taking a deity with Allâh, alongside the fact that they do not worship it or ask from it, then what is thought about offering devotion to the grave, supplicating to it, supplicating near it, and supplicating through it? What is the comparison of being tried with a tree in relation to being tried with a grave? If only the people of Shirk and innovations knew! Whoever has the slightest information regarding what Allâh sent His Messenger with and what the people of Shirk and innovations practice today regarding this field and others, will know that between the Salaf and them is a distance further than the distance between the east and the west. By Allâh, the affair is graver than what we have mentioned!

In the Sahîh of al-Bukhârî, it is narrated on the authority of Umm'ud Dardâ Radiyallâhu Anhâ that she said: "Abu'd Dardâ entered upon me in anger. I said: What's wrong? Abu'd Dardâ said, "By Allâh! I do not recognize anything of the affairs of Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam in them apart from them offering the prayer in congregation."89

End quote.90




86- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/368-371

87- Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidhâ'us Sirât'il Mustaqîm, 2/273-274.

88- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/371.

89- With similar wording, al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 650.

90- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/372-373.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[The Scholars Mentioned That Shirk Will Occur in This Nation]

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy on you, ponder upon the statements by the Shaykh Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ! Ponder upon him explicitly stating that idol worshipping occurred in his era! Ponder upon him explicitly stating -after mentioning the story of Danyâl- that the later generations who were the people of his era, took the graves of those who did not come close to him in rank, virtue, and righteousness as idols! Ponder upon him explicitly stating that the later generations who were the people of his era would fight for Danyâl with swords and worship him besides Allâh had they found him! When you ponder upon these, it will become clear to you what the majority of people are upon of worshipping other than Allâh, supplicating to them, seeking help from them in adversity, relieving distress, and delivering from sorrow, being sincere to them in worship in times of adversity, relieving of distress, and delivering from sorrow, and being sincere to them in worship in times of adversity while embarking on a ship and in other than that, which the early Mushrikûn did not do. As Allâhu Taâlâ informed about them with His statement,

"So when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allâh, having their faith purely in Him. But when He saves them (and brings them) to the land, in no time they associate others with Him." (al-Ankabût, 29/65)

Also, Allâhu Taâlâ's statement,

"Say: Tell me if the punishment of Allâh comes to you or the Hour befalls you, would you invoke other than Allâh, if you are truthful? Rather, Him alone you will invoke and if He wills, He would remove that (distress) for which you invoke Him, and you would forget those you associate with Him." (al-An'âm 6/40-41)

May Allâhu Taâlâ have mercy upon you! Ponder upon what Allâh mentioned about these polytheists sincerely devoting supplication to Him in times of adversity! Then ponder upon what I mentioned to you regarding what the polytheists do in our era! When you ponder upon these, the strangeness of Islâm that the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam brought in these times will become clear to you. If the statements of the people of knowledge and their explicit statements pertain to associating partners to Allâh prevailing and being accepted in these times... Again, if the statements of the people of knowledge and their explicit statements pertain to associating partners to Allâh prevailing over the majority of souls and the fewness of those who are saved from it; rather the fewness of those who do not have enmity towards those who disapprove of Shirk, then what do you think of this era your live in? It is well-known that the issue only increases in severity and strangeness. It is narrated in the authentic Hadîth on the authority of Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he said,

"There does not come a time except that what is after it is worse than it."

Al-Bukhârî recorded it in his Sahîh on the authority of Anas Radiyallâhu Anh.91

However, the matter is as the Shaykh Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"Whoever has the slightest information regarding what Allâh sent His Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam with and what the people of Shirk and innovations practice today regarding this field and others, will know that between the Salaf and them is a distance further than the distance between the east and the west."

This is the very tribulation which Ibnu Mas'ûd Radiyallâhu Anh said regarding,

"How will you be when a tribulation engulfs you, upon which the elderly grows old and the youth grow upon? People will adopt it as a Sunnah, and when it changes, it will be said the Sunnah was changed!"92

And Allâh knows best.




91- With similar wording, al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 7068

92- With similar wording, al-Hâkim, al-Mustadrak, Hadîth no. 8570.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[People Being Afflicted with Idols and Belomancy]

Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said,

"People have been afflicted with idols and belomancy. Idols are for Shirk, and belomancy is for seeking the knowledge possessed exclusively by Allâh. This is for knowledge and the other is for action. The religion of Allâhu Taâlâ is in contrast with both.

The companions made Danyâl's grave obscure by Umar Radiyallâhu Anh's command. When he was informed that people were afflicted with the tree under which allegiance was pledged to Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, he sent and felled it. Îsâ bin Yûnus said: We have this incident from the Hadîth of Ibnu Awn on the authority of Nâfi. If this is what he did with the tree that Allâh mentioned in the Qur'ân, and under which the companions pledged allegiance to Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, then what would Umar Radiyallâhu Anh's ruling be regarding other than it?

That which is more profound is Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam demolishing Masjid'udh Dhirâr93. In it there is evidence for the demolition of mosques that are more corrupt than it, such as those built on graves, as well as its domes. Therefore, it is obligatory to hasten to destroy what Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam cursed its perpetrator. Allâh will establish for His religion those who will support and defend it.

There were many of these idols in Damascus. Allâh Subhânahu facilitated its destruction by the hand of Shaykh'ul Islâm and the party of the Muwahhidûn. The common people would say regarding some of them, "It accepts vows!" Meaning, those idols accept worship besides Allâh! Vowing is an act of worship through which the vower draws closer to the one who he vows to.

The Salaf disapproved wiping the stone of the Maqâm (of Ibrâhîm), which Allâh commanded to take as a place of prayer. Qatâdah Rahimahullâh said regarding the verse94, "They were only commanded with praying near it; they were not commanded to wipe it. This nation burdened themselves with something the previous nations were not burdened with. Those who saw the traces of Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm's toes mentioned to us. This nation continued to wipe it until it was worn out."95

The greatest tribulation with these idols is the tribulation of those in the graves, and this is the origin of the tribulation of the idol-worshippers."96

"As Allâhu Taâlâ mentioned in Sûrah Nûh, in His statement,

"And they said: Never leave your gods and never leave Wadd, nor Suwâ, nor Yaghûth, nor Ya'ûq nor Nasr." (Nûh, 71/23)

The Salaf mentioned in its' exegeses that these were the names of righteous men in the people of Nûh. When they died, people offered devotion to the grave, then they fashioned their statues. Thereafter, a long time passed for them, and they worshipped them."97

"Venerating the righteous is only achieved by following the righteous and following what they called to, without taking their graves as places of festivity and idols! These people turned away from what was prescribed and occupied themselves with innovations!"98

"Whoever pays attention to the word of Allâh and comprehending it, this will make him needless of innovations and opinions. Whoever turns away from it must compensate for it with what does not benefit him. Just as whoever flourishes his heart with the love of Allâh, fear of Him, and relying upon Him; then this will make him needless of loving other than Him, fearing other than Him, and relying upon other than Him.

The one who turns away from the love of Allâh is a statue-worshipper, whether he likes it or not. The one who turns away from following the Sunnah is an innovator, whether he likes it or not."99




93- Al-Wâhidî, Asbâb'un Nuzûl, Dâr'ul Kutub'il Ilmiyyah, no. 527.

94- Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And (remember) when We made the House a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqâm (place) of Ibrâhîm as a place of prayer, and We commanded Ibrâhîm and Ismâ'îl that they should purify My House for those who are circumambulating it, offering devotion (I'tikâf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer)." (al-Baqarah, 2/125)

95- Al-Azraqî, Akhbâru Makkah, 2/29; at-Tabarî, Tafsîr, 2/527. Similar was stated by Muqâtil and as-Suddî Rahimahumallâh. (al-Baghawî, Tafsîr, 1/163)

96- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/379-384.

97- With similar wording and concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/330-332.

98- With similar wording Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/385-386.

99- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/386-387.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Innovations Done at the Graves and Its Types]

(Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"These innovated matters performed near the graves are of different types:

The furthest from the Sharî'ah is specifically asking the dead, which is done by many. Those who do this are of the genus of the idol worshippers. For this reason, satan may appear to them in the image of the dead, as he appears to the idol worshippers. This happens to the polytheists and the People of the Book. Likewise is prostrating to the grave, kissing it, and wiping it.

The second type is invoking Allâh with the deceased, and this is done by many of the later generations. This is an innovation by consensus.

The third type is deeming that his supplication near the deceased is answered and that supplicating near him is more virtuous than supplicating in a mosque. This is why he turns to the grave. This is also from the reprehensible deeds by consensus. I do not know a dispute concerning this among the Imâms of the religion, although many of the later generations do it."100




100- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/391-392.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Most People Are Afflicted with Idol Worship]

(Ibn'ul Qayyim Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"In summary, most of the people on earth are put to trial with the worship of idols. Only the Hunafâ, the nation of Ibrâhîm, were saved from this. Idol worshipping existed on earth before Nûh Alayh'is Salâm. Its' statues, their custodians, their doorkeepers, and books authored pertaining to their worship have pervaded the earth. The Imâm of the Hunafâ (Ibrâhîm) Alayh'is Salâm said,

"Keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols. My Lord, indeed they have led astray many among the people!" (Ibrâhîm, 14/35-36)

Sufficient in knowledge that they are the most of the inhabitants of earth is what was authentically narrated from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that from every thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine will be sent to the (hell)fire.101

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Still, most of mankind refused to do anything but disbelieve." (al-Isrâ, 17/89)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And if you obey the majority of those on earth, they will mislead you far away from Allâh's path." (al-An'âm, 6/116)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly." (Yûsuf, 12/103)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"We did not find most of them true to their covenant. Rather, We found most of them truly rebellious." (al-A'râf, 7/102)

If the tribulation with worshipping idols was not great, then its' worshipers would not have sacrificed their lives, wealth, and children for their idols. They witness the battles of their brethren and what befell them; but this does not increase them except in loving and glorifying their idols and they advise each other to be patient upon this. And Allâh knows best."102

May Allâh have mercy on you, ponder upon the Shaykh's statements regarding idols, belomancy, and domes built on graves! Ponder upon his statements regarding the obligation of hastening to destroy them! Ponder upon his statements regarding these being more harmful than the Masjid'udh Dhirâr, which Allâh said about its people,

"And (there are) those (hypocrites) who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm and disbelief and division among the believers and as a station for those who warred against Allâh and His Messenger aforetime." (at-Tawbah, 9/107)

Which Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam ordered to be demolished and burned, and which Allâh forbade his Nabî from praying in!

Also ponder upon the Shaykh's statement,

"Allâh will establish for His religion those who will support and defend it. There were many of these idols in Damascus. Allâhu Taâlâ facilitated its destruction with the hand of Shaykh'ul Islâm and the party of Allâh, the Muwahhidûn."

He intends Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Dîn Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ with the phrase Shaykh'ul Islâm. This is because he demolished many places in Damascus that the common people would worship besides Allâh, vow to, and say that they accept vows, meaning accepts worship.103 This is because vowing is a worship directed to Allâh. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"They (are those who) fulfill (their) vows." (al-Insân, 76/7)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"Whatever expenditure you spend and whatever vow you make." (al-Baqarah, 2/270)

Once you know that vowing is an act of worship and you direct it to other than Allâh, then you have associated other than Allâh in worshipping Him.




101- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 3348; Muslim, Hadîth no. 222.

102- Concisely from Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 2/976-977.

103- Many of these incidents were recorded by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh's servant Ibrâhîm bin Ahmad al-Ghayyânî Rahimahullâh in his treatise describing the demolishing of idols by his Shaykh. This treatise is found in the compilation named al-Jâmi'u li Sîrati Shaykh'il Islâm Ibni Taymiyyah Khilâli Sab'ati Qurûn.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[The Condition of Najd in the 12th Century of the Hijrah]

In this era of ours -which is the end of the 12th century after the prophetic migration- Allâh raised a person with whom He dispatched the religion of Islâm and sincerely devoting worship to Allâh alone after it had been erased. This person is the Shaykh; Imâm; Âlim; possessor of virtues, noble character, sublime traits, and pleasing sublime deeds; the reviver of the prophetic Sunnah; and the suppressor of polytheistic innovations Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb. May Allâh settle him in paradise that is the best resort, alleviate his resting place, and reward him abundantly.

Allâh aided the upright religion with him and through him, He clarified His straight path, the path of those upon whom He bestowed favor among the prophets, the truthful ones, the martyrs, and the righteous. Through him, Allâh removed Shirk and the worship of idols from the land of Najd, that was the centre of Kufr and tyranny. Allâh facilitated breaking of those idols by his hand and the hands of his followers among the Muwahhidûn and the successful party of Allâh.

Before this, in every land and town of the area of Najd there were idols and trees that were worshipped beside Allâh, which vows were made to, which sacrifices were slaughtered for, and which were venerated greater than the veneration of Allâh. Such as the tomb of Zayd Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh found in al-Jubaylah, the tree in Quraywah found in the land of ad-Dir'iyyah, another tree belonging to the people of at-Tarafiyyah, a cave called "The Cave of the Amir's Daughter" in the lower Dir'iyyah, and a tomb called al-Maghribî's Tomb...

Graver than this is their worship of Tâj and Shamsân. Whereas, they themselves bear testimony to their immorality. However, they claim that Tâj and Shamsân are saints and that sins do not harm them. They fear them greater than they fear Allâh. Among them are those who supplicate to the Jinn and sacrifice for them. In every land, there is something grave of this genre.

Allâh removed all of this with Shaykh'ul Islâm. Allâh established the proof with him against the people of his era. All those who manifested enmity to him knew Tawhîd. They affirmed that Tawhîd is the religion of Allâh and His Rasûl, and that what they were upon is associating partners with Allâh. However, this only increased them in hatred and enmity for Shaykh'ul Islâm. They strived in removing him and showing enmity to him, in every possible way. They did this because of their envy that Allâh manifested the religion at his hand. This continued until Allâh rendered Shaykh'ul Islâm victorious over them, and aided him and his followers over those who had forsaken and opposed them. This was despite the weakness of the followers of the Shaykh, their few numbers, and the strength of their enemy and their abundance.

Allâh entered all the people of Najd into Islâm, they embraced it, and their civilized and Bedouins came together upon Islâm. So, praise be to Allâh, much good and blessed praise as our Lord loves and is pleased with and as it befits the generosity of His Face and the glory of His majesty. We ask Allâh, the Great, the Beneficent, to make us steadfast upon Islâm, to not deviate our hearts after He has guided us, and to protect us from division and disagreement. Verily, He is able to do all things.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Chapter

Worship Is Based on Following, Not on Ibtidâ (Inventing)]


Shaykh Taqiyy'ud Din (Ibnu Taymiyyah) Rahimahullâhu Taâlâ said in his refutation to Ibn'ul Bakrî on the topic of Istighâtah,

"Worship is based on following, not on Ibtidâ (inventing). Therefore, no one can prescribe in the religion what Allâhu Taâlâ did not allow."104

"Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Is it that they have associate-gods who have prescribed for them a religion that is not sanctioned by Allâh?" (ash-Shûrâ, 42/21)

It is narrated in the two Sahîh's from Â'ishah Radiyallâhu Anhâ from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he said,

"Whoever invents something that is not from our affairs is rejected."105

It is mentioned in the Sahîh and other books of Hadîth,

"Allâhu Taâlâ says: I am the one who is the most unneedy of all partners. Whoever commits a deed in which he associates with Me a partner, then I am free from him, and his action is for the one he associated (to Me)."106 107

"That is why the jurists108 said: Worship is built upon Tawqîf (limitation, i.e. limited with textual evidences)."109

"As it is narrated in the two Sahîh's that Umar Radiyallâhu Anh kissed the Black Stone and said,

"By Allâh, I certainly know that you are a stone and cannot harm nor benefit. Had I not seen the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam kissing you, I would not have kissed you."110

Allâh Subhânahu commanded us to follow the Messenger, to obey him, to befriend him and to love him, and He guaranteed us His love, forgiveness, guiding us, and entering us into Paradise in return for obeying, loving, and respecting the Messenger.

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Say: If you love Allâh then follow me, Allâh will love you and forgive you of your sins." (Âl-i Imrân, 3/31)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance." (an-Nûr, 24/54)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"And whoever obeys Allâh and His Messenger will be admitted to gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), abiding eternally therein, and that will be the great success." (an-Nisâ, 4/13)

The likes of these are ample in the Qur'ân. In this regard, no one should leave the fold of what the Sunnah came with and what the Salaf of the Ummah were upon."111

"In short, we have two great foundations:

One of them is that we do not worship anyone except Allâh.

The second is that we only worship Him by means of what He legislated; we do not worship Him by means of an innovated worship.

These two foundations are the actualization of the testification that there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allâh and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allâh. Just as Allâhu Taâlâ says,

"...so that He may test you as to which of you is better in his deeds..." (al-Mulk, 67/2)

Al-Fudayl bin Iyâd said, "The deed which is the purest and best." They said, "O Abû Alî! Which deeds are the purest and best?" He said, "Verily, when the action is done with Ikhlâs yet wrongly, then it is not accepted. And when the action is done rightly yet without Ikhlâs, then it is not accepted. This condition is as such until the action is done with Ikhlâs and is done rightly. When an action is done for Allâh, then it is Khâlis/with Ikhlâs. And when it is upon the Sunnah, then it is done rightly."112

This is the actualization of the statement by Allâhu Taâlâ,

"So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (al-Kahf, 18/110)"113




104- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 106.

105- Muslim, Hadîth no: 1718; with similar wording in al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no: 2697.

106- With similar wording in Muslim, Hadîth no. 2985; Ibnu Mâjah, Hadîth no. 4202; Ibnu Khuzaymah, Sahîh, Hadîth no. 938.

107- Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/334.

108- This principle was accepted by the jurists from the four Madhâhib. See: From the Hanafî's Ibnu Mawdûd al-Mawsilî, al-Ikhtiyâr li Ta'lîl'il Mukhtâr, 1/101; from the Mâlikî's az-Zurqânî, Hâshiyatun ala'l Muwatta, 1/526; from the Shâfi'îs Ibnu Hajar, Fath'ul Bârî, 2/80; from the Hanbalî's Ibnu Aqîl, al-Wâdhih fî Usûl'il Fiqh, 1/86.

109- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 117.

110- With similar wording in al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no: 1610; Muslim, Hadîth no: 1270.

111- Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/334-335.

112- Ibnu Abi'd Dunyâ, al-Ikhlâs wa'n Niyyah, p. 51, Hadîth no. 22; Abû Nu'aym, al-Hilyah, 8/95; Ibn'ul Qayyim, Madârij'us Sâlikîn, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/129-130.

113- Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/333.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Asking Allâh by the Sake of His Creation Is Impermissible]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"Asking Allâh through His Names and Attributes was conveyed in the Sunnah. Therefore, it is said,

"I ask You, as praise belongs to You! There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except You alone, al-Mannân (the Bestower)! The creator of the heavens and the earth, O owner of majesty, O Living and Everlasting One!"114 "I ask You, since You are Allâh, there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except You! You are One, the Self-Sufficient! You are the One who never had offspring, nor are You born, and there is none comparable unto You!"115

Also, the statement by the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, "O Allâh, I ask you by the glory of Your throne, by the utmost limit of the mercy found in Your Book, by Your greatest name, Your exalted glory, and Your perfect words."116

However, there are two views amongst the scholars regarding the permissibility of invoking with this second supplication.

Shaykh Abu'l Hasan al-Qudûrî said, "Bishr Ibn'ul Walîd said: I heard Abû Yûsuf say: Abû Hanîfah Rahimahullâh said, "It is inappropriate for anyone to supplicate to Allâh by other than Him. I also dislike saying, "I supplicate to You by the glory of Your throne" or "for the sake of Your creation." This is also the opinion of Abû Yûsuf.

Abû Yûsuf said, "What is meant by the glory of Your throne is Allâh, so I do not dislike this. However, I dislike asking "for the sake of so-and-so," "for the sake of Your prophets and messengers," "for the sake of the House (Ka'bah) and al-Mash'ar'ul Harâm."

Al-Qudûrî said, "Asking Allâh by the sake of His creation is impermissible, since the creation do not have a right over the Creator, thus, this is impermissible, meaning, this is impermissible by agreement."117

Al-Buldujî said in Sharh'ul Mukhtâr, "Supplicating to Allâh by other than Him is disliked. Thus, "I ask You for the sake of so-and-so," "for the sake of Your angels," "for the sake of Your prophets," and the likes shouldn't be said. This is because the creation do not have a right over the Creator. It is also disliked for a person to say in his invocation, "by the glory of Your throne." It was narrated from Abû Yûsuf that this is permissible."118

I say, "This is from Abû Hanîfah, Abû Yûsuf, and others! These statements encompass the prohibition of asking Allâhu Taâlâ by the sake of other than Him."119

"As for asking a deceased or absent, -whether it be a prophet or other than a prophet- this is from the rejected prohibitions by agreement of the Imâms of the Muslims, it was not commanded by Allâhu Taâlâ or His Rasûl Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, none from the Sahâbah or those who followed them with excellence did this, and it was not recommended by anyone from the Imâms of the Muslims. This is known by necessity in the religion of Islâm. For, none of them would say to a deceased when a shortcoming befell them or when a need befell them, "My master so-and-so, I am under your guardianship" or "fulfill my needs," as some of these polytheists say to those whom they invoke from the dead and absent.

None of the companions sought aid from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam after his death or from any other prophet, they did not do this when they were near the graves of the prophets or when they were far away. They would not go to the graves of the prophets to invoke, nor would they pray near them."120

"When the people were afflicted with drought in the era of Umar Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh, he went out with Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anh to the prayer of rain and did Tawassul (mediation) through Abbâs's invocation and said,

"O Allâh! When we suffered from drought, we used to do Tawassul through our Nabî and You would give us rain. We now do Tawassul to You through the uncle of our Nabî, so give us rain!" Thereafter, they were given rain, as is affirmed in Sahîh'ul Bukhârî.121 122

"Likewise, when Mu'âwiyah Radiyallâhu Anh went out with the people of Damascus for the prayer of rain, he did Tawassul through Yazîd Ibn'ul Aswad al-Jurashî.123

This is the Tawassul mentioned by Umar Radiyallâhu Anh done through the invocation of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and his intercession during his life time! This is why, after the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, they did Tawassul through the invocation of al-Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anh and the invocation of Yazîd Ibn'ul Aswad Radiyallâhu Anh.

This is what the jurists mentioned in the book of the prayer of rain. The jurists said, "It is recommended to perform the prayer of rain with the righteous. If the righteous is from the relatives of Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, then this is more virtuous."124




114- Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 1495; an-Nasâ'î, Hadîth no. 1300; Ahmad, al-Musnad, Hadîth no. 12611, 13570.

115- Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 1493; Ahmad, al-Musnad, Hadîth no. 22952, 22956.

116- Abû Nu'aym, Hilyat'ul Awliyâ, 8/158; with similar wording in at-Tabarânî, al-Mu'jam'ul Kabîr, 25/12.

117- Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/344-345.

118- Ibnu Mawdûd al-Mawsilî al-Buldujî, al-Ikhtiyâr li Ta'lîl'il Mukhtâr, 4/164.

119- Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/345.

120- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 221-222.

121- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 1010, 3710.

122- With similar wording in Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 197.

123- Ibnu Hajar al-Asqalânî, al-Isâbah, 6/548; Ibnu Sa'd, at-Tabaqât, 7/444; adh-Dhahabî, Siyaru A'lâm'in Nubalâ, 4/137; al-Fasawî, al-Ma'rifah wa't Târîkh, 2/380-381; Ibnu Asâkir, Târîkhu Dimashq, 65/107-117, no. 8241.

124- With similar wording in Mukhtasar Fatâwa'l Misriyyah, Rakâ'iz, 1/346.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[It Is Impermissible to Take Refuge in a Created Being]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"Scholars like Mâlik and others have disliked for a person to stand by the grave of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam praying for himself and they mentioned that this was an innovation which the Salaf did not commit."125

"Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Say: Invoke those you have claimed (as gods) besides Him, for they do not possess the (ability to) remove harm from you, nor to change it. Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, (striving as to) which of them would be nearest." (al-Isrâ, 17/56-57)

It was narrated from Mujâhid in the correct exegeses that he said regarding the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ, "They seek means of access to their Lord." (al-Isrâ, 17/57) "These are Îsâ the son of Maryam Alayh'is Salâm, Uzayr Alayh'is Salâm, and the angels."126

Likewise, it was narrated on the authority of Ibrâhîm an-Nakha'î that he said: Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ used to say regarding the following statement of Allâhu Taâlâ, "Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord." (al-Isrâ, 17/57) "Those mentioned here are Uzayr Alayh'is Salâm, the Messiah Alayh'is Salâm, the sun, and the moon."127

Also, Shu'bah narrated from Suddî, on the authority of Abû Sâlih, from Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ that he said, "These are Îsâ Alayh'is Salâm, his mother Alayha's Salâm, and Uzayr Alayh'is Salâm."128

On the authority of Abdullâh bin Mas'ûd Radiyallâhu Anh that he said, "This verse was revealed about a group of Arabs who used to worship a group of the jinn. The jinn became Muslims, while the humans who worshipped them were unaware of their Islâm, thereafter, this verse was revealed."129

This is established in the Sahîh of Bukhârî from Abdullâh bin Mas'ûd Radiyallâhu Anh.130

All of these views are true. This is because the verse encompasses everyone whose deity -regardless of it being from the angels, the jinn, or humans- worships Allâh. May Allâh be pleased with them, in their commentaries, the Salaf mention the genus of what was intended in the verse as an example, just as the translator shows a loaf of bread and says "this is bread" to someone who asks him, "What is the meaning of the word bread?" The indication is to the genre, not to the specific item. The Salaf's intention was not to allocate one genre and not the other while the verse covers both genres. The verse addresses all those who invoke other than Allâh while those whom they invoke seek means of access to Allâh, hope for His mercy, and fear His punishment."131

"Thus, whoever invokes the angels or jinn... It is known that all of these are means in what Allâhu Taâlâ has ordained with their deeds. Alongside this, Allâhu Taâlâ has prohibited invoking them and has clarified that they are not capable of removing or changing the harm from those who invoke them, nor are they able to abolish it entirely or change it from one place to another, like changing its attribute or amount. This is why Allâhu Taâlâ said, "Wa lâ Tahwîlâ (nor to change it)." (al-Isrâ, 17/56) Tahwîlâ being mentioned as Nakirah132 encompasses all kind of changes."133

"Therefore, whoever invokes a deceased or an absent from the righteous prophets, invokes the angels, or invokes the jinn, has invoked someone who cannot relieve distress from him or change it. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"And verily, there were men among mankind who took shelter with the males among the jinn, but they (jinn) increased them (mankind) in sin and transgression." (al-Jinn, 72/6)"134

"Imâms such as Ahmad and others have stated that it is impermissible to take refuge in a created being and this is from amongst their deductions concerning the word of Allâh not being created. They said: This is because it is established from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he took refuge in the words of Allâh and commanded taking refuge in it."135

This is why the scholars prohibited from amulets and talismans that have unknown meanings out of fear of Shirk being found in them.




125- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 222.

126- At-Tabarî, Tafsir, Dâru Hajr, 14/631.

127- At-Tabarî, Tafsir, Dâru Hajr, 14/631.

128- At-Tabarî, Tafsir, Dâru Hajr, 14/631.

129- At-Tabarî, Tafsir, Dâru Hajr, 14/628.

130- Al-Bukhârî, Hadis no. 4714.

131- Concisely from Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 289-291.

132- In Arabic grammar, an-Nakirah is the opposite of al-Ma'rifah. Al-Ma'rifah, is used when mentioning something definite while an-Nakirah is used when mentioning something indefinite. For example, when saying, "أعطني القلم (Give me the pen)" a specific pen is being denoted to, while when it is said, "أعطني قلما (give me a pen)" any pen is being denoted to. The intent of the Shaykh is that the wording of the verse did not come in the Ma'rifah form as "ولا التحويل (Wa la't Tahwîl)," rather it came in the Nakirah form as "ولا تحويلا (Wa lâ Tahwîlâ)". Therefore, the verse is not denoting to a specific change, but rather, to any type of change. In English, we can call al-Ma'rifah definite and an-Nakirah indefinite.

133- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 293.

134- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 294.

135- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 295.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Satan Beautified the Actions of Those Who Left What Is Legislated Until They Entered Shirk]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"Of the things that clarify the wisdom of the Sharî'ah and the magnitude of its degree, and it being as it is said: Like the ark of Nûh, whoever boards it will be saved, and whoever turns away will drown, is the following: Satan has beautified the actions of all those who left what is legislated until they entered Shirk.

A group of these people pray to the dead. One of them turns his back to the Qiblah, prostrates to the grave, and another says, "The Qiblah is the Qiblah of the common-folk, while the grave of Shaykh so-and-so is the Qiblah of the elite."136 The one who says this is the most worshipping ascetic among people and he is a followed Shaykh. The one who says this regarding his Shaykh may even be an example among the students of his Shaykh.

Another who is from the elders of the Shaykhs who are followed, from the people of trust and Ijtihâd regarding worship and ascetism, commands his Murids before they repent to go to the grave of the Shaykh and adhere to it as the statute worshippers adhere to their statues.

The majority of those who commit Shirk with these graves find softness, awe, invocation, and peace of heart when they worship the graves, which they do not find in the mosques of Allâh, wherein Allâh has allowed for His name to be raised and mentioned.

Others perform pilgrimage to the graves. Another group authored the book "Manâsiku Hajj'il Mashâhid (the Pilgrimage Rites of the Mashhads)," as a book was authored by one of the Shaykhs of the Imâmiyyah, Abû Abdillâh Muhammad Ibn'un Nu'mân, nicknamed al-Mufîd.137 In his book, al-Mufîd mentioned fabricated stories regarding the Ahl'ul Bayt, such that their fabrication is not obscure to those who know the knowledge of transmission.

Others travel to the graves of the Shaykh. Even though they do not call it Mansak and Hajj, the meaning is the same.

From these are those who say, "For the right of the Nabî to whom the mounted perform pilgrimage to." Thus, they make pilgrimage to the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, not to the house of Allâh Azza wa Jalla. The greatest aim of most of them is pilgrimage to the grave of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, not the House (of Allâh, i.e. Ka'bah).

A Shaykh who was known by his religion, ascetism and righteousness authored a book titled, "al-Istighâthah bi'n Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam fi'l Yaqdhati wa'l Manâm (Seeking Aid from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam While Awake and Asleep)"138. This deviated person (al-Bakrî) sought aid from this book. It is mentioned among the virtues of this Shaykh that he once made pilgrimage and the grave of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was his final destination. Then he returned without going to Makkah and they believed this to be from his virtues. If this is recommended, then it would be necessary -for those whom pilgrimage to the House is obligatory- to make Madînah their final destination when they go to pilgrimage, and they should not go to Makkah. This is because going to Makkah increasing burden and toil alongside abandoning the most virtuous. No possessor of intellect says this."139




136- For example, ash-Shâdhilî from the Sufis would say, "If Haqq Subhânahu wa Taâlâ would be pleased with opposing the Sunnah, in prayer, it would be better to face the Qutub who is the Ghawth in opposed to facing the Ka'bah." (ash-Sha'rânî, at-Tabaqât'ul Kubrâ, 2/13)

Also, al-Majlisî from the Râfidhîs said, "The visitor facing the grave is in the status of facing the Qiblah, and it is Allâh's face, that is, His direction to which He commanded people to face in this circumstance." (al-Majlisî, Bihâr'ul Anwâr, 98/369)

137- The Shaykh of Sistânî from the Râfidhîs Agha Bozorg Tehrânî compiled a list about the books authored by the Shia regarding visiting graves and he listed sixty-one books. (Agha Bozorg Tehrânî, adh-Dharî'ah ilâ Tasânîf'ish Shîah, 20/316-326)

138- The title of this book authored by Muhammad bin Mûsâ Ibn'un Nu'mân al-Marâkashî at-Tilmisânî from the Mâlikîs is "al-Mustaghîthîna bi'n Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam fi'l Yaqdhati wa'l Manâm (Those Who Seek Aid from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam While Awake and Asleep)."

139- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 304-306.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Those Who Adopt the Graves as Places of Pilgrimage]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)
"Due to them leaving the Sharî'ah, some of the elder Shaykhs in the sight of people whom the kings, judges, scholars, and commoners go to, are on the path of Ibnu Sab'în (669 H).140 It was narrated from Ibnu Sab'în that he would say, "The houses to which pilgrimage is performed to are three: Makkah, Bayt'ul Maqdis, and Buddha which belongs the polytheists in India." He said this because he believed that the religion of the Jews is true and the religion of the Christians is true.

Before he knew the reality of Ibnu Sab'în, one of our Ârif (gnostic) brothers went to him and said, "I would like to embark the path of Sulûk at your hands." Ibnu Sab'în said, "Upon the religion of the Jews, the Christians, or the Muslims?" He said to him, "Aren't the Jews and Christians disbelievers?" Ibnu Sab'în said, "Do not be harsh with them, but Islâm is more virtuous!"

Some of them prefer making pilgrimage to the graves above making pilgrimage to the House of Allâh. Others prefer making pilgrimage to the House of Allâh, but one of them says, "If you visit the Shaykh's tomb two or three times, it is like one pilgrimage."

Some people equate the Shaykh's grave with Arafât, they travel there in the time of its season, and come together there as the Muslims come together in the mosques to remember Allâh at Arafât, as this is done in the west and in the east.

Some of them deem travelling to the Mashhad and grave more virtuous than pilgrimage. One Murîd who had made seven pilgrimages to Allâh's Ancient House said to another Murîd, "Will you sell your visit to the Shaykh's tomb in exchange for seven pilgrimages?" He consulted his Shaykh, who said, "If you sell it, you will be defrauded!"

Some say, "Whoever circumambulates the Shaykh's grave seven times, then it is as if he has made one pilgrimage." Some say, "Visiting such and such cave three times is like a pilgrimage." Others have recounted a dead Shaykh saying, "Every step towards my grave is like one pilgrimage, and on the Day of Resurrection, I would not sell it in exchange for a pilgrimage." A person denied this, whereupon the devil appeared to him in the image of the Shaykh in his dream and rebuked him for denying it.

The prayers and worship of these and those like them are directed to other than Allâh, the Lord of the universe. They are not upon the religion of the Imâm of the Hunafâ (Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm) and they are not of those who maintain the mosques of Allâh, regarding whom Allâhu Taâlâ has said,

"The Mosques of Allâh shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allâh and the Last Day." (at-Tawbah, 9/18)

Those who maintain the mosques of Allâh only have awe for Allâh, and those who maintain the Mashads of the graves have awe for other than Allâh and hope from other than Allâh. To the extent that when a person from the group of those who commit major sins who are not in awe of Allâh regarding the shameful deeds they do, sees the dome of the deceased or the crescent moon on top of the dome, he is in awe of committing abominations, and one of them says to his friend, "Shame on you! This is the crescent of the dome." They are in awe of one who is buried under the crescent, but they are not in awe of the One who created the heavens and the earth and made the crescents of the heavens appointed times for people and pilgrimage!

When these people are debated, they scare those whom they debate, as the polytheists did to Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"His people disputed with him. He said: Do you dispute with me concerning Allâh while He has guided me? I do not fear those whom you associate with Him (Allâh) in worship. (Nothing can happen to me) except when my Lord wills something." (al-An'âm, 6/80)

Until the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"So, which of the two parties has more right to be in security? If you but know." (al-An'âm, 6/81)

Then, Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"They who believe and do not mix their belief with injustice - those will have security, and they are guided." (al-An'âm, 6/82)

Others deem the deceased to be a deity, and the living Shaykh who is devoted to him a Nabî. Fulfilling needs and removing distress is sought from the deceased, while what the living deems lawful is taken lawful and what he deems unlawful is taken unlawful. It is as if in themselves, they have deposed Allâh from taking Him as a deity, and they have deposed Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam from taking him as a messenger!

Recent converts to Islâm, those who follow them thinking well of them, or others may come to them wanting from the deceased Shaykh to either repel the harm of a king who wants to oppress him or something else. Then, he enters upon the custodian of the grave and says, "I told the Shaykh, and the Shaykh tells this to the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam tells this to Allâh, and Allâh has already sent a messenger to the sultan so-and-so!" Is this not the pure religion of the polytheists and the Christians? There are such lies and ignorance in this that not a single polytheist or Christian would deem them permissible and spread these.

They eat the vows made to the graves, what is given as a vow, and the things that come with the vows, that which is included within the scope of the statement by Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Verily, there are many of the rabbis and the monks who devour the wealth of mankind in falsehood, and hinder (them) from the way of Allâh." (at-Tawbah, 9/34)

They turn away from the way of Allâh and prevent others from it, for their subjects believe that this is the way and religion of Allâh. For this reason, they refrain from entering the true religion which Allâh sent His messengers and revealed His books with."141




140- Ibnu Kathîr Rahimahullâh said regarding Ibnu Sab'în,

"Ibnu Sab'în, Abd'ul Haqq bin Ibrâhîm bin Muhammad bin Nasr bin Muhammad bin Nasr bin Muhammad bin Sab'în, Qutb'ud Dîn Abû Muhammad al-Maqdisî ar-Ruqûtî, ascribed to Ricote, a town near Murcia (in Spain). Ibnu Sab'în was born in the year 614 H. He engaged in the science of the ancients and philosophy. Thereby, a type of deviation occurred in him and he classified works on this subject. He knew the science of Simyâ (alchemy). By means of this knowledge, he deceived some foolish emirs and rich people. He would deem this to be a condition of the nation. Among his works are Kitâb'ul Buddi and Kitâb'ul Huwa. He resided in Makkah. He overcame the mind of Abû Numayy, the emir of Makkah. According to what was narrated from him, some times, he used to enter into seclusion in the cave of Hira hoping that revelation would come to him as revelation came to the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam therein based on his false belief that prophethood is acquired and that prophethood is Allâh's suggestion which He suggests to the intellect when it is purified. If he died upon this belief, he only attained disgrace in this world and the hereafter. When he saw those circumambulating the Ka'bah, he would say, "They are like donkeys circling around the wheel." He would say that if they circumambulated him, it would be more virtuous than them circumambulating the House (of Allâh). Allâh will pass His judgement on him and those like him. Some grave words and deeds have been narrated from him. He died in Makkah on the twenty-eighth of the month of Shawwâl (the year 669 H)." (Ibnu Kathîr, al-Bidâyah wa'n Nihâyah, thq. At-Turkî, 17/497-498)

141- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 306-309.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Allâhu Taâlâ Did Not Praise the Idol Temples and Mausoleums]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"Allâhu Taâlâ did not mention the Mashhads in His Book, rather, He mentioned the masjids and said that they were solely for Him. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Say: My Lord has ordered justice. Direct your faces at every masjid..." (al-A'râf, 7/29)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"The masjids of Allâh shall be maintained only by..." (at-Tawbah, 9/18)

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"In houses (masjids) which Allâh has ordered to be raised and that His name be mentioned therein..." (an-Nûr, 24/36)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"For had it not been that Allâh repels some people by means of some others, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and masjids would have been demolished." (al-Hajj, 22/40)

In this verse, Allâhu Taâlâ did not mention the temples of polytheism such as the idol temples and the Mashhads, nor did He mention the atashkadehs, because the monasteries and churches belong to the people of the book. The ones praised here are those built before the abrogation and changing, just as He praised the Jews, Christians, and Sabians who believed in Allâh and the last day and committed righteous deeds before the abrogation and changing. Allâh did not praise the idol temples, atashkadehs, astral temples, and mausoleums in any way and only mentioned them in the parable of those whom the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam cursed. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"(Then) those who won their point said: We verily shall build a masjid over them." (al-Kahf, 18/21)

These people who built a mosque on the people of the cave are from the Christians whom the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam cursed when he said,

"May Allâh curse the Jews and Christians! They took the graves of their prophets as masjids."142 And in another narration, "And the righteous."143 144

"Invoking those in the grave is one of the greatest means to this (adding things from the religion of the polytheists into the Hanîf religion). One of the eastern Shaykhs came and talked to me regarding this issue. When I clarified to him the corruption of this, he said, "Didn't the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam say? "If you are helpless in affairs, then go to the people of the grave!" I said, "This is a lie with the agreement of the people of knowledge, and not one of the scholars of Hadîth have narrated this from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam."145

For this reason and similar reasons, the truthfulness of the following statement by the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam in the authentic Hadîth manifested, "You will follow the footsteps of those who came before you inch by inch, even if they were to enter a lizard hole, you would also enter it." They said, "O Allâh's Messenger! Are they the Jews and Christians?" He said, "Who else?"146 147




142- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 1390; Muslim, Hadîth no. 531.

143- Ibnu Kathîr, at-Tafsîr, Ilmiyyah, 5/134.

144- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 309-311.

145- This statement was also narrated with the following wording, "When the affairs leave you perplexed, then seek help from the people of the grave!" (al-Ajlûnî, Kashf'ul Khafâ, Maktabat'ul Qudsî, 1/85, no: 213)

Refer to these sources regarding this statement being a fabricated Hadîth: Ibn'ul Qayyim, Ighâthat'ul Luhafân, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 1/387; al-Birgiwî, Ziyârat'ul Qubûr, Dâr'ul Bashîr, p. 52; Majmû'u Fatâwâ Shaykh'il Islâm Ahmad Ibni Taymiyyah, 1/356, 11/293.

146- With similar wording in al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 7320.

147- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 317.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Those Who Go to the Graves of the Disbelievers and Hypocrites to Seek Aid]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"When one of these extremist polytheists gets what he wants, even if it is from a disbeliever, he will not go to the Rasûl, rather, he will seek what he needs from where he deems his need is fulfilled. Sometimes, he goes to a grave that he deems to belong to a righteous man, whereas, in it is the grave of a disbeliever or hypocrite. Sometimes, he knows that the grave belongs to a disbeliever or a hypocrite, yet he still goes there, just as a group go to their church or to places where it is said to them that it accepts offerings. Their general masses fall in this, and their elite fall in the first.

Eventually, when it reached one of our companions who undertook the position of chief judge that I negated from this, because of this, he had a doubt and suspicions, since he believed that what I mentioned was true, yet he had an objection. So he privately said to one of our companions, "I have experienced supplications being answered to near a grave in al-Qarâfah." The man from our companions said, "Then I will come with you, thereby, we will learn whose grave this is." Both went there and found written upon the grave "the Servant of Alî." So they understood that the grave belonged to either a Râfidhî or Ismâ'îlî.

There was a large group of people in the land who thought that the Ubaydî's148 were the righteous allies of Allâh. When I mentioned to them that the Ubaydî's were heretic hypocrites and that the best among them were the Râfidhah, they started to marvel and say, "We take the horses who suffer from stomach aches to their graves, and they are healed near their graves!" I said to them, "This is one of the greatest proofs of their disbelief!" Then I called a group of wranglers and said to them, "When you are in Shâm and Egypt, where do you take the horses when they suffer from stomach aches?" They said, "In Shâm, we take the horses to the graves of the Jews and Christians. If we are in the northern lands, we take them to the graves in the Isma'îlî lands such as Aleika, Maniqa, and the likes. In Egypt, we take them to the monastery of the Christians and to the graves of these Sharîfs." They thought that the Ubaydî's were Sharîf because they proclaimed to be from Ahl'ul Bayt. I said, "Do you take the horses to the graves of the righteous Muslims such as al-Layth bin Sa'd, ash-Shâfi'î, Ibn'ul Qâsim, Nafîsah, and others?" They said, "No." I said to those who marveled at what I said, "Listen! They take the horses only to the graves of the disbelievers and hypocrites!"

Then, I explained the reason behind this by saying, "Because these people are tormented in their graves, and the animals hear their voices, as this was established in the authentic Hadîth.149 When the animals hear this, they are terrified. Because of the terror they feel, their bellies weaken and they defecate, because terror necessitates diarrhea." They were amazed at what I said. I would not mention this thought to the people often, and I didn't know that anyone said this. Later, I found that some scholars have mentioned it.

Our intent here is that many people venerate the grave of those who are internally disbelievers or hypocrites, and according to them, this deceased and the Rasûl are of one category. This is because he believes that the deceased fulfills his needs when the deceased is a righteous person. According to this person, both this deceased and the Rasûl are of the category whom aid is sought from.

How many are the Mashhad's glorified by people while they are in fact fabrications, moreover, it is said that they are graves of the disbelievers! Such as the Mashhad that is said to be the grave of Nûh Alayh'is Salâm found at the skirts of Mount Lebanon.150 The people of perception say that this is the grave of one of the Amalekites. Likewise, are the Mashhad of Husayn found in Cairo and the grave of Ubayy bin Ka'b found in Damascus; the scholars have agreed that these are fabrications.151 Some scholars have said that both graves are actually the graves of two Christians. Many of the Mashhad's are controversial, and there are devils near them who by means of the graves, misguide whom they misguide."152




148- Those mentioned by Shaykh'ul Islâm are Banû Ubayd al-Qaddâh, also known as the Fatimids, and their associates. And Allâh knows best.

149- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 1374.

150- Shams'ud Dîn as-Sakhâwî, al-Maqâsid'ul Hasanah, p. 746; Aliyy'ul Qârî, al-Asrâr'ul Marfû'ah, p. 401; Ibnu Kathîr, al-Bidâyah wa'n Nihâyah, thq. Turkî, 1/281.

151- Shams'ud Dîn as-Sakhâwî, al-Maqâsid'ul Hasanah, p. 746; Aliyy'ul Qârî, al-Asrâr'ul Marfû'ah, p. 401; Ibnu Kathîr, al-Bidâyah wa'n Nihâyah, thq. Turkî, 11/582; Hamawî, Mu'jam'ul Buldân, 2/469.

152- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 327-331.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

Subul’us Salâm


[Some Superstitions Containing Shirk]

(Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation,)

"Some among them see in their dreams a person whom they deem to be a person in the grave, whereas, it is actually a devil who appears in the image of the person in the grave or in another person's form, similar to the devils near the idols and the devils who appear to those who seek aid from the idols, the deceased, and the non-present. Such persons are plentiful in our time and in others.

For example, some people conjure devils near sculptures at old temples in Akhmim in the land of Egypt, and elsewhere. They conjure devils near sculptures for a period without purifying themselves as the Muslims purify, without praying the prayer of the Muslims, and without any recitation, until the devil clings to that image. Then they see the image moving and they put a candle or something else in it. Thereafter, they see a devil emerging for them and upon this, they prostrate to this devil until the devil fulfills some of their needs. Sometimes they may allow the devil to commit acts of atrocity with them for the devil to fulfill their needs.

Similar to this is ample among the Kuffâr Shaykhs of the Turks, whom they call "pusht," meaning effeminate. When they want some of these things from him, they send him a male whom he has a relation with. In a dark night, they chant for him with loud dynamics, offer him bread and carcass, and sing a song that suits him with the condition of no one remembering Allâh and nothing being found with them that has the remembrance of Allâh. Then this Shaykh raises the male whom he had a relation with in to the sky and they see the daf fly in the air. The person who stretches out his hand towards the bread is hit (by the daf). While they listen, the devil play instruments and sing as their disbeliever ancestors sang. Then, sometimes the devil disappears and the food disappears and they see it to be transferred to the house of the Pusht, while sometimes they do not disappear. They offer carcass to the devil which they burn with fire, and the devil fulfills some of their needs.

The polytheists have many such occurrences. That which takes place next to the Mashhad's are of the same genus of what takes place next to the idols."153

"It is established by various paths that near the idols, graves and other things associated as partners to Allâh, there are devils who misguide through them those whom associate those things as partners with Allâh. These devils fulfill only some of their needs, and they fulfill the needs only when Shirk and sins that the devils love are committed.

Some of the devils command the one who invokes him to prostrate to himself, some command atrocity which is sometimes committed with the devil. Sometimes the devil may prohibit the invoker from what Allâh has commanded, consisting of Tawhîd, sincerity, the five daily prayers, the recitation of the Qur'ân and so on.

The devils deceive people based on what they desire from them. If the person has weak faith, the devil commands him with disbelief, otherwise the devil commands him with what is vicious or sins. If the person has little knowledge, the devil commands him to do things which he does not know to oppose the Book and the Sunnah.

Many of the Shaykhs who have an ample share in religion, ascetism, and worship have fallen into this type. However, since they did not know the reality of what Allâh sent His Messenger with, the devils strived until they acted upon what opposes the Book and the Sunnah.

The following occurred to more than one of our companions: When one of the companions of some of the Shaykhs sought help from their Shaykh, they saw the Shaykh come and fulfill their need while they were awake. In reality, what they saw was devils that appear for the polytheists who invoke other than Allâh. The jinn that come are in accordance with the person, a disbeliever for a disbeliever, a Fâjir for a Fâjir, and an ignorant for an ignorant. As for the people of knowledge and faith, then the jinn following them is like the people following them; they follow them in what Allâhu Taâlâ and his Messenger command with."

"Someone I trusted narrated to me from this person," -that is, Ibn'ul Bakrî who permitted seeking aid from the Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam in everything aid is sought from Allâh in his book- "that he said, 'The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam knew the knowledge of the keys of the unseen.'

The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said regarding the keys of the unseen,

"(The keys of the unseen) are five, no one but Allâh knows them. (They are:) "Indeed, Allâh (alone) has knowledge of the Hour and sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no soul perceives what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul perceives in what land it will die. Indeed, Allâh is Knowing and Aware." (Luqmân, 31/34)154

I think he mentioned that this person said, 'The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam learned the keys of the unseen after he informed that none other than Allâh knows it.'

Another person from the genus of al-Bakrî, who practiced teaching and to whom religious verdicts are attributed to would say, 'Verily, the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam knew what Allâh knows and is capable of doing everything Allâh is capable of. Then after the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, this secret passed on to al-Hasan, then it passed from the descendants of al-Hasan until it passed on to Shaykh Abu'l Hasan ash-Shâdhilî.'

They also said, 'This is the station of al-Qutb, al-Ghawth, al-Fard, and al-Jâmi.'

There was another Shaykh who was exalted amongst his followers claimed to hold this rank would say that he was the Mahdî, which the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam bore glad-tidings to, and that he will marry his daughter with Îsâ Alayh'is Salâm. He would say that he controls the kings and saints, he appoints whichever he likes, and deposes whichever he likes. He would also say that the Rabb secretly converses with him and that he himself is the one who helps the angels carrying the throne and the fish of the sea. I rebuked him profusely in front of a group from the people of the congregational Masjid in Cairo, on a Friday which numerous persons were present. After this, people knew him and due to him, his likes from the Dajjâls were defeated.

Some of them said, 'Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ's following statement,

"Verily, We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner. So that you may believe in Allâh and His Messenger, and that you assist and honour him, and that you glorify Allâh's praises morning and afternoon." (al-Fath 48/8-9)

The one whose praises is glorified in the morning and afternoon is the Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.'

Others say, 'We worship Allah and His Messenger.' Thus, they make the Messenger a worshipped being.

Others go to the grave of a deceased man or woman whom good is assumed regarding and say, 'Forgive me, have mercy on me, do not stop me due to a mistake!" And say similar things.

There are many cases like this in which the creation is adopted as a deity.

When this settles in the souls of their laymen, and when one asks them regarding those who prohibit them from these acts saying, 'What is this man saying?' you find one of them saying, 'According to so-and-so, there is none other than Allâh!' This is because it has settled in their souls that they have acquired other deities alongside Allâh. All of this and the likes occurred while we were in Egypt.

Another says while magnifying those who call to Tawhîd: This man has made the deities all into one deity!"155




153- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 331-333.

154- Ahmad, al-Musnad, Hadîth no: 4766.

155- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istighâthah fi'r Raddi ala'l Bakrî, p. 207-210.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

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