دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

Author Topic: THE MEANING OF TGHT AND ITS MAIN TYPES MUHAMMAD BIN ABD'IL WAHHB  (Read 985 times)

Ummah

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مَعْنَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَرُؤُسُ أَنْوَاعِهِ
THE MEANING OF TGHT AND ITS MAIN TYPES*

Shaykh'ul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh

In the name of Allh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,

May Allhu Tal have mercy upon you, know that the first thing Allhu Tal made Fardh (obligatory) upon the son of dam (i.e., mankind) is rejecting the Tght and having mn in Allh, and the evidence is Allhu Tals statement,


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tght. (an-Nahl 16/36)

صِفَةُ الْكُفْرِ بِالطَّاغُوتِ
The Description of Rejecting the Tght

When it comes to the Description of Rejecting the Tght it is,

- That you believe worshipping other than Allhu Tal is vain,

- That you abandon worshipping other than Allhu Tal,

- That you have Bughdh (hatred) towards worshipping other than Allhu Tal,

- That you declare Takfr upon those who worship other than Allhu Tal, and

- That you have enmity towards them.


مَعْنَى الْإِيمَانِ بِاللّٰهِ
The Meaning of Having mn in Allhu Tal

When it comes to the Meaning of Having mn in Allhu Tal, it is,

- That you believe that Allh is the Ilh who is worshipped (and deserves to be worshipped) - alone, apart from everything else besides Him-

- That you make all types of worship sincerely for Allhu Tal alone,

- That you negate worship from everything worshipped besides Him,

- That you love the Ahlul Ikhls (people of sincerity),

- That you befriend them,

- That you have Bughdh (hatred) towards the Ahlush Shirk (people of Shirk), and

- That you have enmity towards them.

This is the Millah (religion) of Ibrhm Alayhis Salm which those who turn away from it only fool themselves.1 And this is the excellent example that Allhu Tal informs us of in His statement,


قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللّٰهِ وَحْدَهُ
Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrhm and those with him, when they said to their people, Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allh, we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred for ever, until you believe in Allh Alone. (al-Mumtahinah 60/4)

Tght is general (regarding everything that is worshipped besides Allh). According to this, everything that is worshipped besides Allhu Tal and is pleased with being worshipped, whether it is a Mabd (that which is worshipped), someone followed, or someone obeyed in the absence of obedience to Allhu Tal and His Rasl is a Tght.2

The Tawght (pl. of Tght) are numerous, and their main types are five:

1.   The Shaytn, the caller to worship other than Allhu Tal. And the evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,


أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَنْ لاَ تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ
Did I not ordain for you, O Children of dam, that you should not worship shaytn (satan). Verily, he is a clear enemy to you. (Y-Sn 36/60)3

2.   The tyrant ruler who changes the rulings of Allhu Tal. And the evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,


أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا
Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in what was revealed to you and that which was revealed before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Tght while they have been ordered to reject them? But shaytn (satan) wishes to lead them far astray. (an-Nis 4/60)4

3.   The one who judges with other than what Allhu Tal has revealed. And the evidence is statement of Allhu Tal,

وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللّٰهُ فَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
And whosoever does not judge by what Allh has revealed; such are the Kfirn (disbelievers). (al-Midah 5/44)5

4.   The one who claims the knowledge of al-Ghayb (the Unseen), apart from Allh. And the evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,


عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلاَ يُظْهِرُ عَلَى غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا. إِلاَّ مَنِ ارْتَضَى مِنْ رَسُولٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَسْلُكُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ رَصَدًا
He is the Knower of the Ghayb (Unseen), and He does not disclose His Ghayb to anyone. Except to a Rasl (Messenger) whom He has chosen, where after He appoints guards who go before him and behind him. (al-Jinn 72/26-27)

And He Tal stated,


وَعِنْدَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَا إِلاَّ هُوَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ
And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darkness of the earth and no moist or dry (thing) but that it is (written) in an evident book. (al-Anm 6/59)6

5.   The one who is worshiped other than Allhu Tal, while being pleased with being worshipped. And the evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَمَنْ يَقُلْ مِنْهُمْ إِنِّي إِلٰهٌ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَذٰلِكَ نَجْزِيهِ جَهَنَّمَ كَذٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الظَّالِمِينَ
And if any of them should say, Verily, I am an Ilah (Deity) besides Him- that one We would recompense with Jahannam (Hell). Thus do We recompense the Dhalimn (wrongdoers). (al-Anbiy 21/29)7

And know that a person will never become a believer in Allhu Tal except by rejecting the Tght, and the evidence is statement of Allhu Tal,


لاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِاللّٰهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَى لاَ انْفِصَامَ لَهَا وَاللّٰهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
There is no compulsion in the Dn (religion). Ar-Rushd (the right path) has become clear from al-Ghayy (the wrong path).8 So whoever disbelieves in the Tght and believes in Allh has grasped the unbreakable Urwatul Wuthq (firmest handhold). And Allh is as-Smi (Hearing) and al-Alm (Knowing). (al-Baqarah 2/256)

Ar-Rushd (the right path) is: the Dn (religion) of Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

Al-Ghayy (the wrong path) is: the Dn of Ab Jahl.

Al-Urwatul Wuthq9 (the firmest handhold) is: the testimony of L Ilaha Illallh (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allh).

L Ilaha Illallh consists of an-Nafy (negation) and al-Ithbt (affirmation).

It {L Ilaha} negates all types of worship from those worshiped besides Allhu Tal, and

{Illallh} affirms all types of worship completely for Allh alone, who has no partners.

ANNOTATIONS



Quote
* This Pamphlet before you is given this title in the 1st volume of the compilation of Shaykh Rahimahullhs works named, Muallaftush Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb, between the pages 376-378. This is the copy we used in our translation. It was also mentioned in the 1st volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah between the pages 161-163 without a title. There isnt any major difference to mention between the copies.

1- The Muallif Rahimahullh points out the following yah,


﴿وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ.﴾ [البقرة: 130]
Whoever turns away from the Religion of Ibrhm (i.e., Islamic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in the Duny (worldly life) and verily, in the khirah (Hereafter) he will be among the Slihn (pl. Slih; righteous). (al-Baqarah 2/130)

2- Imm Mlik Rahimahullh and others from the Mufassirn (scholars of Qurnic Exegeses) said,

Tght is that which is worshipped other than Allh.

Ibnu Wahb, the student of Imam Mlik, narrated this in his book al-Jmi f Tafsril Qurn (2/135, 270). It was mentioned in ad-Durrul Manthr (2/22), in the Tafsr of the yah al-Baqarah 2/256, that Ibnu Ab Htim Rahimahullh narrated this as well. Also, an-Nawaw Rahimahullh said,

Al-Layth, Ab Ubaydah, al-Kis, and the majority of the scholars of Lughah (the Grammarians) said,

Taght is everything which is worshipped other than Allahu Tal. (an-Nawaw, Sharhu Sahh Muslim, 3/18)

3- Umar Ibnul Khattb Radiyallhu Anh said,

Tght is the Shaytn.

This was narrated with the sequence of Talq (omission of the chain of narration) in Sahhul Bukhr, the book of Tafsr, in the yah an-Nis 4/43. Al-Hfidh Ibnu Hajar Rahimahullh narrated that this Isnd (chain) is Qawiyy (strong). (Ibnu Hajar, Fathul Br, 8/252)

Also, in his Tafsr no: 5834-5835, at-Tabar, narrated this  narration and, Ibnu Kathr has extracted it in his Tafsr, page: 1/523, regarding the yah al-Baqarah 2/256. Likewise, in ad-Durrul Manthr, it is mentioned that al-Firyb and Sad bin Mansr have also narrated this. (as-Suyt, ad-Durrul Manthr, 2/22)

4- Mujhid said regarding Tght,


اَلشَّيْطَانُ فِي صُورَةِ الْإِنْسَانِ يَتَحَاكَمُونَ إِلَيْهِ وَهُوَ صَاحِبُ أَمْرَهُمْ.
(Tght is) the Shaytn in the shape of a man whom the people come to for judgement between them while he controls their affairs. (as-Suyt has made mention of this in ad-Durrul Manthr 2/22, and he has attributed it to Ibnu Jarr, Ibnu Mundhir, and Ibnu Ab Htim.)

5- The separate classification by the Shaykh Rahimahullh of the Tght who changes the laws of Allh and the Tght who governs with other than what Allh has revealed must be pondered upon.

Hence, while changing the laws and rulings of Allh, altering them, making up new laws (Tashr) in opposition with the laws of Allh is a different type of Kufr and a different type of being Tght, governing with the new Mubaddal (altered) false laws is another type of Kufr and being a Tght. Each one of these are Shirk and Kufr.

To solve problems by recognizing/seeking judgement of the courts of the Tght, who use and rule by the man-made (made-up) laws, as the legal authority is another type of Kufr.

With this, three types of Shirk is exposed regarding ruling and Tashr (law-making):

The First: The Shirk of Tashr.

The Second: The Shirk of governing with the Kufr laws.

The Third: The Shirk of seeking judgment from the laws of the Tght

All of these necessitated each other and are related. Ponder over this

6- In the same manner, Ikrimah said that the soothsayers (those who claim to know the Ghayb) are also Tght.

It is narrated with the sequence of Talq (omission of the chain of narration) in Sahhul Bukhr, Kitbut Tafsr, regarding the yah an-Nis 4/43.

As-Suyt, has ascribed this narration to Ibnu Ab Htim. As-Suyt also narrated from Ab liyah the view that the Tght are the magicians -while attributing it to Ibnu Jarr at-Tabar-, which pretty much carries the same meaning. (as-Suyt, ad-Durrul Manthr, 2/22)

Wallhu Alam!

7- After mentioning the statements of the scholars regarding Tght, Ab Butayn an-Najd Rahimahullh said,

According to the deduction from the statements of the scholars Rahimahumullh; the name Tght comprises everything which is known as a Mabd other than Allh and all of the leaders of Dallah (deviation) who call to it and make it is seem good.

It also comprises of all of those who are set by the people to judge with the rulings of Jhiliyyah, which are in opposition to the laws of Allhu Tal and His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

It also comprises the soothsayers, magicians, the custodians of the idols (and places of idol-worshipping; i.e., shrines), those who invite people to worship the ones in the graves and others and those who make up false stories which mislead the ignorant people, deluding them that the ones in the graves and its likes carry out the needs of those who turn towards him and directs (their worship) to him, and that he will do such-and-such, which is false in reality or from the acts of the shaytn (pl. shaytn; devils). (They do this) so that they may delude the people that the one who is in the grave and its likes carry out the needs of those who directs (their worship) to him, consequently making them get caught in ash-Shirkul Akbar and its tributary.

The origin of all of these types and the greatest of them all is the shaytn: this is the greatest Tght.

And Allh Subhnahu wa Tal knows best. (ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 2/301-302)

8- Although the Muallif Rahimahullh gave room in the text to explain the meaning of Rushd and Ghayy, he only mentioned the latter part of the yah. In order to complete the subject, we also gave room in the text for the former part of the yah.

9- Refer to the explanation mentioned in the beginning of the pamphlet The Tafsr of Kalimatut Tawhd (Explanation of the Statement of Tawhd).
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

 

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