دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

Author Topic: THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET  (Read 1185 times)

Ummah

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THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET
« on: 07.06.2015, 08:13:13 AM »


اَلرِّسَالَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ الْمُهِمَّةُ الْجَلِيلَةُ
THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET

(REGARDING THE TERMS TAWHD, SHIRK, KUFR, AND NIFQ)1

Shaykh'ul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh


In the name of Allh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, from Him we seek help. All praise is due to Allh, and this is sufficient (for praise). May peace be upon His slaves whom He has chosen.2

Amm Bad (to proceed):


اَلتَّوْحِيدُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
TAWHD (UNIFICATION) AND ITS TYPES3

Know, may Allhu Tal have mercy upon you:

That Allh created the creation to worship Him and so that they do not associate anything to Him.

Allhu Tal stated,


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ.
I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me. (adh-Dhriyt 51/56)

Ibdah (worship) is Tawhd4, since the dispute between the Anbiy (pl. of Nab; Prophets) and their Ummah (people/nation) has always been regarding this.5 Just as Allhu Tal stated,


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ.
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tght. (an-Nahl 16/36)

Tawhd is of three fundamentals:6

1.   Tawhdur Rubbiyyah (Oneness of the Divine Lordship),

2.   Tawhdul Ulhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship),

3.   Tawhdul Asm was Sift (Oneness/Uniqueness in the Divine Names and Attributes).7


اَلْأَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ
THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL:8

Tawhdur Rubbiyyah9

(Oneness of the Divine Lordship)

The Mushrikn (pl. Mushrik) during the era of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam accepted this type of Tawhd10, yet this did not enter them into Islm. Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam fought them and considered their blood and wealth Hall (permissible). This (type of Tawhd) is unifying Allhu Tal in His Fil (actions that are unique to Him; i.e. creating, providing, administrating the universe etc.). The evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّٰهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ.
Say, Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will say, Allh. Say, Will you not then show piety (to Him)? (Ynus 10/31)

And His Tals statement,


قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ.
Say, To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know? They will say, To Allh. Say, Then will you not take heed? Say, Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say, They (all) belong to Allah. Say, Then will you not fear Him? Say, Who is it in whose hands is the governance of all things, who protects (all), but is not protected (of any), if you know? They will say, They (all) belong to Allh. Say, Then how are you deluded? (al-Muminn 23/84-89)

The yt (pl. yah; verses of Qurn) in this regards are many; too many to summarize and well known to mention


اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّانِي تَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ
THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdul Ulhiyyah

(Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship)11

This (type of Tawhd) is that which most of the struggle in the past and the present took place. It is the worshippers unifying Allhu Tal through their own actions, such as in ad-Du (supplication/worship), ar-Raj (hope), al-Khawf (fear), al-Khashyah (awe), al-Istinah (seeking aid), al-Istidhah (appeal for refuge), al-Mahabbah (love), al-Inbah (penitence), an-Nadhr (vow), adh-Dhabh (sacrifice), ar-Raghbah (aspiration), al-Khush (submissive humility), at-Tadhallul (submissiveness), and at-Tadhm (glorification).

The evidence for ad-Du is the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ.
And your Lord says, Call upon Me; I will answer your (prayer)... (Ghfir 40/60)

For all of these types of Ibdah (worship), there is an evidence in the Qurn.

The foundation of al-Ibdah is to isolate al-Ikhls (sincerity) solely for Allhu Tal and to isolate adherence to the Rasl (Messenger of Allh) Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Allhu Tal stated,


وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلّٰهِ فَلاَ تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللّٰهِ أَحَدًا.
And the Masjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allh. (Jinn 72/18)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


فَآمِنُوا بِاللّٰهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ.
So believe in Allh and His Rasl (Muhammad), the Nab (prophet) who can neither read nor write who believes in Allh and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided. (al-Arf 7/158);

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ.
We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him, There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone). (al-Anbiy 21/25)

And His Tals statement,


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ.
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way

Until His Tals statement,


وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلَالٍ.
And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)12

And His Tals statement,


ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ.
That is because Allh He is the Truth (the only True God of all that exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they invoke besides Him, it is al-Btil (the falsehood) (al-Hajj 22/62)

Moreover, His Tals statement,


وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا.
And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). (al-Hashr 59/7)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّٰهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّٰهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّٰهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.
Say, If you love Allah then follow me, Allh will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is al-Ghafr (the Oft-Forgiving), ar-Rahm (the Most Merciful). (l-i Imrn 3/31)

اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ تَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأَسَمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ
THE THIRD FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdudh Dhti wal Asmi was Sift

(Oneness/Uniqueness in the essence of Allh, the Divine Names and Attributes)13

As Allhu Tal stated,

قُلْ هُوَ اللّٰهُ أَحَدٌ. اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ. لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ. وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ.
Say, He is Allh, the One! Allh, is as-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need). He has never had offspring, nor was He born. And there is none comparable unto Him. (al-Ikhls 112/1-4)

And His Tals statement,


وَلِلّٰهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.
And al-Asmul Husn (the Most Beautiful Names) belong to Allh, so invoke Him by them, and leave the company of those who deviate in His Names. They shall be recompensed for what they have been doing. (al-Arf 7/180)

Moreover, He Tal stated,


لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ.
There is nothing like unto Him, and He is as-Sam (the All-Hearer), al-Basr (the All-Seer). (ash-Shr 42/11)



Quote
Footnotes:

1- This pamphlet is found between pages 66-72 in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, which contains the pamphlets of the Ulam of Najd, compiled by Abdur Rahmn bin Qsim. In addition, due to its benefit, even though it is not found in many of the wide-spread copies of the Rislah, we have included a response given by the Shaykh Rahimahullh to a question regarding the types of Tawhd. The question and its answer can be found in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, pages 72-73.

2- It seems as the author Rahimahullh has taken the following yah as a foundation for his proclamation in the opening,


قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى.
Say, Praise is due to Allh, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen! (an-Naml 27/59)

3- We added the headings such as Tawhd, Shirk, Kufr, and Nifq in consideration to simplify things for the reader.

4- It was narrated by Imm al-Baghaw Rahimahullh that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhuma stated,


كَلُّ مَا وَرَدَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ مِنَ الْعِبَادَةِ فَمَعْنَاهَا التَّوْحِيدُ.
The meaning of all that is mentioned in the Quran regarding Ibdah is Tawhd. (Tafsrul Baghaw, Dru Tayba print, 1/71, Tafsr of Sratul Baqarah yah 21)

Also, with the Isnd (chain of narration) that has reached him, Imm at-Tbar narrated in his Tafsr that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum explained
اُعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ worship your Rabb (Lord) in Sratul Baqarah yah 21 as وَحِّدُوا رَبَّكُمْ Make Tawhd of (unify) your Rabb (Lord)! (Imm at-Tbar, Tafsrut Tbar, Ahmad Shkir print, 1/362) Among the scholars who narrated this from Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum, as-Suyt mentions the names of Ibnu Ishq and Ibnu Ab Htim. (as-Suyt, ad-Durrul Manthr fit Tafsr bil Masr, 1/85)

5- The implication here is Tawhd (unification) in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. Hence the struggle between the Anbiy and their Ummah was not in Tawhdur Rubbiyyah; it was not regarding the existence of Allh nor about Allh not having a partner in creating, or providing. On the contrary, it was about the unification of Allh in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. As known, except for those who stubbornly deny such as the likes of Pharaoh and Nimrod, most of the previous nations did not deny Allh. yh 36 of Suratun Nahl mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh indicates this. This matter will be dealt with in detail in the following pages while describing the types of Tawhd Inshllh.

6- Linguistically, Tawhd means unification. In the Sharah, it means to unify Allhu Tal in what is peculiar to Him and to deny them from any other. As it will be explained in the following pages what is peculiar to Allhu Tal is Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes.

7- In his al-Ibnah, the Muhaddith (Hadth scholar) Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar Rahimahullh (d. 387H) from amongst the Hanbal jurists, while sticking to the order Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes, stated the following regarding these types of Tawhd,

and this is because the basis of faith in Allh that is obligatory upon the creation to believe in when confirming faith in Allhu Tal is in three things:

1.   The servant believes in His existence, so that this would serve to contradict the Maddhab (school of thought) of Ahlut Tatl (people of denial) who do not recognize the existence of a Creator. [In many texts, the term
رَبَّانِيَّتَهُ, meaning His Rabbniyyah (Lordship) is used in place of His existence, although this term appears in the narration we have chosen to quote here. Translator.]

2.   That he believes in His Wahdniyyah (Oneness), so that this would serve to contradict the Madhhib (pl. Madhhab) of Ahlus Shirk (polytheists/pagans), who recognize the Creator and associate others (as partners) with Him in worship.

3.   That he believes in Him as described by the Attributes which are not possible for Him to not be described with of Ilm (Knowledge), Qudrah (Power), Hikmah (Wisdom), and everything else that He described Himself with in His Book.

For we know that many of those -who affirm in an absolute manner and unify Allh- often deviate in His Sift. His deviation in Allhs Sift becomes something which damages his Tawhd. For this reason, we find that Allhu Tal has addressed His servants by calling them to believe in every one of these three aspects and to have faith in them. When it comes to Him calling them to affirm His existence and Oneness, we are not going to mention it here due to the length and vastness of speech regarding it.

This is also because the Jahm claims he affirms both [Rubbiyyah and Ulhiyyah. Translator], whereas his denial of the Sift nullifies his claim of both. (Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar, al-Ibnatul Kubr, 6/173)

8- In the original script, this and the following two headings regarding the types of Tawhd are actually sentences such as The first foundation is Tawhdur Rubbiyyah However, we found it beneficial to present them in a heading structure in order to simplify it for the reader.

9- In the English language, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah can be translated as the Oneness of Allhu Tal in Divine Lordship, i.e. affirming Allhu Tal as the sole Lord.

Rabb is a word that comes from the root letters
ر - ب - ب (in the Arabic language). It denotes the meanings lord, master, educator, sovereign, administrator etc.

According to this, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah means affirming Allhu Tal as the creator and administrator of the universe, the sole disposer over all creation.

This is in opposition to some Ghult Sf (extremist mystics) and their likes, which attribute the authority of disposing to the Awliy (pl. Wal; saints), claim these Awliy come to the help of those in request, and answer the call of those who call upon them. Surely, all of these are beliefs that encompass taking those other than Allh as Rabb.

10- The affirmation of the Mushrikn regarding Tawhdur Rubbiyyah is generally their acceptance of Allhu Tal as the sole creator, provider, and administrator of the affairs of the universe. Hence, this is the indication of the yt (pl. yah; sign, verse from the Qurn) mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh in evidence. Again, in another yah, Allhu Tal stated,


وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ.
And most of them believe not in Allh without associating (other as partners) with Him! (Ysuf 12/106)

According to what Ibnu Jarr at-Tabar narrated with its Isnd, Ikrimah Rahimahullh said in explanation to the point at issue,

تَسْأَلُهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ وَمَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَيَقُولُونَ: اللّٰهُ، فَذٰلِكَ إِيمَانُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ، وَهُمْ يَعْبُدُونَ غَيْرَهُ.
You ask them, Who created them, and who created the heavens and the earth, they say Allh. This is their mn (belief) in Allh while they worship other than Him.

Then he stated the following,


يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ رَبُّهُمْ، وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَهُمْ، وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ.
They know that He is their Rabb and that He is the one who created them while they associate partners to Him.

Ibnu Jarr quoted similar narrations from Ibnu Abbs, Mujhid, and others. (at-Tabar, Tafsrut Tabar, Ahmad Shkir print, 16/286+.)

With this, it is established that the Mushrikn accept Rubbiyyah in the sense of Allh being the Creator and that they do affirm this. However, they associate partners with Allh in Ibdah. Otherwise, it is not at issue that anyone from among the Mushrikn accepts Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in the absolute sense. Hence, if they had truly unified Allhu Tal in His Rubbiyyah, this would have necessitated them to unify Allh in His Ulhiyyah and making Du to a being other than Allh, requesting aid and Shafah (intercession) from a being other than Allh would have never been relevant for them. All of these are actions of Shirk in the Rubbiyyah of Allh because benefiting and causing harm are characteristics of Rubbiyyah.

Therefore, it is not possible for any Mushrik to truly affirm Tawhdur Rubbiyyah. All types of Tawhd (Rubbiyyah, Ulhiyyah, and al-Asm was Sift) are pertinent to one another and necessitate one another. Scholars have made this allotment so that Tawhd is understood accurately, otherwise, all types of Tawhd denote to the same truth.

The Shaykh Rahimahullh stated that the Mushrikn accept Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in order to clarify that if one is associating partners to Allh in worship just like the Mushrikn of today do, merely unifying Allh in His creating and providing; it does not enter him into the fold of Islm. Wallhu Alam!

11- Tawhdul Ulhiyyah can be translated as Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship in the English language. The meaning of Ilah is Mabd; i.e. the worshipped one. According to this, as Tawhdul Ulhiyyah means recognizing Allhu Tal as the One and Only Deity worthy of worship, it also signifies not associating any partners to Him in Ibdah. Explanations regarding the term Ilah by Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh will be given in the pages to come. Imm al-Qurtub Rahimahullh stated the following regarding Ibdah i.e., servitude,

The Asl (base) of Ibdah is at-Tadhallul (submissiveness) and al-Khud (subservience). The functions of the Sharah (Islamic law) which abide the Mukallafn (pl. Mukallaf; legally responsible) are called Ibdah. This is because those who are Mukallaf observe and carry them out submissively and in servitude to Allhu Tal. (Quoted by Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, Fathul Majd, 14)

Indeed, this meaning is found in the description given to the types of Ibdah by the Shaykh Rahimahullh.

Fundamentally, each action that comprises lowering oneself, submissiveness, absolute obedience, unconditional love etc. in the position of perfection before a deity is Ibdah. The Ibdah mentioned here are the most prevalent types.

12- The full text of the yah mentioned by the Shaykh is as follows,


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ.
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way. Their case is like the one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not. And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)

13- The intent here is to unify Allhu Tal in His essence, divine names and attributes. Meaning, not to section the Dht (Essence) of Allh by attributing a spouse, child etc. to Him, isolating al-Asm was Sift (the divine names and attributes) only to Him without associating any partner to Him, and to accept and confirm al-Asm was Sift of Allhu Tal without resembling Him to His creation, with no Tawl (figurative interpretation) nor Tahrf (distortion).
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET
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اَلشِّرْكُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
SHIRK (POLYTHEISM) AND ITS TYPES

Know that the opposite of Tawhd is Shirk (polytheism; the worship of others along with Allh)14 and Shirk is of three types:

1.   Ash-Shirkul Akbar (Major Polytheism),

2.   Ash-Shirkul Asghar (Minor Polytheism),

3.   Ash-Shirkul Khaf (Inconspicuous/Hidden Polytheism).


الشِّرْكُ الْأَكْبَرُ
1.   Ash-Shirkul Akbar (Major Polytheism)15

The evidence for ash-Shirkul Akbar is the statement of Allhu Tal,

إِنَّ اللّٰهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذٰلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللّٰهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا.
Indeed, Allh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allh has certainly gone far astray. (an-Nis 4/116)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَقَالَ الْمَسِيحُ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ مَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللّٰهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ.
The Mash (Messiah) has said, O Children of Isrl (Israel), worship Allh, my Lord and your Lord. Indeed, he who associates others with Allh -Allh has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers. (al-Midah 5/72)

Ash-Shirkul Akbar is of four types16:


شِرْكُ الدَّعْوَةِ
a.   Shirkud Du (Polytheism in Supplication/Prayer)

The first type is Shirkud Du (invocation, supplication, or prayer to other deities besides Allh), and the evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

فَإِذَا رَكِبُوا فِي الْفُلْكِ دَعَوُا اللّٰهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ. لِيَكْفُرُوا بِمَا آتَيْنَاهُمْ وَلِيَتَمَتَّعُوا فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ.
So when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allh, having their faith purely in Him. But when He saves them (and brings them) to the land, in no time they associate others with Him. Thus becoming ungrateful for what We gave them. Let them have some enjoyment, then they will soon come to know. (al-Ankabt 29/65-66)

شِرْكُ النِّيَّةِ
b.   Shirkun Niyyah (Polytheism in Intention)17

The second type is Shirkun Niyyah. Niyyah (Intention) is, Irdah (purpose) and Qasd (determination), the evidence for this (Shirkun Niyyah) is the statement of Allhu Tal,

مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا نُوَفِّ إِلَيْهِمْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فِيهَا وَهُمْ فِيهَا لاَ يُبْخَسُونَ. أُولٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ النَّارُ وَحَبِطَ مَا صَنَعُوا فِيهَا وَبَاطِلٌ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.
Whoever desires the life of this world and its adornments -We fully repay them for their deeds therein, and they therein will not be deprived. Those are the ones for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but Fire and vain are the deeds they did therein and of no effect is that which they used to do. (Hd 11/15-16)

شِرْكُ الطَّاعَةِ
c.   Shirkut Tah (Polytheism in Rendering Obedience to any Authority against the Order of Allh)

The third type is Shirkut Tah, and the evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

اِتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلٰهًا وَاحِدًا لَا إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ.
They (the Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allh, and (they also took as their Lord) al-Mash (Messiah), son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded to worship none but One Ilah, La Ilaha Illa Huwa (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except He). Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him). (at-Tawbah 9/31)

The Tafsr (exegesis) of this yah that has no obscurity is their obedience to the Ulam (pl. lim; scholars) and Ubbd (pl. bid; monks) in Masiyah (sin) to Allh Subhnahu; it is not them supplicating to the Ulam and Ubbd. Just like when Adiyy bin Htim Radiyallhu Anh asked,


لَسْنَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ We do not worship them (i.e. Rabbis and Monks).

Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam informed him in explanation that such worship is by obeying them in the matters of Masiyah (sin) to Allh.18


شِرْكُ الْمَحَبَّةِ
d.   Shirkul Mahabbah (Polytheism in Love)

The fourth type is Shirkul Mahabbah (showing the love which is due to Allh Alone to others), and the evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلّٰهِ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلّٰهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللّٰهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ.
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allh), they love them as they love Allh. But those who believe, love Allh more (than anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment that all power belongs to Allh and that Allh is Severe in punishment. (al-Baqarah 2/165)

Until His Tals statement,


وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ.
... and they will never get out of the Fire.19 (al-Baqarah 2/167)

الشِّرْكُ الْأَصْغَرُ
2.   Ash-Shirkul Asghar (Minor Polytheism)20

The second type is ash-Shirkul Asghar, which is ar-Riy (showing off), and the evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُوا لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا وَلاَ يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا.
So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord. (al-Kahf 18/110)

الشِّرْكُ الْخَفِيُّ
3.   Ash-Shirkul Khaf (Inconspicuous/Hidden Polytheism)21

The third type is ash-Shirkul Khaf (Inconspicuous/Hidden Shirk), and the evidence for this is the statement of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam,

اَلشِّرْكُ فِي هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ عَلَى الصَّفَاةِ السَّوْدَاءِ فِي ظُلْمَةِ اللَّيْلِ
Shirk in my Ummah (nation) is much more hidden than the pace of an ant crawling upon a black stone in the darkness of the night.

The Kaffrah (expiation) for it (inconspicuous Shirk) is the statement of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam,


اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيْئًا وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ مِنَ الذَّنْبِ الَّذِي لاَ أَعْلَمُ
O Allh, I seek protection in You from ascribing partners to You knowingly and I seek forgiveness from You for those things which I do not know.22



Quote
Footnotes:

14- Linguistically, Shirk means associating partners. In the simplest form of explanation, in Islm, it means giving to another that which belongs to Allhu Tal. Since Shirk is the opposite of Tawhd, associating partners to Allhu Tal in His Rubbiyyah, His Ulhiyyah, and His Asm was Sift in opposition to the fundamentals of Tawhd constitutes the foundation of Shirk.

15- Ash-Shirkul Akbar causes one to exit the Dn of Islm and become Kfir. The description of Shirk given above in footnote 1 pertains to ash-Shirkul Akbar.

16- The types of ash-Shirkul Akbar mentioned under this heading are merely the most common types, otherwise, Shirk is not limited to these only.

17- Shirkun Niyyah is the individuals request of the Duny (world) through righteous deeds that are supposed to be aimed at the khirah (hereafter). Ar-Riy, meaning worshipping to show off is also in the scope of this. Just like the Munfiq, when an individual performs righteous deeds for the sake of Duny with no anticipation of the khirah, this is in the form of ash-Shirkul Akbar. However, when a Muslim combines ar-Riy with some of his actions while believing in Allhu Tal and the Last Day, then it is called ash-Shirkul Asghar.

18- At-Tirmidh, Hadth no: 3095; at-Tabar, Tafsr, 14/209-211, no: 16631-16634.

Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam was reciting the following yah,


اِتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ.
They (the Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allh (at-Tawbah 9/31)

When Adiyy bin Htim Radiyallhu Anh asked Raslullh stating, We (Jews and Christians) do not worship them (i.e. the rabbis and the monks). Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam informed him,


أَلَيْسَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا أَحَلَّ اللهُ فَتُحَرِّمُونَهُ، وَيُحِلُّونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللهُ فَتُحِلُّونَهُ؟ قَالَ: قُلْتُ: بَلَى. قَالَ: فَتِلْكَ عِبَادَتُهُمْ.
Dont you make Harm (impermissible) what Allh made Hall (permissible) when they (i.e. the rabbis and monks) made it Harm, and dont you make Hall what Allh made Harm when they made it Hall? Adiyy Radiyallhu Anh said: I said, Yes indeed! the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, This is their worship.

The wording belongs to at-Tabar. In ad-Durrul Mansr 4/174, as-Suyt mentions the names of Ibnu Sad, Abd bin Humayd, Ibnul Mundhir, Ibnu Ab Htim, at-Tabarn, Abush Shaykh, Ibnu Mardawayh, and al-Bayhaq among the scholars who narrated this narration.

As seen, the intent by obedience in Masiyah (sin) is acceptance of this ruling when they made the Harm (impermissible) Hall (permissible) and the Hall Harm. Otherwise, an individual who acts upon Masiyah having complied with another who commanded Masiyah due to this will not become Kfir, but a sinner.

19- The full translation of the yah mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh is as follows,


وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلّٰهِ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلّٰهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللّٰهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ. إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ. وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا كَذٰلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللّٰهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ.
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allh), they love them as they love Allh. But those who believe, love Allh more (than anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment that all power belongs to Allh and that Allh is Severe in punishment. When those who were followed, disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. And those who followed will say, If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned us! Thus, Allh will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire. (al-Baqarah 2/165-167)

20- Ash-Shirkul Asghar is a type of Shirk that does not take one out from the fold of Islm. In reality, actions of ash-Shirkul Asghar do not contain giving what is peculiar to Allhu Tal to another from the creation. However, in appearance, it gives the misapprehension of associating partnership between Allhu Tal and the creation. For instance the statement, If Allh and you will (such and such will happen). Although it is not the intention of those who utter such statement to associate partners to Allh, because the wording attributes requesting from Allhu Tal and the slave, it is connotative of Shirk.

Similarly, although the one who shows off in his worship does not intend to worship other than Allhu Tal through Tadhm, servitude etc. since he is looking for the pleasure of other than Allhu Tal, in appearance he outwardly causes it to seem as if he is associating partners with Allhu Tal in Ibdah. For this reason, in the Nass (textual proofs), actions as such are called ash-Shirkul Asghar i.e. minor polytheism.

The author Rahimahullhs definition of ash-Shirkul Asghar as ar-Riy is not to confine, rather it is to exemplify, meaning ar-Riy and that which is similar to it. Since in the Nass, such as those quoted above, many actions that do not exit one from the fold of Islam are named as Shirk. Wallhu Alam.

Also with this, the intention of the author Rahimahullh could also be to follow the Hadth by sufficing with that which is mentioned in it.

It has been narrated from Mahmd bin Labd Radiyallhu Anh that Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


إِنَّ أَخْوَفَ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمُ الشِّرْكُ الْأَصْغَرُ قَالُوا: وَمَا الشِّرْكُ الْأَصْغَرُ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ: الرِّيَاءُ.
The thing I fear most for you is ash-Shirkul Asghar (minor polytheism). They (i.e., the Sahbah) said, What is ash-Shirkul Asghar O Raslullh? He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, ar-Riy (showing off). (Ahmad, Musnad, 39/39)

21- Ash-Shirkul Khaf is another name given to ash-Shirkul Asghar (Minor Shirk), which does not take one out from the fold of Islm. Thus, this is the implication of the Hadth regarding seeking forgiveness from ash-Shirkul Khaf. There is no forgiveness for ash-Shirkul Akbar (Major Shirk) unless one repents from it. Thus, Allhu Tal stated,

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ.
Indeed, Allh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. (an-Nis 4/48)

Ash-Shirkul Khaf is a name generally given to the types of Shirk not easy to determine, which people fall in without noticing, such as ar-Riy (showing off). In his Sunan, Ibnu Mjah narrated the following:


عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ: خَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَنَحْنُ نَتَذَاكَرُ الْمَسِيحَ الدَّجَّالَ، فَقَالَ: أَلاَ أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِمَا هُوَ أَخْوَفُ عَلَيْكُمْ عِنْدِي مِنَ الْمَسِيحِ الدَّجَّالِ؟ قَالَ: قُلْنَا: بَلَى، فَقَالَ: اَلشِّرْكُ الْخَفِيُّ، أَنْ يَقُومَ الرَّجُلُ يُصَلِّي، فَيُزَيِّنُ صَلاَتَهُ، لِمَا يَرَى مِنْ نَظَرِ رَجُلٍ.
It was narrated that Ab Sad Radiyallhu Anh said, Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam came out to us when we were discussing al-Mashud Dajjl (the False Messiah) and said, Shall I not inform you of that which I fear more for you than al-Mashud Dajjl? We said, Of course! He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, It is ash-Shirkul Khaf (Inconspicuous/Hidden Shirk); for a man to stand to pray and beautify his Salh (daily prayer) due to seeing a man looking at him. (Ibnu Mjah, Hadth 4204)

22- As he does with most Ahdth (pl. Hadth), the author Rahimahullh has narrated this Hadth by content and not verbatim. This particular Hadth has many narrations and witnesses. As quoted in al-Adabul Mufrad by al-Bukhr, the narration by Ab Bakr Radiyallhu Anh reads as follows,


حَدَّثَنَا عَبَّاسٌ النَّرْسِيُّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَصْرَةِ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ مَعْقِلَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، يَقُولُ: اِنْطَلَقْتُ مَعَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ، إِلَى النَّبِيِّ فَقَالَ: يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ، لَلشِّرْكُ فِيكُمْ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ، فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: وَهَلِ الشِّرْكُ إِلاَّ مَنْ جَعَلَ مَعَ اللهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ؟ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ: وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، لَلشِّرْكُ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ، أَلاَ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى شَيْءٍ إِذَا قُلْتَهُ ذَهَبَ عَنْكَ قَلِيلُهُ وَكَثِيرُهُ؟ قَالَ: قُلِ: اللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لاَ أَعْلَمُ.
After narrating the Isnd, Maqil bin Yasr Radiyallhu Anh stated,

We went to the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam with Ab Bakr as-Siddq Radiyallhu Anh. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, O Ab Bakr! Amongst you, Shirk is more hidden than the crawling of an ant. Upon hearing this, Ab Bakr Radiyallhu Anh said, Is Shirk something other than taking another deity with Allh? The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, By the One whose Hand my soul is in! Verily, Shirk is more hidden then the crawling of an ant. Should I not show you such a Du (supplication) that if you recite it, you will be free from minor and major Shirk. He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, Say:

O Allh, I seek protection in You from ascribing partners to You knowingly, and I seek forgiveness from You for those things which I do not know.
(al-Bukhr, al-Adabul Mufrad, Hadth no: 716)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET
« Reply #2 on: 07.06.2015, 09:04:53 AM »


اَلْكُفْرُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
KUFR (DISBELIEF) AND ITS TYPES23

Kufr is of two types:

اَلْكُفْرُ الْأَكْبَرُ
1.   Al-Kufrul Akbar (Major Disbelief)

Kufr (disbelief), which excludes one completely from the Millah (i.e., the nation of Islm), is of five types24:

كُفْرُ التَّكْذِيبِ
a.   Kufrut Takdhb (Disbelief by Denial & Rejection)

The first type is Kufrut Takdhb (Disbelief by Denial and Rejection), and its evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللّٰهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءَهُ أَلَيْسَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَثْوًى لِلْكَافِرِينَ.
And who is more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allh or denies the truth when it comes to him? Is there not a dwelling in Hell for the Kfirn (disbelievers)? (al-Ankabt 29/68)

كُفْرُ الْإِسْتِكْبَارِ وَالْإِبَاءِ مَعَ التَّصْدِيقِ
b.   Kufrul Istikbri wal Ibi maat Tasdq (Disbelief by Pride & Rejection with Affirmation)

The second type is Kufrul Istikbri wal Ibi maat Tasdq (Disbelief by Pride and Rejection with Affirmation), and its evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ.
And (remember) when We said to the angels, Prostrate yourselves before dam. And they prostrated except ibls (satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allh). (al-Baqarah 2/34)

كُفْرُ الشَّكِّ
c.   Kufrush Shakk (Disbelief by Doubt)

The third type is Kufrush Shakk (Disbelief by Doubt) and it is Kufrudh Dhan (Disbelief by Lacking Conviction), and its evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,

وَدَخَلَ جَنَّتَهُ وَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ قَالَ مَا أَظُنُّ أَنْ تَبِيدَ هَذِهِ أَبَدًا. وَمَا أَظُنُّ السَّاعَةَ قَائِمَةً وَلَئِنْ رُدِدْتُ إِلَى رَبِّي لَأَجِدَنَّ خَيْرًا مِنْهَا مُنْقَلَبًا. قَالَ لَهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَهُوَ يُحَاوِرُهُ أَكَفَرْتَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَكَ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ سَوَّاكَ رَجُلاً.
And he entered his garden while he was unjust to himself. He said, I do not think that this will ever perish. And I do not think the Hour will occur. And even if I should be brought back to my Rabb, I will surely find better than this as a return. His companion said to him while he was conversing with him, Have you disbelieved in He who created you from dust and then from a sperm-drop and then proportioned you (as) a man? (al-Kahf 18/35-37)

كُفْرُ الْإِعْرَاضِ
d.   Kufrul Irdh (Disbelief by Turning away from the Truth)

The fourth type is Kufrul Irdh (Disbelief by Turning away from the Truth) and its evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا عَمَّا أُنْذِرُوا مُعْرِضُونَ.
But those who disbelieve turn away from what they were warned of. (al-Ahqf 46/3)

كُفْرُ النِّفَاقِ
e.   Kufrun Nifq (Disbelief by Hypocrisy)

The fifth type is Kufrun Nifq (Disbelief by Hypocrisy), and its evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,

ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا فَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ.
That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts were sealed, so they understand not. (al-Munfiqn 63/3)
اَلْكُفْرُ الْأَصْغَرُ
2.   Al-Kufrul Asghar (Minor Disbelief)25

Al-Kufrul Asghar (Minor Disbelief) does not exclude one from the Millah (i.e., nation of Islm), and it is Kufrun Nimah (Disbelief Manifesting itself in Ungratefulness for Allh's Blessings or Favors). Its evidence is the statement of Allhu Tal,

وَضَرَبَ اللّٰهُ مَثَلاً قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ آمِنَةً مُطْمَئِنَّةً يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِنْ كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ اللّٰهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللّٰهُ.
And Allah puts forward the example of a town, that dwelt secure and well content; its provision coming to it in abundance from every place; but it (its people) denied the Favours of Allh (with ungratefulness). So Allh made it taste [the extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that which they used to do].26 (an-Nahl 16/112)

And His statement,


إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ لَظَلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ.
Verily! Man is indeed Dhalm (an extreme wrong-doer), Kaffr (an extreme ingrate disbeliever). (Ibrhm 14/34)27



Quote
Footnotes:

23- Rghib al-Isfahn describes the term Kufr in the following manner:

Linguistically, Kufr means to cover/conceal something. Because the night covers the people, it is described as Kfir. The farmers are also called Kfir since they cover/conceal the earth with seeds. () Kufrun Nimah or Kufrnun Nimah means covering/concealing blessings/favors through lack of appreciation. () Allhu Tal stated the following,


وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلاَ تَكْفُرُونِ.
and be grateful to Me (for My countless favours/blessings on you) and never be ungrateful to Me (al-Baqarah 2/152)

The concise quotation from Rghib al-Isfahn ends here. (Rghib al-Isfahn, Al-Mufradt, article
ك - ف - ر)

In his Tafsr regarding the 6th yah of Sratul Baqarah, Imm al-Qurtub explains Kufr to be the opposite of mn. (al-Qurtub, Tafsr, 1/183)

Regarding this in Lisn'ul Arab in summary, mentioned is the following,

Kufr; is the opposite of mn. It is said,

We have mn (belief) in Allh and we have rejected the Tght.

Then Kfir means the one who does not have mn (belief), the one who rejects. The word Takfr is derived from the same root and it means to attribute one to Kufr.
(For more information, refer to: Ibnu Mandhr, Lisnul Arab, 5/144+ Dru Sdir, Beirut, 1414H/1994)

In this case, in the view of the Sharah, the one who does not have an acceptable mn is a Kfir.

Since Kufr is the opposite of mn, it is important to put emphasis on the term mn.

Again, in the same work by Ibnu Mandhr, he mentions the definition the Lugt scholar (Grammarian/Language) az-Zajjj gives to mn is as follows,

mn is to manifest al-Khudh (submission) and al-Qabl (acceptance to the Sharah and that which the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam brought, and having Itiqd (belief) in this and confirming it with the heart. (see Lisnul Arab, 13/23)

Since Kufr is the opposite of mn, according to this description, Kufr is not submitting to the Sharah and rejecting anything from the Sharah.

Because mn is confirmation with the heart, affirmation with speech, and acting with the limbs, Kufr, which is the opposite of mn, can sometimes be with the heart and this is called Itiqd Kufr; it can sometimes be with speech and this is called Qawl Kufr; and sometimes it can be with actions and this is called Amal Kufr.

In short, Kufr is not confined to rejection by the heart, rather it is in the scope of every belief, speech, and action that is unimaginable to emanate from a Mumin (believer).

Herewith, the foundation base of mn and Kufr is the heart. The source of Kufr speech and actions which occur in ones actions is the unbelief of the heart and its opposite, meaning emanating Kufr speech and action while having mn in ones heart is an impossible thing that can never be imagined unless in a situation of Ikrh (coercion).

24- The above-mentioned description of Kufr is the description of Kufrul Akbar (Major Disbelief). The types mentioned are not to confine Kufr to five, but to point out the most prevalently committed major types. Besides, in their books, the scholars have mentioned other types of Kufr such as Kufrul Jahlah (Disbelief of Ignorance).

25- Linguistically, the term Kufr is to cover, conceal, hide, being ungrateful etc. For this reason, in a number of Nass (textual proof), actions which do not take one out of the fold of Islm have been named Kufr, either in regard to this meaning or in the meaning of the branches of Kufr.

These actions -which are attributed as al-Kufrul Asghar (Minor Disbelief)- do not contradict the bases of mn, and sometimes can emanate from the Mumin. As in the following Hadth narrated by Muslim:


سِبَابُ الْمُسْلِمِ فُسُوقٌ وَقِتَالُهُ كُفْرٌ.
Defaming a Muslim is Fusq (evildoing), and fighting him is Kufr. (Muslim, Hadth no: 64)

26- The author Rahimahullh did not quote the section in parenthesis. We found it suitable to add it so that it may help the reader to understand the yah better.

27- In translation, the full text of the yah reads as follows,


وَآتَاكُم مِّن كُلِّ مَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُ وَإِن تَعُدُّوا نِعْمَتَ اللهِ لاَ تُحْصُوهَا إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ لَظَلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ.
And He gave you of all that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allh, you will never be able to count them. Verily! Man is indeed Dhalm (an extreme wrong-doer), Kaffr (an extreme ingrate disbeliever). (Ibrhm 14/34)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET
« Reply #3 on: 07.06.2015, 09:20:10 AM »


اَلنِّفَاقُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
NIFQ (HYPOCRISY) AND ITS TYPES

When it comes to an-Nifq (Hypocrisy)28, it is of two types:

1.   Itiqd Nifq (Hypocrisy in Belief), and

2.   Amal Nifq (Hypocrisy in Actions/Deeds).


اَلنِّفَاقُ الْإِعْتِقَادِيُّ
1.   Itiqd Nifq (Hypocrisy in Belief)

When it comes to the Itiqad, it is of six types:

a.   Belying the Rasl (messenger), or

b.   Belying some of what the Rasl brought, or

c.   Hating the Rasl, or

d.   Hating what the Rasl brought, or

e.   Rejoicing at the downfall of the Dn (religion) of the Rasl, or

f.   Disliking the Dn of the Rasl being victorious.


These are the six types (of Hypocrisy) that make its possessor from those in the lowest depths of an-Nr (the Fire, i.e., Hell).

We seek refuge in Allh from Shiqq (separating) and Nifq (hypocrisy).29


اَلنِّفَاقُ الْعَمَلِيُّ
2.   Amal Nifq (Hypocrisy in Actions/Deeds)

When it comes to the Amal Nifaq30, it is of five types:

a.   When he speaks, he lies;

b.   When he disputes, he resorts to obscene speech;

c.   When he makes a promise, he breaks it;

d.   When he is entrusted, he betrays the trust; and

e.   When he makes an agreement, he proves treacherous.
31

Allh Subhnahu wa Tal knows best!.. May peace and abundant salutations be upon our Sayyid (master) Muhammad,  his family (especially his family, and then upon his entire nation), and his Ashb (companions). (mn!)




Quote
Footnotes:

28- It is mentioned in Lisnul Arab,

Nifq (hypocrisy) is the name of the action done by the Munfiq; entering Islm from one angle and leaving it in another. It is derived from the word Nfiq, meaning the hole of a Jerboa. It is Nfaqa in the past tense form, Yunfiqu in the future/present tense form and Munfaqah and Nifq in the verbal noun form. Although the term Nifq is a known term in Arabic, its usage denoting the meaning of manifesting mn while concealing Kufr is peculiar to Islm, and previously has never been used in this particular meaning in Arabic. (Ibnu Mandhr, Lisnul Arab, concisely from 10/359)

29- Those who perform actions as such are in reality Munfıq and Kfir. Allhu Tal stated,


إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا.
Verily, the Munfiqn (hypocrites) will be in the lowest depths of the Fire - and never will you find for them a helper. (an-Nis 4/145)

30- Not everyone who performs these actions of Nifq will become Kfir. However, because these are actions usually performed by the pure Munfiqn, they have been referenced as actions performed by/signs of the Munfiqn.

31- The Shaykh Rahimahullh, collectively points out the characteristics of the Munfiqn mentioned in various Ahdth. While four characteristics are mentioned in some of the relevant Ahdth, three are mentioned in others. The sources for these Ahdth -with various wordings- are as follows: al-Bukhr, Hadth no: 34; Muslim, Hadth no: 106; at-Tirmidh, Hadth no: 2632 and others.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

 

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