دار التوحيد Dâr'ul Tawhîd

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The Four Rules
« on: 07.06.2015, 09:50:12 AM »

القَوَاعِدُ الأرْبَعَةُ
al-Qawaa'id’ul Arba'ah (The Four Rules)

Shaykh'ul Islam Muhammad Ibn Abd'il Wahhab (rahimahullah)

Shaykh'ul Islam Muhammad Ibn Abd'il Wahhab stated1:

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim (In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful),

I pray to al-Karim Rabb'il Arsh'il Adhim (Almighty God, Lord of the Glorious Throne) that Allah may guide you in Dunya (this world) and Akhirah (Hereafter); that He makes you blessed where ever you are; that He makes you one of those who recognize His Shukr (bounty) when given, who remain Sabr (patient) in face of adversity, and who Istighfaar (repent and seek His forgiveness) when they disobey (sin). These three characteristics are the indices of as Sa’adah (felicity and blessedness).

Know, may Allah cultivate you in obeying Him, the Hanifiyyah (pure worship and monotheism), which is the Millah (religion) of Ibrahim (alayhi salam), is worshiping Allah alone, of Mukhlisan (dedicating yourself sincerely in pure religious devotion to serving Him) to His Din (religion). [This is what Allah has enjoined Jamia’an Naas (on all men), and for this reason He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has created them.]2 As (Allah) Ta'ala stated:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالأِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

"I have not created jinn and men but to worship Me." (adh-Dhariyat 51/56)

When you know that Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) has created you to worship Him, you will realize that surely Ibadaah can not be named as Ibadaah except with Tawhid (pure monotheism). Just as as-Salah (prayer) is not called Salah (prayer) without Taharah (purity). Shirk voids Ibadaah when it enters it, just like Hadath (filth) when it enters Taharah.

As (Allah) Ta’ala stated:

مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَنْ يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ بِالْكُفْرِ أُولَئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ

"It is not for such as join gods with Allah, to maintain the mosques of Allah while they witness against their own souls to infidelity. The works of such bear no fruit: In Fire shall they dwell." (at-Tawbah 9/17)3

When you realize that when Shirk (associating others with Allah) is mixed with Ibadaah (worship) it voids it, his deeds are vain and it dooms its owner to the eternal Hellfire, you will realize that your most important care should be to have all the knowledge related thereto, I hope that Allah may save you this terrible abyss, that is Shirk (associating partners) to Allah. Allah Ta’ala stated (the following) concerning it:

إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ

"Allah will not forgive any the association of anything with Him; but He will forgive any lesser offense to whomsoever He chooses." (an-Nisa 4/48; an-Nisa 4/116)4

Such significant knowledge consists of Qawaid (pl., Qaidah; rules), elaborated by Allah Ta’ala in His Book.

The First Rule

You know that the Kuffar (the unbelieving pagans) whom Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam fought, did acknowledge that  Allah Ta’ala is indeed al-Khaliq (the Creator), al-Mudabbir (Provider and Maker of this world). However, this did not enter them into Islam5. The evidence is in the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ

"Ask them: Who sends down for you your provision from the sky and grows it out of the earth? Who hears your prayer and sees your condition? Who brings the living out of the dead and the dead out of the living? Who directs the course of the world? They will answer: Allah. Answer: Would you then not fulfill your duty to Him?" (Yunus 10/31)

The Second Rule

They (i.e., the unbelievers) state: “We do not make Du'a (pray) to them (their objects of worship) and we call on them except that we request al-Qurb (nearness) and they may Shafa'ah (intercede).6 The evidence to this nearness is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلاَّ لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَى إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ

"Those who worshiped others as patrons beside Allah, claiming that they did so only to come through their intercession nearer to Him, will receive the judgment of Allah in the matter they contend. Allah will not guide the ingrate, the liar." (az-Zumar 39/3)

Evidence regarding (the request of the Mushrikin of) Shafa’ah (intercession) is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَؤُلاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ

"They serve beside Allah beings which can neither benefit nor harm, claiming: These are our intercessors with Allah." (Yunus 10/18)

Shafa’ah (intercession) is of two types: Manfi (illegitimate) Shafa’ah and the Muthbiht (legitimate) Shafa’ah.

Manfi Shafaah (the illegitimate intercession) is that what is sought from sources other than Allah regarding matters where all the power lies in Allah alone.7 The evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَنفِقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لاَّ بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلاَ خُلَّةٌ وَلاَ شَفَاعَةٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

"O men who believe, spend of that which We have provided for you before the Day when there will be neither sale nor purchase, neither favors nor intercession. The unbelievers are themselves unjust." (al-Baqarah 2/254)

َالشَّفَاعَةُ الْمُثْبِتَةُ Muthbat Shafa'ah (the legitimate intercession) is that which is asked of Allah (with regards to the matters that only Allah is capable to do so)8, where the intercessor honoured with Shafa’ah (from Him), and the interceded for is he whom Allah is pleased to accept as such for his word and deed. As (Allah) Ta’ala stated:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ

"No one may intercede with Allah except by His permission." (al-Baqarah 2/255)

The Third Rule

(It is the knowledge that) the Nabi (Prophet) sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam clarified to people that they differentiate in their worship. From them those who worshiped al-Malaika (angels); those who worshiped al-Anbiya (the prophets) and as-Salihin (the righteous); those who worshiped trees and stones, and from them those who worship the sun and the moon9 were fought without distinction by Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam. The evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ

"And fight them, that there may be no aberration in religion, and all religion belongs to Almighty Allah." (al-Baqarah 2/193; al-Anfal 8/39)

a- The evidence of (them worshiping) the sun and the moon is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ لا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

"Day and night, sun and moon, are His creation and sign. Do not worship the sun or the moon, but Allah, their Creator, if you seek the truth." (Fussilat 41/37)

b- The evidence of (them worshiping) al-Malaika (the angels) is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

وَلا يَأْمُرَكُمْ أَنْ تَتَّخِذُوا الْمَلائِكَةَ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ أَرْبَاباً

"Almighty Allah does not command you to take the angels and prophets as Lords." (Al-i Imran 3/80)10

c- The evidence of (them worshiping) al-Anbiya (the prophets) is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنْتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَهَيْنِ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ إِنْ كُنْتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلا أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ عَلاَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ

"And Allah said to Isa, son of Maryam: Did you ask men to take you and your mother for objects of worship beside Almighty Allah? He answered: Praise be to You, O God! How can I have asked that which is not mine to ask? If I did, You know it and all that is in my mind. I do not know what is in Your mind, O Transcendent, All-Knowing God! I have not conveyed to them except what You have commanded me to convey, namely, Worship and serve God, my and your only Lord. I was a witness for You in their midst. When You caused me to die, You took over the witnessing on them as well as on all else. If You punish them, they are Your creatures; and if You forgive them, You are the Mighty, the Wise." (al-Ma'idah 5/116-118)11

d- The evidence of (them worshiping) as-Salihin (the righteous) is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَى رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُوراً

"Those unto whom they pray (i.e., the saints) themselves seek an avenue to their Lord's mercy, compete in coming close to Almighty Allah, and fear His punishment. Punishment of your Lord is certainly to be shunned." (al-Isra 17/57)

e- The evidence of (them worshiping) the trees and the stones is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ اللاَّتَ وَالْعُزَّى وَمَنَاةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الأُخْرَى

"Have you considered al-Lat, al-Uzza and the third one Manat? (The names of false gods which were worshiped by the pre-Islamic Arabs)." (an-Najm 53/19-20)

And also the Hadith of Abu Waaqid al-Laythi radiyallahu anh who said:

خَرَجْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -إِلَى حُنَيْنٍ وَنَحْنُ حُدَثَاءُ عَهْدٍ بِكُفْرٍ، وَلِلِمُشْرِكِينَ سِدْرَةٌ، يَعْكُفُونَ عِنْدَهَا وَيَنُوطُونَ بِهَا أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ، يُقَالَ لَهَا ذَاتُ أَنْوَاطٍ، فَمَرَرْنَا بِسِدْرَةٍ فَقُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ اجْعَلْ لَنَا ذَاتَ أَنْوَاطٍ كَمَا لَهُمْ ذَاتُ أَنْوَاطٍ. الحَدِيثَ

“We went out with Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam to (the Battle of) Hunayn, and we had just recently come out of Kufr (disbelief). Mushrikin (the polytheists) used to have a lote-tree, which they would organize by and hang their swords on (seeking blessings from it); it was called Dhat Anwaat. So we passed by a lote-tree and said: O Rasulullah! Make for us a Dhat al-Anwaat, just as they have a Dhat Anwaat?"12 (and the text of the Hadith...)13

The Fourth Rule

The Mushrik (people who associate partners with Allah) in our time are worse than those Mushrik of the past (pre-Islamic times). For, the ancient ones used to only worship others besides Allah in prosperity and return to genuine faith in adversity, whereas the present day Mushrik are constant in their Shirk, regardless of prosperity or adversity.14 The evidence for this is the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:

فَإِذَا رَكِبُوا فِي الْفُلْكِ دَعَوُا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ

"And when they ride in barks (in stormy seas) they address their prayers to Almighty Allah in complete sincerity, but relapse into Shirk (i.e., associating partners with Him) when they reach the shore." (al-Ankabut 29/65);

وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَنْ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَنْ دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ

"And who is more astray than one who invokes, besides Allah, such as will not answer him to the Day of Judgment, and who (in fact) are unconscious of their call (to them)?" (al-Ahqaf 46/5)15

Wallahu A'lam (And Allah knows best)!.. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad, his family and his companions.16-

1- ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 2/23-26; Muallafat'ush Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd’il Wahhab, 1/199-202
2- This can only be found in ad-Durar'us Saniyyah and therefore it is not present in Muallafat'ush Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd’il Wahhab.

3- This Ayah (verse) is mentioned only in Durar'us Saniyyah.

4- This Ayah had not been recorded in Durar’us Saniyyah.

5- The first rule was mentioned a little different in Durar’us Saniyyah:

"The First Rule: Kuffar that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam fought with did acknowledge that  Allah Ta’ala is indeed al-Khaliq (creator), al-Razzaq (provider), al-Muhyi (life giver), al-Mu’mit (creator of death), al-Mudabbir who is the provider and the maker of this world. However, this did not enter them into Islam."

6- In Durar’us Saniyya this passage is recorded as follows:

"They (i.e., the Mushrikin) say: We make Du’a to them only for al-Qurb (nearness) and ash-Shafa'ah (intercede), we do not ask from them but we ask Allah by their Shafa’ah and becoming near to Allah with them."

7- In Durar’us Saniyya this passage is recorded as follows:

"Manfi Shafa’ah (the illegitimate intercession) is that which is being sought of matters where all the power lies in Allah alone from sources other than Allah."

8- This Ziyadah (addition) is mentioned in Durar’us Saniyyah.

9- In Durar’us Saniyya the of wording is different:

"Amongst them those who worship the sun and the moon, amongst them those who worship  the Anbiya and the Salihin, amongst them those who worship the trees and the stones; Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam fought with without any distinction."

10- In Durar’us Saniyya, for the evidence of them worshiping the angels the following Ayah has been given:

ويوم يحشرهم جميعاً ثم يقول للملائكة أهؤلاء إياكم كانوا يعبدون، قالوا سبحانك أنت ولينا من دونهم بل كانوا يعبدون الجن أكثرهم بهم مؤمنون

"On the Day He will gather them all together, and say to the angels: Was it you that these men used to worship? They will say: Glory to Thee! Thou art our Protector; not them. Nay, but they worshiped the Jinns, most of them believed in them." (Saba 34/40-41)

11- In Durar’us Saniyya, the following Ayah was given as the evidence them worshiping the prophets:

ولا يأمركم أن تتخذوا الملائكة والنبيين أرباباً أيأمركم بالكفر بعد إذ أنتم مسلمون

"Nor would he instruct you to take angels and prophets for lords and patrons. What would he bid you to unbelief after ye have bowed after ye have bowed your will (to Allah in Islam)?" (Al-i Imran 3/80)

12- Tirmidhi, Fitan, 18, #2180; Ahmad, 5/218, #218; Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi, #1346

We had not come across the text which the Muallif (author) mentioned. Amongst the closest narration from the various narrations is the Riwayah (narration) of at-Tayalisi therefore we insert the narration of at-Tayalisi in his Musnad. To see the text that the Muallif (rahimahullah) quoted in the work, shall refer back to its Arabic version that we provided.

Tirmidhi said: This is a Hasan (good) Hadith. Kharith ibn Awf is the name of the Sahabah, Abu Waqid Laythi. With regards to this issue, Ahadith was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyalalhu anh) and Abu Sa’id (radiyallahu anh).

13- Rest of the Hadith was given in Durar’us Saniyya which is as follows:

فقال  رَسُولُ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم الله أكبر، إنها السنن، قلتم والذي نفسي بيده، كما قالت بنو إسرائيل لموسىَ

"Therefore Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: Allahu Akbar (Allah is Great)!.. This way; By the One in Whose is my soul! (i.e., Allah) this is like what Bani Isra’il (Children of Israel) said to Musa (alayhi salam):

اجعل لنا إلهاً كما لهم آلهة قال إنكم قوم تجهلون، إن هؤلاء متبر ما هم فيه وباطل ما كانوا يعملون

"O Musa fashion for us a god like unto the gods they have. He said: Surely ye are a people without knowledge. As to these folk, the cult they are in is (but) a fragment of a ruin, and vain is the (worship) which they practise." (al-A’raf 7/138-139)

14-In Durar’us Saniyyah, this part takes place as follows:

"For, the ancient ones were sincere to Allah in adversity and worship others besides Allah in prosperity and, whereas the present day Mushrik are constant in their Shirk, regardless of prosperity or adversity."

15- This Ayah (verse) is mentioned only in Durar'us Saniyyah.

16-In Durar’us Saniyya; there is Subhanahu addition in this last sentence:

"Wallahu Subhanahu A'lam (And Allah Subhanahu knows best)!.. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad, his family and his companions."
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)