دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

Author Topic: SOME BENEFITS FROM SRATUL FTIHAH  (Read 1269 times)

Ummah

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SOME BENEFITS FROM SRATUL FTIHAH
« on: 09.06.2015, 04:07:34 AM »


بعض فوائد سورة الفاتحة

Some Benefits From Sratul Ftihah
Muallafatush Shaykh, 1/382-384; ad-Durarus Saniyya, 13/73-75

Shaykh'ul Islm Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhb (Rahimahullh) said,

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
Praise be to Allh, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds; Most Gracious, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgment. (al-Ftihah 1/1-3)

These three yt encompass three issues:

In the first yh:

[which is:


الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Praise be to Allh, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds. (al-Ftihah 1/1)]

There is Mahabbah (love). This is because Allh is the Bestower of bounties/favors, and that the Bestower is loved to the extent of his bestowal of favors.1 Mahabbah is divided into four types:

(The First Type) Mahabbah containing Shirk: They (those who suffering from Shirk type love) are those whom Allh Azza wa Jalla states about,


وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ أَندَاداً يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّهِ
Yet there are men who take (for worship) others besides Allh, as equal (with Allh): They love them as they should love Allh

To His statement,

وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
Nor will there be a way for them out of the Fire. (al-Baqarah 2/165-167)2

The Second Type of Mahabbah: Loving Btil (falsehood) and its people, and having Bughd (hatred) towards the Haqq (truth) and its people, and this is a characteristic of the hypocrites.3

The Third Type of Mahabbah: Natural love,4 this is ones (natural) love towards his wealth, and his offspring. When it does not divert one from obedience to Allh and nor assist in committing the prohibitions of Allh, then it is Mubh (permissible).

The Fourth Type of Mahabbah:5 Loving the people of Tawhd, and hating the people of Shirk, and this is the strongest handhold of mn (faith), and the greatest what the servant6 worships His Rabb (Lord) by.

In the second yh [which is:


الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
ar-Rahmn (Most Gracious) ar-Rahm (Most Merciful). (al-Ftihah 1/2)]

There is Raj (hope).

In the third yh [which is:


مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
Master of the Day of Judgment. (al-Ftihah 1/3)]

There is Khawf (fear).

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ
Thee do we worship. (al-Ftihah 1/4)

Meaning; I worship You O Lord with what has preceded of these three, that is with Mahabbah to You, Raj in you, and Khawf of you. Hence, these three are Arkn (pillars) of Ibdah (worship), directing them to other than Allah is Shirk.

Also in these three verses is a refutation of the one who adhered to only one of the three, such as the one who concerns only with Love, or only with Rajaa, or only with Khawf. Whoever directs a single one of them to other than Allah then he becomes Mushrik.

Amongst the benefits of this Srah is; it is a refutation upon the three groups which every group is only concerned with one of these three Arkn of Ibdah. Such as the one who worships Allh Tal only with Mahabbah, or the one who worships Allh only with Raj as in the case of the Murjiah. Likewise the one who worships Allh only with Khawf as in the case of the Khawrij.7


إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek. (al-Ftihah 1/4)

In it is Tawhd of Ulhiyyah, and Tawhd of Rubbiyyah.

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ Thee do we worship. In it is Tawhd of Ulhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship).

وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ And Thine aid we seek. In it is Tawhd of Rubbiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship, to single-out Allh alone as excellence, sovereignty/rulership, leadership, implementation of the command and disposition).8

اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ
Guide us to the Straight Path. (al-Ftihah 1/5)

This contains a refutation to the innovators.

Mentioning of the states of people is amongst the benefits of this Srah.

As for the last two verses [which are:


صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ
The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray. (al-Ftihah 1/6-7)]

Allh Tal divided people in to three groups:
 
1- Those who are favored,

2- Those upon whom is anger, and

3- Those who are astray.

Those upon whom is anger are the Ahlul Ilm but no Amal (action).

Those who are astray are the Ahlu Ibdah (those given to worship), but without Ilm. Even though these verses were revealed concerning the Jews and the Christians, they apply to everyone who is described with this (what has preceded).9

The third [group]10 the ones who are favored; those who are described with Ilm and Amal.

Distancing oneself from (every claimant who claim to have) power and might (other than Allh), since he is the one favored (by Allh) upon (hence, he is not the owner of power and might). This is amongst the benefits in this Srah.11

Likewise total Marifatullh (recognition of Allh) and negating the deficiencies from He Tabraka wa Tal is amongst the benefits in this Srah.

In it there is mans recognizing his Rabb and of his own self,

Since;

If there is a Rabb, then unavoidably there is a Marbb (slave that is governed by the Rabb).

When there is a Rhm (merciful) then unavoidably there is a Marhm (one who is shown mercy).

When there is a Mlik (Master), then unavoidably there is a Mamlk (one who is owned and under the command).

When there is an Abd (a servant), then unavoidably there is a Mabd (worshiped).

When there is a Hdi (guide), then there unavoidably there is a Mahd (guided).

When there is Munim (one who bestows favors), then unavoidably there is one who is favored.

When there is one upon whom is Maghdb (anger), then unavoidably there is one who becomes angry/punishes.

When there is a misguided, then unavoidably there is one who is Mudhil (deviator).12

Hence, this Srah encompasses both Ulhiyyah and Rubbiyyah, the negation of all deficiencies from Allh Azza wa Jall. It encompasses Marifah (knowledge) of Ibdah (worship) and its Arkn (pillars).

Wallhu ’lam (and Allh knows best)!


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Due to Allah being Bestower of countless bounties and favors, He Tal should be the One Who is loved the most.

2- Allh Azza wa Jalla states,


وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
Yet there are men who take (for worship) others besides Allah, as equal (with Allah): They love them as they should love Allah. But those of Faith are overflowing in their love for Allah. If only the unrighteous could see, behold, they would see the penalty: that to Allah belongs all power, and Allah will strongly enforce the punishment. Then would those who are followed clear themselves of those who follow (them): They would see the Chastisement, and all relations between them would be cut off. And those who followed would say: If only we had one more chance, we would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us... Thus will Allah show them (the fruits of) their deeds as (nothing but) regrets. Nor will there be a way for them out of the Fire. (al-Baqarah 2/165-167)

3- This type of Mahabbah (love) can be classified as Nifaq (hypocrisy) type of Mahabbah.

4- This type of Mahabbah can be classified as Mubh (permissible) type of Mahabbah.

5- This type of Mahabbah can be classified as Fardh (obligatory) type of Mahabbah.

6- Instead of the expression servant, man is used in the copy of ad-Durarus Saniyya.

7- Ibnu Abil Izz (Rahimahullh) stated,

وقال بعضهم: من عبد الله بالحب وحده فهو زنديق، ومن عبده بالخوف وحده فهو [حروري] وروي: ومن عبده بالرجاء وحده فهو مرجئ، ومن عبده بالحب والخوف والرجاء فهو مؤمن موحد

Some of the scholars said:  Whoever worships Allh with love only is a Zindiq (heretic); whoever worships Allh with fear only is a Harr (Khrij); whoever worships Allh with hope is a Murji. Whoever worships Allh with love, fear and hope then he is a Muwahhhid Mumin. (Ibnu Abil Izz, Muhadhhabu Sharhil Aqdatut Tahwiyyah)

8- Hence only the Rabb (Lord) who has such attributes may help people.

9- It was mentioned in Fathul Majid under the heading What was mentioned concerning: Verily some of this Ummah worship idols that Sufyn bin Uyayna (Rahimahullh) stated,


من فسد من علمائنا ففيه شبه من اليهود، ومن فسد من عُبادنا ففيه شبه من النصارى

Whoever becomes corrupt from among our scholars, he has some likeness to the Jews; and whoever becomes corrupt from among our pious worshipping men, he has some likeness to the Christians.

10- The Expression in parenthesis is mentioned in the copy of ad-Durarus Saniyyah.

11- In the ad-Durarus Saniyyah copy, the following is mentioned: Since He is Who favors you.

12- This list is mentioned in the ad-Durarus Saniyyah copy in the following manner:

Since;

If there is a Rabb, then unavoidably there is a Marbb (slave that is governed by the Rabb).

When there is an Abd (a servant), then unavoidably there is a Mabd (worshiped).

When there is a Hdi (guide), then there unavoidably there is a Mahd (guided).

When there is Munim (one who bestows favors), then unavoidably there is one who is favored.

When there is one upon whom is Maghdb (anger), then unavoidably there is one who becomes angry/punishes.

When there is a misguided, then unavoidably there is one who is Mudhil (deviator).
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

 

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