دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

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Ummah

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STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING NIFAQ (HYPOCRISY)
« on: 13.07.2015, 10:02:39 AM »
an-Nifaq (Hypocrisy) and its Types

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم



اَلنِّفَاقُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
NIFQ (HYPOCRISY) AND ITS TYPES

When it comes to an-Nifq (Hypocrisy)28, it is of two types:

1.   Itiqd Nifq (Hypocrisy in Belief), and

2.   Amal Nifq (Hypocrisy in Actions/Deeds).


اَلنِّفَاقُ الاِعْتِقَادِيُّ
1.   Itiqd Nifq (Hypocrisy in Belief)

When it comes to the Itiqad, it is of six types:

a.   Belying the Rasl (messenger), or

b.   Belying some of what the Rasl brought, or

c.   Hating the Rasl, or

d.   Hating what the Rasl brought, or

e.   Rejoicing at the downfall of the Dn (religion) of the Rasl, or

f.   Disliking the Dn of the Rasl being victorious.


These are the six types (of Hypocrisy) that make its possessor from those in the lowest depths of an-Nr (the Fire, i.e., Hell).

We seek refuge in Allh from Shiqq (separating) and Nifq (hypocrisy).29


اَلنِّفَاقُ الْعَمَلِيُّ
2.   Amal Nifq (Hypocrisy in Actions/Deeds)

When it comes to the Amal Nifq30, it is of five types:

a.   When he speaks, he lies;

b.   When he disputes, he resorts to obscene speech;

c.   When he makes a promise, he breaks it;

d.   When he is entrusted, he betrays the trust; and

e.   When he makes an agreement, he proves treacherous.
31

Allh Subhnahu wa Tal knows best!.. May peace and abundant salutations be upon our Sayyid (master) Muhammad,  his family (especially his family, and then upon his entire nation), and his Ashb (companions). (mn!)




Quote
Footnotes:

28- It is mentioned in Lisnul Arab,

Nifq (hypocrisy) is the name of the action done by the Munfiq; entering Islm from one angle and leaving it in another. It is derived from the word Nfiq, meaning the hole of a Jerboa. It is Nfaqa in the past tense form, Yunfiqu in the future/present tense form and Munfaqah and Nifq in the verbal noun form. Although the term Nifq is a known term in Arabic, its usage denoting the meaning of manifesting mn while concealing Kufr is peculiar to Islm, and previously has never been used in this particular meaning in Arabic. (Ibnu Mandhr, Lisnul Arab, concisely from 10/359)

29- Those who perform actions as such are in reality Munfıq and Kfir. Allhu Tal stated,


إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا.
Verily, the Munfiqn (hypocrites) will be in the lowest depths of the Fire - and never will you find for them a helper. (an-Nis 4/145)

30- Not everyone who performs these actions of Nifq will become Kfir. However, because these are actions usually performed by the pure Munfiqn, they have been referenced as actions performed by/signs of the Munfiqn.

31- The Shaykh Rahimahullh, collectively points out the characteristics of the Munfiqn mentioned in various Ahdth. While four characteristics are mentioned in some of the relevant Ahdth, three are mentioned in others. The sources for these Ahdth -with various wordings- are as follows: al-Bukhr, Hadth no: 34; Muslim, Hadth no: 106; at-Tirmidh, Hadth no: 2632 and others.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Uswat'ul Hasana

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Re: Statements of the Scholars Regarding Nifaq (Hypocrisy)
« Reply #1 on: 28.05.2016, 03:52:09 PM »
بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Nifaaq (Hypocrisy)

Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmaul Fatawa, 28/434-439Modified*


Some forms of Nifaaq (hypocrisy) are very grave, and their perpetrators will be cast into the lowest depths of Naar (fire i.e., Hell-fire). Nifaaq of Abdullah Ibn Ubayy and his colleagues belong to this category. They belied Rasul, rejected some of what he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) came with (his teachings), hated him, denied that he had to be followed, rejoiced when he met reverses, and felt sad when he had victories, and so on; things which you can only expect from an enemy of Allah and His Prophet. This kind of Nifaaq was present at the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and continued after him; in fact, it increased and multiplied. Even though factors promoting Imaan (faith) were quite strong in his time, this kind of Nifaaq was also there. After him, it naturally increased and became stronger.

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) knew only some of Munafiqin (pl., Munagiq i.e., hypocrites) and not all. As Allah has said:


وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُواْ عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لاَ تَعْلَمُهُمْ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ

"Certain of the desert Arabs round about you are hypocrites, as well as among the people of Madinah. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. You know them not; We know them." (at-Tawbah 9/101)

Similarly, Khulafa (pl., Khalifah; i.e., the caliphs) who succeeded him and followed in his footsteps knew some of Munafiqin and did not know others. Many of those who are affiliated Islam are Munafiqun; they are found in all sections of the population, Khass (the elite) as well as Amm (the laity). They are called Zanadigah (pl., Zindiq i.e., heretics) who are engage in undermining Islam. Ulama (pl., Alim i.e., scholars) differ as to whether or not their repentance -if at all they repent- should be accepted, since it is difficult to ascertain if they are sincere, for they never cease to profess Islam.

They are found mostly among the philosophers, astronomers and physicians, in that order, and least among the scribes. They are also found among the so-called Sufis and Fuqaha (pl., Faqih i.e., jurists) as well as men of arms, rulers and common folk. However, the majority of them come from Ahlul Bidah (the People of Religiously Innovation), particularly the Rafidah, who have among them more Zanadiqah and Munafiqin than any other sect. This is why you see that the Khurramiyyah (a division of Baatiniyyah), the Batiniyyah, the Karmathians, Ismailis, Nusayris, and other, similar hypocritical Zanadiqah are Rafidah.

Many of these Munafiqun in our days incline to Dawlah (the state) of the Tatars since they do not ask them to follow the Shariah of Islam, and allow them to do whatever they like. Others, however, dislike them because they mismanage their affairs, confiscate their properties, shed blood, and take men and women as slaves on non-religious grounds. This is certainly a kind of Nfaaqul Kabir (the Major Hypocrisy).

Nifaaqul Asghar (the Minor Hypocrisy), on the other hand, is a type of Nifaaq in Amaal (pl., Amal i.e., deeds) and its likes for example, lying, breaking promises, violating trusts and using abusive language in disputes. The Sahihayn (two Sahih; Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim) have recorded that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


آية المنافق ثلاث‏:‏ إذا حدث كذب، وإذا وعد أخلف، وإذا ائتمن خان

"A hypocrite is known by three things: he lies when he speaks, breaks the promise he makes, and violates the trust which is reposed in him." (Bukhari, #33, #2682, #2749, #6095; Muslim, #59; Tirmidhi, #2631)

In another version of the Hadith we also have the words:


وإن صلى، وصام،وزعم أنه مسلم

"Even though he may offer Salah (daily obligatory prayers), engage in fasting, and claim that he is a Muslim." (Muslim, #59)

They have also recorded the Hadith which Abdullah Ibn Amr (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) has reported. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


أربع من كن فيه كان منافقًا خالصًا، ومن كانت فيه خصلة منهن كانت فيه خصلة من النفاق، حتى يدعها‏:‏ إذا حدث كذب‏.‏ وإذا وعد أخلف‏.‏ وإذا عاهد غدر‏.‏ وإذا خاصم فجر

"Whoever does four things is a perfect hypocrite, and whoever does any one of them is a hypocrite to that extent unless he gives it up: telling lies, breaking promises, violating pledges and using abusive language in disputes." (Bukhari, #34, #2459, #3178; Muslim, #58; Tirmidhi, #2632; Nasai, #5020; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/189)

In this category you may also count fleeing from Jihad, which is one of the known traits of Munafiqin. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) has said:


من مات ولم يغز، ولم يحدث نفسه بالغزو، مات على شعبة من نفاق

"Whoever dies and has not joined a Jihad campaign or wished to join it dies with a sort of hypocrisy." (Muslim, #1910; Abu Dawud, #2502; Nasai, #3097; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/374)

Muslim has recorded this Hadith.

Allah revealed the (ninth) Surah, Baraah, was revealed about the hypocrites; it was also called al-Fadihah (the Exposer) as it exposed the evil traits and designs of Munafiqin. It was recorded in Sahihayn that Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) said:


هى الفاضحة، ما زالت تنزل‏:‏ ‏"‏ومنهم‏"‏، ‏"‏ومنهم‏"‏ حتى ظنوا ألا يبقى أحد إلا ذكر فيها

"It is called al-Fadihah because it went on exposing one kind of hypocrite after another until people began to think that none of them would be left unexposed."

Miqdad Ibn Aswad (radiyallahu anh) said that:


هى ‏[‏سورة البحوث‏]‏؛ لأنها بحثت عن سرائر المنافقين

"This is a Surah of Buhuth (probing), since it probes into the hidden traits of Munafiqin."

Qatadah says that:


هى المثيرة؛ لأنها أثارت مخازى المنافقين‏.‏

"It is Muthirah (infuriating) because it arouses the enmity of Munafiqin."

()

Surat Baraah was revealed on the occasion of the final campaign of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) to Tabuk in the ninth year of the Hijrah (immigration to the Madinah). Islam had become a dominant force by that time, so Allah decided to expose Munafiqin and state that they were cowards that they backed away from Jihad, that they did not spend anything in fi Sabilillah (i.e., in the way/cause of Allah) and only loved to hoard their money like misers. They suffered from two major evils, cowardice and niggardliness. It has also been authentically reported that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


شر ما فى المرء شح هالع، وجبن خالع

"The worst evil that one may suffer from is appalling niggardliness and shameless cowardice." (Abu Dawud, #2511; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/302, 2/320)

That is why they may at times be counted as Kabair (the grave sins) which will land you in Naar (the Fire i.e., Hell-fire). There is a suggestion to this effect in the verse:


وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَّهُمْ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُواْ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

"Let not those who covetously withhold of the gifts which Allah has given them of His grace think that it is good for them. No, it will be the worse for them. Soon shall the things which they covetously withhold be tied to their necks like a twisted collar on the Day of Judgment." (Al-i Imran 3/180)

And His Taalas statement:


وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفاً لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزاً إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاء بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

"If any do turn his back to them on such a day -unless it be in a strategy of war or retreat to a troop (of his own)- he draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his abode is Hell, an evil refuge (indeed)." (al-Anfal 8/16)

As for their cowardice and fear, Allah has referred to it in these words:


وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ وَلَكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ‏‏

"They swear by Allah that they are indeed of you, but they are not of you; they are afraid." (at-Tawbah 9/56)

(...)


فَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُّحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِيِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ فَأَوْلَى لَهُمْ‏

"When a Surah of clear and categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, you will see those in whose heart is a disease looking at you with the look of one in a swoon at the approach of death; may they perish!" (Muhammad 47/20)

And Allah said:


لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ أَن يُجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ

"Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day ask you not for exemption from fighting with their goods and persons. And Allah knows well those who fear Him and do their duty. Only those ask you for exemption who believe not in Allah and the Last Day, and whose hearts are in doubt, so that they are tossed in their doubts to and fro." (at-Tawbah 9/44-45)

This is a warning from Allah that a Believer should not ask for exemption from Jihad, for only those who do not have Iman ask for exemption. If this is the case, you may think of those who stay away from Jihad without taking permission.

With regard to their niggardliness, Allah has said:


وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ وَلاَ يَأْتُونَ الصَّلاَةَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كُسَالَى وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ

"The only reasons their contributions are not accepted are that they reject Allah and His Messenger, that they come to prayer but have no interest in it, and that they offer contributions unwillingly." (at-Tawbah 9/54)

This is the remark about those who contribute unwillingly; you may imagine what Allah would say about those who refuse to contribute anything. Elsewhere He has said these frightening words:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الأَحْبَارِ وَالرُّهْبَانِ لَيَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ يَوْمَ يُحْمَى عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكْوَى بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمْ وَجُنوبُهُمْ وَظُهُورُهُمْ هَذَا مَا كَنَزْتُمْ لأَنفُسِكُمْ فَذُوقُواْ مَا كُنتُمْ تَكْنِزُونَ

"You who believe! There are indeed many among the priests and the anchorites who in falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder (them) from the way of Allah. And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah. Announce unto them a most grievous penalty. On the Day when it will be heated in the fire of Hell, and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs. This is the (treasure) which ye hoarded for yourselves: taste ye, then, the (treasures) ye buried!" (at-Tawbah 9/34-35)


Footnotes:


Quote
* Selections from "Ibn Taymiyyah Expounds on Islam"
Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

وكل قول ينفرد به المتأخر عن المتقدمين، ولم يسبقه إليه أحد منهم، فإنه يكون خطأ كما قال الإمام أحمد بن حنبل‏‏

"All statements that had been said by the Mutaakhirrin (latter ones) differing from the Mutaqaddimin (predecessors) and that had not been previously mentioned by any other, is a mistake. As Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah) said:

‏إياك أن تتكلم في مسألة ليس لك فيها إمام‏

"Refrain from speaking about a matter without an Imam!.." (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmaul Fatawa, 21/291)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Re: STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING NIFAQ (HYPOCRISY)
« Reply #2 on: 02.02.2020, 01:26:48 AM »

رِسَالَةٌ فيِ النِّفَاقِ بِقِسْمَيْهِ وصِفَاتِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ

A PAMPHLET REGARDING
THE TWO TYPES OF NIFQ (HYPOCRISY)
AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUNFIQN
(PL. OF MUNFIQ; HYPOCRITES)


اَلنِّفَاقُ الْأَكْبَرُ وَالْأَصْغَرُ

An-Nifqul Akbar wal Asghar
(The Major and the Minor Hypocrisy)

Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb, may Allh place him into al-Firdawsul Al (the Higher Paradise), stated,

May Allh have mercy upon you, know that since Allhu Tal sent Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam and honoured him with Hijrah (migration) and victory, the people have become three groups:

1.   A Group of Muminn (pl. of Mumin; believers): these are those who believed in Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam both in the Dhhir and the Btin (externally and internally).

2.   A Group of Kuffr (pl. of Kfir; disbelievers): these are those who openly manifest their rejection of Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

3.   A Group of Munfiqn: Those who externally (seem to) believe in Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam while they dont believe in him inwardly (in their inner world).

This is why Allhu Tal opened Sratul Baqarah with four verses regarding the descriptions of the Muminn, two verses regarding the descriptions of the Kuffr, and thirteen verses regarding the descriptions of the Munfiqn. Every single one from mn, Kufr, and Nifq have pillars and divisions, as the Qurn and the Sunnah have denoted, and just as Al bin Ab Tlib Radiyallhu Anh explained it in the Hadth narrated from him.

From the types of Nifq is an-Nifqul Akbar (Major Hypocrisy), and its perpetrators will be in the lowest depths of an-Nr (the fire i.e., Hell-fire)[1], like the Nifq of Abdullh bin Ubayy and others. To manifest belying the Rasl, rejecting some of what the Rasl came with, hating the Rasl, lacking the belief of the necessity of following the Rasl, rejoicing at the downfall of the Dn (religion) of the Rasl, or feeling sad at the victories of his Dn, and so on are traits that can only be found in an enemy of Allh and His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

These traits were present at the time of the Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and increased greatly after his time. This is because the requirements of mn were stronger in his time. If Nifq was still present (in that era) while the requirements of mn were stronger, it is more befitting for the existence of Nifq in a later era wherein mn is weaker.

This is a type of an-Nifqul Akbar (The Major Hypocrisy). We seek refuge in Allh (from this).

When it comes to an-Nifqul Asghar, it is the Nifq in al-Aml (pl. Amal i.e., deeds) and its likes, such as to lie while speaking, to prove treacherous when he makes an agreement, or to betray when entrusted. This is because of the famous Hadth narrated from him [mentioned in the Sahhayn (i.e., the two Sahh; Sahhul Bukhr and Sahh Muslim)][2], Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam stated,

آيَةُ الْمُنَافِقِ ثَلَاثٌ: إِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ، وَإِذَا وَعَدَ أَخْلَفَ، وَإِذَا ائْتُمِنَ خَانَ، وَإِنْ صَلَّى وَصَامَ، وَزَعَمَ أَنَّهُ مُسْلِمٌ.

The signs of the Munfiq are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes an agreement, he proves treacherous; and when he is entrusted, he betrays, even if he offers the Salh (daily obligatory prayers), fasts, and claims that he is a Muslim.[3]

صِفَاتُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ

The Characteristics of the Munfiqn

Turning away from Jihd (striving/fighting in the cause/path of Allh) is also from this category, since it is from the traits of the Munfiqn, because Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam stated,

Whoever dies without having fought or thought of fighting (did not aspire to fight in the path of Allh) has died upon a branch of Nifq. Narrated by Muslim.[4]

Allh revealed the Srah Barah (at-Tawbah), called al-Fdihah (the Exposer) because it exposed the Munfiqn, as Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anh said,

It is al-Fdihah (the Exposer); it continued to reveal as And from amongst them, from amongst them until the people began to think that nobody will be left (unexposed) except that he is mentioned in it.[5]

Al-Miqdd Ibnul Aswad Radiyallhu Anh said,

It is Sratul Bahth (The Chapter on Probing), since it probes into the secrets of the Munfiqn.[6]

Qatdah Rahimahullh said,

It is al-Muthrah (the revealer), since it brought forth the shame of the Munafiqn.[7]

This Srah was revealed on the final (military) campaign of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam on the day of the Tabk Expedition. Allhu Tal had honoured and enlightened Islm. He exposed in this battle the condition of the Munfiqn and described them with cowardliness and miserliness. As for cowardliness: it is abandoning Jihd, and as for miserliness: it is regarding spending in the cause/path of Allh.

Allhu Tal stated,

وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّٰهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَهُمْ.

And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allh has bestowed on them of His Bounty (Wealth) think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them (l-i Imrn 3/180)

In addition, He Tal stated,

وَمَنْ يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفًا لِقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِنَ اللهِ.

And whoever turns his back to them on such a day -unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allh (al-Anfl 8/16)

As for Allhu Tal characterizing them with cowardice and being terrified in this expedition, He Tal stated,

And they take an oath by Allh that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are terrified. If they could find a refuge (at-Tawbah 9/56-57), meaning, they would take refuge in places such as fortresses and shelters.

or caves (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, they would seep away (hide) in them as water seeps away.

or any place to enter (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, these are places which are difficult to enter, even if it would be with difficulty and hardship;

they would turn to it (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, (they would escape therein) from Jihd.

while they run heedlessly (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, they would run a running that nothing can turn them back, just like a running horse which cannot be turned back once its bridled when it carries weight.[8]

Allhu Tal stated:

إنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ.

The believers are only the ones who have believed in Allh and His Rasl and then doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives in the cause of Allh; they are the ones who are truthful. (al-Hujurt 49/15)

Allhu Tal has restricted the Muminn to those have mn and those who do Jihd. Allhu Tal said,

لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ.

Those who believe in Allh and the Last Day would not ask you permission to be exempted (at-Tawbah 9/44)

This[9] (and the two yt which follow it) is a notification from Allh that a Mumin (Believer) does not seek permission (to be exempted) to abandon Jihd, for only those who do not have mn  seek permission to be exempted. If this is the case, what is the situation of those who abandon Jihd without permission?

Allhu Tal has said regarding their characteristic of stinginess,

وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَنْ تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ.

And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them (at-Tawbah 9/54) until His statement,

وَلاَ يُنْفِقُونَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ.

and that they do not contribute other than in a state of unwillingness. (at-Tawbah 9/54)[10]

If this is the criticism of Allh Tabraka wa Tal about those who contribute unwillingly; how about those who refuse to contribute from the beginning?

Allhu Tal has also informed that when the Munfiqn came close to Madnah, they sometimes say regarding the Muminn,

This has befallen us because of your misfortune. You called the people to this Dn. You fought and opposed them due to this Dn.

Sometimes, they would say,

You indicated that we stay here, however, if we had traveled with you, this would not have stricken us.

Sometimes, they would say,

You want to disperse your enemies although you are little in number and weak. Your Dn has deluded you.

Sometimes, they would say,

You are out of intellect and absent-minded. You want to destroy yourselves and those people with you.

Sometimes they would say similar words, which are evil. Allh Azza wa Jalla has informed about them with His following statement,

يَحْسَبُونَ الأَحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا وَإِنْ يَأْتِ الأَحْزَابُ يَوَدُّوا لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ بَادُونَ فِي الْأَعْرَابِ يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ أَنْبَائِكُمْ وَلَوْ كَانُوا فِيكُمْ مَا قَاتَلُوا إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً.

They think that the Confederates have not yet withdrawn, and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, seeking news about you (from a far place); and if they (happen) to be among you, they would not fight but little. (al-Ahzb 33/20)

Allh Tabraka wa Tal has characterized them with three characteristics:

The First Characteristic: Due to their fear [them being terrified of the Confederates][11], they think the Confederates have not (yet) withdrawn from the city; this is the condition of the coward who has disease in his heart, for the hearts of such people are embarked upon confirming the frightening news and belying the news of trust.

The Second Characteristic: When the Confederates come, they would wish that they were not amongst you, rather they wish that they were in the desert among the Bedouins, inquiring (from afar) about your news asking, What news is there regarding Madnah, what is the situation of the people?

The Third Characteristic: When the Confederates came while they are amongst you, they would not fight except for a little.

These three characteristics suit most of the people.

ANNOTATIONS
 1. Thus, Allhu Tal stated,

﴿إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ.﴾ [النساء: 145]
Verily, the Munfiqn (hypocrites) will be in the lowest depths of the Fire (an-Nis 4/145)

 
 2. The addition in parenthesis is found in ad-Durarus Saniyyah.
 
 3. Muslim, Hadth 59; narrated from Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh.
 
 4. With similar wording, Muslim, Hadth 1910; narrated from Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh.
 
 5. With similar wording, al-Bukhr, Hadth 4882; Muslim, Hadth 3031.
 
 6. When Miqdd Radiyallhu Anh was asked why he went out for Jihd although he was in a difficult situation, the response he gave to the questioners was recorded in many sources as,

أَتَتْ عَلَيْنَا سُورَةُ الْبَحُوثِ ﴿اِنْفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً.﴾ [التوبة: 41] .

Sratul Bahth (The Chapter on Probing), came to us. (Then recited the following yah) March forth whether it is easy or difficult for you!.. (at-Tawbah 9/41)

At-Tabar Rahimahullh and Ibnu Ab Htim Rahimahullh made Takhrj (extraction) of this narration in the exegesis of this yah.
 
 7. It is narrated that Qatdah Rahimahullh stated,

كَانَتْ هٰذِهِ السُّورَةُ تُسَمَّى:الْفَاضِحَةُ -فَاضِحَةُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ- وَكَانَ يُقَالُ لَهَا: الْمُثِيرَةُ -أَنْبَأَتْ بِمَثَالِبِهِمْ وَعَوْرَاتِهِمْ-.

This Srah was named al-Fdihah (the Exposer): it exposed the Munfiqn. It was also called al-Muthrah (the revealer): it informed their faults and their defects.

Ibnu Ab Htim Rahimahullh, related this narration in the explanation of the following yah Say: (Go ahead and) mock! But certainly Allh will bring to light all that you fear. (at-Tawbah 9/64)
 
 8. The verses in full read,

﴿وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّٰهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ وَلٰـكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 56-57]

And they take an oath by Allh that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are terrified. If they could find a refuge or caves or any place to enter, they would turn to it while they run heedlessly. (at-Tawbah 9/56-57)
 
 9. The two verses in full read,

﴿لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَن يُجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَاللّٰهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ ۞ إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 45-44]

Those who believe in Allh and the Last Day would not ask you permission to be exempted from fighting with their wealth and their lives, and Allh is Knowing of al-Muttaqn (the pious). It is only those who believe not in Allh and the Last Day and whose hearts are in doubt that ask you permission (to be exempted from fighting). So in their doubts they waver. (at-Tawbah 9/44-45)
 
 10. The yah in full is as follows,

﴿وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللّٰهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ وَلاَ يَأْتُونَ الصَّلاَةَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كُسَالَى وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 54]

And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allh and in His Rasl (Messenger Muhammad); and they do not come to the Salh (daily prayers) other than in a state of laziness; and that they do not contribute other than in a state of unwillingness. (at-Tawbah 9/54)
 
 11. The addition in parenthesis is found in ad-Durarus Saniyyah, in place of the phrase their fear.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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