دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

Author Topic: SHAYKH MUHAMMAD BIN ABDIL WAHHB, HIS LIFE AND HIS STRUGLE  (Read 787 times)

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The Life, Knowledgeable Characteristic, and Struggle of
Shaykhul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh[1]

His Birth and Upbringing

The Shaykh Muhammed bin Abdil Wahhb bin Sulaymn bin Al at-Tamim Rahimahullh was born in the year 1115H (1703 CE) at Uyaynah, a city of Najd in the Arabian Peninsula.

His father Abdul Wahhb and grandfather Sulaymn were amongst the renowned knowledgeable individuals of the area of Najd, and thus were the source of Fatw (religious verdicts) during their time. His grandfather, Sulaymn bin Al lived during the era of the eminent Hanbal Faqh (jurist), Mansr al-Baht Rahimahullh, author of Kashshaful Qin, it is reported that they met in Makkah. In this manner, the Shaykh grew up in an environment occupied by Ilm.

His Shuykh (pl. of Shaykh; Teachers) and His Travels to Seek Ilm (Knowledge)

Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh learned the Qurn and attained basic knowledge from his father. He memorized the Qurn before the age of ten. He mastered the Hanbal Fiqh (jurisprudence) along with its Isnd (chain of narration) to Imm Ahmad Rahimahullh from his father and grandfather. His father appointed him as the Imm (leader) of Salh (daily prayers), once he reached puberty. It is also reported his father would say, I have learned many beneficial matters regarding the Ahkm (pl. of Hukm; rulings) from him.[2]

According to his grandson Shaykh Abdul Latf Rahimahullh, he had gone to the Haramayn (two sacred cities; Makkah and Madnah), gathered with the Shuykh of the area, attained Ijzah (the grant of permission or authority) from some of them, and later went to the cities Basra and Ahs and took lessons from the Shuykh.

Shaykh Abdul Latf bin Abdir Rahmn Rahimahullh mentions the inclination of his grandfather, Shaykh Muhammad, to Tawhd and taking the Qurn and Sunnah as his guide by abandoning blind following being influenced greatly by the Shaykhul Haramayn of his era, Muhammad Hayyt as-Sind, whom he studied Hadth from at Hijz.[3]

His other grandson Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh Rahimahullh mentioned names such as Al Afand ad-Dghistn, the author of the famous Kashful Khaf al-Ajln, Abdullh bin Ibrhm an-Najd, and Abl Mawhib al-Hanbal amongst his teachers. He studied various books on Fiqh (jurisprudence), Hadth, Srah (history), Lughah (the Arabic language), especially the nine basic Hadth books from the mentioned scholars and others with their Sanad (Isnd).

Also through his teacher Abdullh bin Ibrhm an-Najd, he had the honour of narrating some of the Ahdth (pl. of Hadth) with their Isnd reaching Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.[4]

His Students

Besides his sons Abdullh, Husayn, and Ibrhm Rahimahumullh; his grandson Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan Rahimahullh; his companions in Dawah such as Sud bin Abdul Azz Rahimahullh are amongst his students from his close surrounding, other scholars such as Hamad bin Nsir bin Uthmn l-i Muammar, Abdul Azz bin Husayn an-Nsir, Sad bin Hijj, and Husayn bin Ghannm Rahimahumullh were educated in his circle of knowledge.

His Works
Alongside his many works, the most famous ones are as follows:

Kitbut Tawhd (The Book of Monotheism), Kashf'ush Shubuht (Removal of the Doubts), Manat Tght (the Meaning of Tght), al-Usluth Thalthah (The Three Fundamentals), al-Qawidul Arbaah (The Four Principles), ar-Rislatul Mufdah (the Beneficial, Important and Precious Pamphlet), Mukhtasaru Sratir Rasl (The Concise History of the Rasl), dabul Mashyi ilas Salh (the Manner of Walking Towards Prayer), Mufdul Mustafd (Beneficial Benefeciary), al-Jawhirul Mudhiyyah (the Illuminating Gems), Masilul Jhiliyyah (The Issues of the Era of Ignorance), and other short pamphlets regarding Aqdah,

He also has authored many beneficial books such as Fadhlul Islm (The Superiority of Islm), Uslul mn (The Foundation of Faith), al-Kabir (the Major Sins), Mukhtasarul Insf wash Sharhil Kabr, and Majmul Hadth al Abwbil Fiqh (A Compilation of Hadth According to the Topics of Fiqh).

Most of the works by the Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh have been gathered in Majmu Muallaftish Shaykhi Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb in thirteen volumes. It is also possible to find many of his Rasil (pamphlets) in ad-Durarus Saniyyah in eleven volumes.

His Da'wah (call)

The Shaykh Rahimahullh began his Dawah of Tawhd in Basrah and because he had gained the enmity of some individuals, on a hot summers day, he had to leave the city on foot. After this, he went to Huraymilah; however, when there was an attempt for his assassination, he left the city.

Then he set off to Uyaynah and was under the Himyah (protection) of Uthmn bin Muammar, the Amr of Uyaynah. In Uyaynah, events to destroy places of Shirk such as the tomb of Zayd Ibnul Khattb Radiyallhu Anh being demolished to begin with and the application of Rajm (stoning to death) to a female as the punishment of Zin (fornication) under the leadership of the Shaykh had terrified the enemies of Islm, and finally, Uthmn bin Muaamar submitted to the repression and treachery and expelled the Shaykh from Uyaynah.

Leaving Uyaynah, the Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh went to ad-Diriyyah in the year 1158H, and there he met Muhammad bin Sud. Ibnu Sud accepted the call of Tawhd by the Shaykh and promised he would assist his Dawah all the way. After such pact, they struggled together and did not part until death.

After this alliance of sword and pen, the Dawah (call) of Tawhd spread in waves, starting from the villages and towns, and ultimately along with the establishment of administration relying on the Aqdah, the Salaf Dawah which the Shaykh lead began to be heard everywhere.

His Death and Eulogy

After a life built upon Ilm (knowledge), Amal (action), Dawah (invitation) and Sabr (patience), the Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh died at the age of 92 in the year 1206H (1792 CE).

Following his death, scholars such as Imm ash-Shawkn (1250H/1834 CE) and Husayn bin Ghannm (1225H/1811 CE), a scholar from among the Ulam (scholars) of Ahs, wrote odes for him.

Also, al-Amr as-Sann the author of the renowned books such as Subulus Salm and Tathrul Itiqd had written a Qasdah (ode) praising him during his life time.

May Allh Subhnahu have mercy upon Shaykhul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb and all those Muwahhid scholars who had a hand in spreading the Call of Tawhd, and may he destine us to benefit from their works. (mn!)
 1. This short biography has been compiled from various sources, such as Haytush Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb by Isml al-Ansr. For more information, refer back to the independent sections regarding the life of the Shaykh Rahimahullh in: Mashhiru Ulamin Najd by Abdur Rahmn bin Abdil Latf, Fathul Majd Sharhu Kitbit Tawhd by Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, and al-Alm by az-Zirikl.
 
 2. Husayn bin Ghannm, Rawdhatul Afkr (Trikhu Najd), 1/209 (Druth Thulthiyyah publications, Riydh 1431H).
 
 3. Abdul Latf bin Abdir Rahmn, Misbhudh Dhalm, 154-155 (published by Isml bin Sad bin Atq).
 
 4. Sulaymn bin Abdillh, at-Tawdh an Tawhdil Khallq, p. 25, (Dru Taybah publications, edition of 1404H).
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

 

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