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Uswat'ul Hasana

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Taking an Oath by Anyone Other Than Allah
« on: 26.04.2016, 01:20:19 PM »
بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Taking an Oath by Anyone Other Than Allah

Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmaul Fatawa, 11/506

Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said the following regarding the ruling of "Taking an Oath by Anyone Other Than Allah":

وأما الحلف بغير الله من الملائكة والأنبياء والمشائخ والملوك وغيرهم فإنه منهي عنه، غير منعقد باتفاق الأئمة، ولم ينازعوا إلا في الحلف برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة‏.‏ والجمهور على أنه لا تنعقد اليمين لا به ولا بغيره، وقد قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ ‏"‏من كان حالفًا فليحلف بالله أو ليصمت‏"‏، وقال‏:‏ ‏"‏من حلف بغير الله فقد أشرك‏"‏، فمن حلف بشيخه أو بتربته أو بحياته أو بحقه على الله، أو بالملوك أو بنعمة السلطان أو بالسيف أو بالكعبة أو أبيه أو تربة أبيه أو نحو ذلك كان منهيًا عن ذلك، ولم تنعقد يمينه باتفاق المسلمين‏

"As for taking an oath in the name of any being other than Allah, whoever he may be; Malaikah (one among angels), Anbiya (one among prophets), Mashayikh (one among Sufi Shaykhs), or Muluk (one among kings), it is strictly prohibited and the oath is null and void. There is Ittifaaq (agreement) of opinion on this issue among Aimmah (pl., Alim; eminent scholars). They have only differed with regard to taking an oath in the name of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) specifically. However, Jumhur (the majority) view is that all oaths made in the name of anyone other than Allah, including the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), are null and void. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) himself has said:

‏من كان حالفًا فليحلف بالله أو ليصمت‏

"When you swear, swear by Allah or keep silent." (Bukhari, Manaqibul Ansar, #26, Adab, #74, Iman, #4, Tawhid, #13; Abu Dawud, Iman, #4; Tirmidhi, Nudhur, #9; Nasai; Darimi; Ibn Maajah, Kaffarat, #2; Malik, Muwatta, Nudhur, #14)

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also said:


من حلف بغير الله فقد أشرك‏

"Whoever swears by anyone other than Allah commits Shirk." (Tirmidhi, Nudhur, #9; Ibn Maajah, Kaffarat, #2; Darimi, #6; Ahmad, Musnad, 1/47, 2/24, 2/67, 2/69, 2/87, 2/98, 2/125, 2/152)

Hence if you swear by your Shaykh, by his Turbah (grave), by his Hayat (life), by his rights on Allah, or if you swear by a king, by the favors bestowed by a Sultaan, or by your sword, or by the Kabah, or by your father, or his grave, all these are wrong and forbidden, and your oath will not be valid. On this there is Ittifaaq (complete agreement) among the Muslims."
Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

وكل قول ينفرد به المتأخر عن المتقدمين، ولم يسبقه إليه أحد منهم، فإنه يكون خطأ كما قال الإمام أحمد بن حنبل‏‏

"All statements that had been said by the Mutaakhirrin (latter ones) differing from the Mutaqaddimin (predecessors) and that had not been previously mentioned by any other, is a mistake. As Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah) said:

‏إياك أن تتكلم في مسألة ليس لك فيها إمام‏

"Refrain from speaking about a matter without an Imam!.." (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmaul Fatawa, 21/291)

 

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