دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd



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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Claim that There is Difference in Opinion Regarding the Takfir of the One who Insults Allah and His Prophet

Is it correct that Abu Yala did not make Takfir of the person who insulted the Prophet? Is it a slander to Abu Yala?

There are some people who make Takfir of Ibn Taymiyya because he did not make Takfir of Abu Yala. We hope you respond this question in detail. Jazakallah

Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) quoted views of Abu Yala regarding the person who insults and slanders Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) from his book al-Mutamad. We searched for the above mentioned book however we are unable to locate it since it is lost, meaning the book al-Mutamadul Kabir of Abu Yala is neither found as in an inscribed form nor in published form in our age anymore. There is a book of his published as al-Mutamad which does not contain the above mentioned quotation in it as far as we know. Again we are unable to locate Abu Yalas views concerning the ruling of the one who insults Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in his published books even though we searched for it. For this reson the sole source for Abu Yalas views concerning the ruling of one who insults Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is the book as-Sarimul Maslul ala Shatimir Rasul of Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah). Therefore we will take the information given by Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) in his book as-Sarimul Maslul regarding Abu Yalas views concerning the ruling of the one who insults Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in hand and try to explain the matter as much as we can Inshallah. Tawfiq (success) is from Allah Taala.

Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) right after quoting the above mentioned quotation stated:

ويجب أن يعلم أن القول بأن كفر الساب في نفس الأمر إنما هو لاستحلاله السب زلة منكرة وهفوة عظيمة ويرحم الله القاضي أبا يعلي قد ذكر في غير موضع ما يناقض ما قاله هنا

It is necessary to know that, the statement Kufr of the one whose Sabb (insult) leans upon his Istihlaal (make it Haalal i.e., permissible) in the matter itself is a Zallah (slip)  Munkar (evil) and a great mistake. May Allah have mercy upon Qadhi Aba Yala, in other places stated the opposite that which he stated here. (Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Sarimul Maslul, 515)

Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) also said the following regarding the same matter:

فمن قال بلسانه كلمة الكفر من غير حاجة عامدا لها عالما بأنها كلمة كفر فإنه يكفر بذلك ظاهرا وباطنا ولا يجوز أن يقال: إنه في الباطن يجوز أن يكون مؤمنا ومن قال ذلك فقد مرق من الإسلام

So whoever states -with his tongue- the statement of Kufr wihout a need (such as Ikrah); states the statement of Kufr intentionally and knowingly then he becomes Kafir with it both Dhaahir (outwardly) and Baatin (inwardly). It is not permissible to say: It is permissible for he to be a Mumin (believer) in Baatin. Whoever says it, slips off from the Islam. (Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Sarimul Maslul, 437)

Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) also said:

وأيضا، فهؤلاء القائلون بقول جهم والصالحي، قد صرحوا بأن سب الله ورسوله، والتكلم بالتثليث، وكل كلمة من كلام الكفر، ليس هو كفرًا في الباطن، ولكنه دليل في الظاهر على الكفر، ويجوز مع هذا أن يكون هذا الساب الشاتم في الباطن عارفًا بالله، موحدًا له، مؤمنا به، فإذا أقيمت عليهم حجة بنص أو إجماع أن هذا كافر باطنًا وظاهرًا، قالوا‏:‏ هذا يقتضي أن ذلك مستلزم للتكذيب الباطن، وأن الإيمان يستلزم عدم ذلك


فإنا نعلم أن من سب الله ورسوله طوعًا بغير كره، بل من تكلم بكلمات الكفر طائعًا غير مكره، ومن استهزأ بالله وآياته ورسوله، فهو كافر باطنًا وظاهرًا، وأن من قال‏:‏ إن مثل هذا قد يكون في الباطن مؤمنًا بالله وإنما هو كافر في الظاهر، فإنه قال قولاً معلوم الفساد بالضرورة من الدين‏.‏ وقد ذكر الله كلمات الكفار في القرآن، وحكم بكفرهم واستحقاقهم الوعيد بها، ولو كانت أقوالهم الكفرية بمنزلة شهادة الشهود عليهم، أو بمنزلة الإقرار الذي يغلط فيه المقر، لم يجعلهم الله من أهل الوعيد بالشهادة التي قد تكون صدقًا، وقد تكون كذبًا، بل كان ينبغي ألا يعذبهم إلا بشرط صدق الشهادة، وهذا كقوله تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلاَثَةٍ‏}‏ ‏[‏المائدة‏:‏73‏]‏، ‏{‏لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ‏}‏ ‏[‏المائدة‏:‏72‏]‏ وأمثال ذلك

Also those who imitate the words of the Jahm and Salihi say: Surely cursing Allah Taala and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), expressing the trinity and uttering all the Kufr type words among the Kufr statements are not (in reality) Kufr in Baatin. However it is an evidence in the Dhaahir upon its Kufr. It is permissible along with this that the individual, who insults and speaks ill; in the Baatin be an Aarif (knower) of Allah, a Muwahhid for Him and a Mumin in Him. When Hujjah (proof) with Nass (textual proof) or Ijmaa (consensus) are established upon these individuals that he is Kafir in Baatin and in Dhaahir, they said: This would lead to it necessiating Takzib (denial) in the Baatin, and the Imaan (faith) necessiates lack of Takzib.

Shaykhul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) continued until he said to them:

Surely we know that whoever insults Allah Taala and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) voluntarliy without coercion, rather whoever speaks with Kufr words without submitting to a Mukrah (one who coerces), whoever mocks Allah Taala, His Taalas Ayaat (pl. Ayah; Quranic verses) and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) then this individual is Kafir in Baatin and in Dhaahir. Whoever states that an individual as such can sometimes be Mumin in Allah in the Baatin and he is Kafir in the Dhaahir, then surely this individual stated a statement that is necessarily known in Din as Fasaad (corruption). Allah Taala had mentioned the statements of the Kuffar (pl. Kafir; disbelievers) in the Quran and had given the Hukm (ruling) of their Kufr and their deserving the Waid (threat) with these statements. Even if their Kufr statements were on the same level of the mistake of those who is mistaken in their Shahaadah (testimony) while they were witnessing upon them or on the same level of the mistake of those who are mistaken in their Iqraar (uttering) while they uttered; Allah would not have made them Ahl (people) of Waid with a probable Shahaadah of either truthful (correct) or lie (false). On the contrary He Taala would have required punishing them with the condition that this Shahaadah is truthful. This is like the statement of Allah Taala:

لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلاَثَةٍ
They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity. (al-Ma'idah 5/73)

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ
 They do blaspheme who say: Allah is Isa the son of Maryam.  (al-Ma'idah 5/17; al-Ma'idah 5/72)

and other similar Ayaat. (Majmuul Fatawa, 7/557-558)

As it is seen in these statements he (rahimahullah) considered this view that which attributed to Abu Yala, meaning the claim that the person who insults the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa salaam) and states any other Kufr statement can be Kafir in Dhaahir and a Mumin in Baatin i.e. in the presence of Allah; as a Kufr Itiqaad (creed) which opposes the Asl (fundamental) of Islam that are known by Dhahurah (necessity) that which takes one out of the fold of Islam.

However the statements of Abu Yala regarding the matter are in contradiction with one another and his views that oppose the above mentioned quotation can be found in his other books. At the end, the matter is regarding the declaration of the Takfir of Abu Yala who is a Muslim in Asl (origin) who already died and there is no way and opportunity to find out the reality of his opinion from his own stataments. In such condition without knowing exactly what he said, what he meant and what he claimed, Takfir can not be declared and performed upon a Muslim in Asl.

In short, Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) not declaring Takfir upon Abu Yala does not indicate that Ibnu Taymiyyah did not consider the statement itself as a Kufr and that Ibnu Taymiyyah did not declare Takfir upon a person who had Kufr Itiqaad. It is because Takfir having principles, conditions and barriers is something other than ruling a statement being a Kufr statement. There could be many possibilities such as he might have repented from it.

The fact that being Abu Yala had not been declared Takfir upon does not indicate that the statement itself is not a Kufr statement. Unlike some whose claim, being Abu Yala had not been declared Takfir upon, does not indicate that there is Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) in the most open matters of Din, Jahl (ignorance) and Tawil (figurative interpretation) being an Udhr (excuse) ) in the most open matters of Din.

Especially with such a Muayyan matter that may carry many possibilities, their attempt to declare Takfir upon Ibnu Taymiyyah due to him not declaring Takfir upon a Kafir is an example of pure Jahl for those who do not even comprehend the reality of the matter. In sum, not declaring Takfir upon a Muayyan person due to his statement does not indicate not giving the Hukm of Kufr to his statement. One who comprehends the reality of this matter would easily comprehend many other incidents by using the same methodology. Wallahu Alam!

Sahnun (rahimahullah) among the Ashaab of Imam Malik (rahimahullah) stated the following regarding the one who insults Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam):

أجمع العلماء أَنَّ شاتمَ النبيِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - المتنقِّصَ له كافرٌ، والوعيدُ جارٍ عليه بعذاب الله له، وحكمه عند الأمَّة: القتل، ومن شكَّ في كفرِه وعذابِه كفَر

The Ulamaa made Ijmaa (consensus) upon the one who censures the Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wa sallam) by insulting him is Kafir and that the threat in regards to punishment of Allah is valid upon him. His Hukm (ruling) in the presence of the Ummah (nation of Islam) is death. Whoever doubts regarding his Kufr and his punishment is (also) Kafir. (Qadhi Iyadh, ash-Shifa, 2/312)

So what befits the people is to follow the Asl and not follow the Mutashabih (allegorical, unclear) statements and not attempt to Takhsis (restrict) the clear Nass with the statements of people. However unfortunately, people who have no fear of Allah, in order to legalize their performance and deeds so that they have an easy life that which does not contain Takfir, enmity; waterdown even the most clear matters. Their supposed aim is stating that even there is Ikhtilaaf concerning the matter of insulting Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) then there are more probes for Ikhtilaaf to exist in other matters.

Do they claim such by merely taking a statement of Abu Yala who is taken account in his grave- that they can invalidate all the Nass which indicate respect to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is a condition of Iman being valid. What kind of understanding is it? What a sick understanding is it? As Imam Maalik (rahimahullah) said: Once the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is insulted, what would be left for the Ummah (nation of Islam)? We ask Allah Taala to guide them to the truth, if this is not the case then we ask Allah Taala to take them in account in the way they deserve, which would more likely happen.
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La Ilaha Illallh (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allh) so that you are successful."

Izhr'ud Dn

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Just a reminder!..
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)


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