دار التوحيد Dâr'ul Tawhîd

Author Topic: EXPLANATION OF THE STATEMENT OF IBNU TAYMIYYAH REGARDING JAHL & IQAMAT’UL HUJJAH  (Read 1493 times)

Julaybib

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

رسالة في حكم من يكفِّر غيره من المسلمين، والكفر الذي يعذر صاحبه بالجهل "فلا يحكم عليه به إلا بعد أن تقوم عليه الحجة" والذي لا يعذر
A Risalah Regarding the Ruling of Those who Declare Takfir Upon Others From the Muslimin and the Kufr that Excuses its Possessor with Ignorance which Prevents Hukm to be Given until Iqamat’ul Hujjah, Then They will not be Excused


الشيخ عبد الله أبا بطين
Shaykh Abdullah Aba Butayn (1194-1282H)

Shaykh Abdullah Aba Butayn an-Najdi (rahimahullah)
Majmuat’ur Rasa’il wa’l Masa’il’in Najdiyyah, (4th Juzz 2nd Part) 510-523





Khutbat'ul Ha'jah

Our Da'wah (Call)

The Biography of Shaykh Aba Butayn (1194H-1282H)

EXPLANATION OF THE STATEMENT OF IBNU TAYMIYYAH REGARDING JAHL & IQAMAT’UL HUJJAH

Muqaddimah (Preface)

A Risalah Regarding Ruling of Those who Declare Takfir Upon Others From the Muslimin

The First Of The Two Issues

State of One Who Declares Takfir Upon the Muslimin


The Second Issue

Muayyan Takfir and Iqamat’ul Hujjah
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

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خُطْبَةُ الْحَاجَةِ

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلّٰهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ، وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، وَنَسْتَغْفِرُهُ، وَنَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ شُرُورِ أَنْفُسِنَا، وَمِنْ سَيِّئَاتِ أَعْمَالِنَا، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلاَ مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ.

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إِلاَّ وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ.﴾ [آل عمران: 102]

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا.﴾ [النساء: 1]

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلاً سَدِيدًا. يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا.﴾ [الأحزاب: 71-70]

أَمَّا بَعْدُ: فَإِنَّ أَصْدَقَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللهِ، وَخَيْرَ الْهَدْيِ هَدْيُ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَشَرَّ الْأُمُورِ مُحْدَثَاتُهَا، وَكُلَّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَةٌ، وَكُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ، وَكُلَّ ضَلاَلَةٍ فِي النَّارِ.


Khutbat’ul Hâjah (The Sermon of Necessity)

All praise is due to Allâhu Taâlâ. We praise Him, seek His help, and seek His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allâh from the evil within ourselves and the consequences of our evil deeds. Whoever Allâh guides, there is no one who can led him astray, and whoever Allâh leads astray, then there is no one who can guide him. I bear witness there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allâh, He is One and He has no partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Rasûl (Messenger).

“O ye who believe! Fear Allâh as He should be feared, and do not die except as Muslims in submission to Him.” (Âl-i Imrân 3/102)

“O mankind! Fear your Guardian Lord Who created you from one soul, and created out of it his mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women. Fear Allâh, through Whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (be heedful of) the wombs (that bore you): for Allâh ever watches over you.” (an-Nisâ 4/1)

“O you who believe! Fear Allâh, and make your utterance straight forward. So that He may make your conduct whole and sound, and forgive you your sins: He that obeys Allâh and His Messenger has already attained the great victory.” (al-Ahzâb 33/70-71)

Ammâ Ba’d (to Proceed):

Verily, the most truthful speech is the Kalâmullâh (Speech of Allâh), the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam. The worst of affairs are the newly invented matters. Every newly invented matter is a Bid’ah (religious innovation), and every Bid’ah is a Dalâlah (misguidance), and every misguidance is in the Nâr (Hellfire).1




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Footnotes:

1- This Du'â (prayer) which Shaykh’ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh accounted as “a knot between the Islâmic system and Imân” (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmû’ul Fatâwâ, 14/223) which is known as “Khutbat’ul Hâjah (The Sermon of Necessity)” was recited by Rasûlullah Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam during the beginning of his Jumu’ah Khutbah (Friday Sermon). Various portions of this renown Khutbah has been narrated with different wordings in an-Nasâ’î, Hadîth no: 3278; Muslim, Hadîth no: 868; Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no: 2118; at-Tirmidhî, Hadîth no: 1105, and in other compilations of Hadîth.
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

Julaybib

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our Da’wah (Call)

Our sole purpose primarily, is to circulate the Aqidah of Tawhid everywhere we are able to reach. This is the call of all the Rasul (messenger) and Nabi (prophet) from Adam (alayhi salam) to the Khatam’ul Anbiya (the last of the prophets) Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), striving against all types of Kufr and Shirk that nullify Tawhid and exposing fake deities and Taaghout which call people to worship them. Allah Ta’ala states the following Ayah in this regards:

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلّٰهِ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللّٰهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
“And fight them on until there is no more persecution, and religion becomes Allah's in its entirety.” (al-Baqarah 2/193; al-Anfal 8/39)

In addition, the Aqidah of “al-Wara wa’l Bara” which is one of the most important Rukn (pillar) of Tawhid, the Takfir of the Mushrikin fixed to the Aqidah of “al-Wara wa’l Bara”, accordingly the limits of Imaan and Kufr becoming evident is one of the hallmarks of our Da’wah. The removal of the doubts regarding the matters of Aqidah, especially in the matters of Imaan and Kufr that are innovated by the Dai (caller) of Baatil (falsehood) is also one of our purposes. We aspire to establish the Wasat (medium) Aqidah of Ahl’us Sunna wa’l Ja’maah that is far from Ifrat (taking maters to the extreme) and Tarfit (neglecting its true meaning).

After Tawhid, the most important topic we call to is the Sunnah. Connotation especially to the matters of Aqidah but not limited to it; accepting and practicing every matter of Islam as Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab counseled and lived, also rejecting every Bid’ah innovated after them. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in a Sahih (authentic) Hadith stated that his Ummah (nation) will be divided into seventy-three sects and that only one of them will be saved. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) named them as Firqa’i Naajiyah (the Saved Group) and described their affair stating:


مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي
“(Those who follow) my path and the path of my Ashaab (companions)... ”2

The Ahl’us Sunnah wa’l Ja’maah is the only group that follows this noble path.

No individual or group entered the saved group by merely identifying themselves as Ahl’us Sunnah. The most apparent quality of the Ahl’us Sunnah is submitting to the Salaf’us Salihin (the righteous predecessors) whom are the best of the people and the first three generations (of beginning of the Islam) and staying away from the Bid’ah and Munkar (evil) that was innovated by the Khalaf (later generations). As narrated in the Sahih (of Bukhari) from Imran bin Husayn (radiyallahu anh) Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated:


خَيْرُ أُمَّتِي قَرْنِي، ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ، ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ، - قَالَ عِمْرَانُ فَلاَ أَدْرِي: أَذَكَرَ بَعْدَ قَرْنِهِ قَرْنَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاَثًا - ثُمَّ إِنَّ بَعْدَكُمْ قَوْمًا يَشْهَدُونَ وَلاَ يُسْتَشْهَدُونَ وَيَخُونُونَ وَلاَ يُؤْتَمَنُونَ، وَيَنْذُرُونَ وَلاَ يَفُونَ، وَيَظْهَرُ فِيهِمُ السِّمَنُ
“The best of my followers are those living in my generation (i.e. my contemporaries). And then those who will follow the latter. -Imran (radiyallahu anh) added: I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three generations after his generation- There will come after you, people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, and will be treacherous and untrustworthy, and they will vow and never fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them."3

After Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab, the Rabbani Ulama took on the mission of calling to Tawhid and the Sunnah fitting the Hadith:

الْعُلَمَاءُ خُلَفَاءُ الأَنْبِيَاءِ إِنَّ الأَنْبِيَاءَ
“The scholars are the successors of the prophets."4

At this point, our goal is to become a bridge between Ilm and the people by conveying the legacy concerning the Ilm (sacred knowledge) of the Rabbani Ulama, which attained the mission of calling to Tawhid and the Sunnah after the prophets. The source of this Ilm reaches Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) through Jibril-i Amin (alayhi salam) to the Lord of the Worlds (Jalla wa Jalaluhu). The Ulama will represent this Ilm until the Day of Qiyamah (Doomdsay). Since Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated:

لاَ يَزَالُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أُمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ بِأَمْرِ اللّٰهِ، لاَ يَضُرُّهُمْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُمْ، وَلاَ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ، حَتَّى يَأْتِيَهُمْ أَمْرُ اللّٰهِ وَهُمْ عَلَى ذٰلِكَ
"A group of people amongst my followers will remain obedient to Allah's orders and they will not be harmed by anyone who will not help them or who will oppose them, till Allah's Order (the Last Day) comes upon them while they are still on the right path."5

That is why it is also our goal to spread the books of the Ulamaa (pl. Alim; scholars) whom had been stand bearers of the Aqidah of the Ahl’us Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah throughout history and the Ilm that they inherited from Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). In order to reach this goal; we take the Manhaj (methodology of attaining Ilm) of the Salaf’us Salihin whom are praised by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) as base for us. We would like to convey the legacy of the A’immah (pl. Imam) of Hadith and Sunnah who had not been affected from Kalaam (theological rhetoric) and philosopy, persistent upon the Aqidah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab, in short; the scholars among the Firqa-i Najiyaah and “Taifat’ul Mansura (Victorious Group)”.

Our call (Inshallah) will never be calling people to our own views that have no base from the Salaf nor to groups that have been consituted by the Asabiyyah (tribalism/nationalism) of Jaahiliyyah (the prelslaamic days of ignorance).

Tawfiq (success) is lies in Allah Ta’ala...



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Footnotes:

2- Tirmidhi, Hadith no: 2641.

3- Bukhari, Hadith no: 3650.

4- Bazzar, Musnad al-Bazzar, 10/68.

5- Bukhari, Hadith no: 3641.
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"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

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The Biography of Shaykh Aba Butayn (1194H-1282H)6

He is Allamah, Faqih, Usoul scholar, Abu Abd’ir Rahman, Abdullah bin Abd’ir Rahman bin Abd’il Aziz bin Abdillah bin Sultan bin Khamis. Like his predecessors, he attained the Kunyah7, Aba Butayn.

He is from the region of Aiz and from among the family Khamis. He is from the Hanbali Maddhab. He was born in the city of Rowdhah, in the region of Sudir, in the month of Dh'ul Qa'dah 1194H/1773C.E. He was born twelve years before the death of
Imam Mujaddid Muhammad bin Abd’il Wahhab (rahimahullah). He grew up in a family affiliated with the Din. He had interest in Ilm since he was young. He had a large amount of Ilm during his young ages due to having a strong perception and being a quick learner.

His Travels for Seeking Ilm and his Teachers

Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) studied in his city Rowdhah with its scholar, Shaykh Muhammad Ibn’ul Hajj ad-Dowsari (rahimahullah) and became very talented in Fiqh (jurisprudence). He (rahimahullah) then traveled to Shaqraa, the capital city of the region of Washm, where he studied Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh and Usuol'ud Din with its Qadhi (judge) and one of the renowned students of Shaykh Muhammah bin Abd’il Wahhab (rahimahullah), Abd'ul Aziz bin Abdillah al-Husayn (rahimahullah) and became expert in these sciences.

Among his teachers are, the son of Shaykh Muhammad (rahimahullah), Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abd’il Wahhab (rahimahullah) and
Allamah Hamd bin Nasir bin Mu’ammar (rahimahullah) from among the students of Shaykh Muhammad (rahimahullah). Therefore, he studied under those valuable teachers and he became one of the Ahl’ul Ilm (People of Knowledge) of his era.

One of his students, the author of Tarikhu Najd, Uthman bin Bishr (rahimahullah) said the following regarding him: “He had complete knowledge in (the sciences); Tafsir, Hadith and Fiqh and he was an Imam in all types of sciences of Ilm.”

What is more astonishing is what one of his students, Muhammad bin Abdillah bin Humayd, stated his book “as-Suhub’ul Wabilah” regarding the Tabaqat of Hanabila –with so many praises- regarding him. He said, “As for his awareness of the disagreements and the narrations of the Four Imam and A’immah of the Salaf, views of the Madhhahib (pl. Madhhab) then this is indeed strange. I do not know anyone alike him moreover (I do not know) one who comes close to him (in these matters).” After praising him numerous times, just as we mentioned he ended his statements regarding him saying, "...and with his death the Tahqiq era in the Madhhab of Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) ended. He was an Ayah (symbol) in this regards.”8 With this, he meant that Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) was the last of the Muhaqqiqin.

What makes these statements important is that; the owner of these statements, Ibnu Humayd, was his student however, he differed with him in matters of Aqidah. Such that due to his severe opposition to the Da’wah of Tawhid, he did not allocate a place for Shaykh’ul Islam Muhammad bin Abd’il Wahhab (rahimahullah) and many among his Ashaab in his book regarding the Tabaqaat of Hanabila. Furthermore, he attacked the Shaykh Muhammad and his Da’wah with undercover statements while mentioning his father (as-Suhub’ul Wabilah ala Daraih’il Hanabila, no: 415). He tried to defend the poem well known as “Qasida Burda” which has abundant Shirk in it. Shaykh Abd’ur Rahman bin Hasan (rahimahullah) wrote a refutation to Ibnu Humayd an-Najdi.9 Even though an opposer it is important, that such an opposer of the Aqidah mentioned the status of Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) in Ilm.

His Positions

He held the position as the Judge of Ta’if during the era of Suud bin Abd’il Aziz bin Muhammad (rahimahullah). Then Abdullah bin Suud appointed him as a Judge for Oman. Imam at-Turki (rahimahullah) appointed him in his time as the Judge of Washm and made him the Judge of Sudayr region. After he became a Judge of Qasim he departed from his position as a judge.

His Students

His position did not hold Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) away from Ta’lim (teaching) and Da’wah (call). Some of his students are:

1- Salih bin Isa (rahimahullah).

2- (His son) Abd’ur Rahman bin Abdillah bin Aba Batin (rahimahullah).

3- Muhammad bin Abdillah bin Humayd (author of “Suhub’ul Wabilah” as mentioned above).

4- Uthman bin Bishr (rahimahullah), (author of “Unwan’ul Majd” regarding the history of Najd).

His Akhlaaq (Character)

The Muallif (author) was a Zaahid (devotee), an owner of Wara (abstinence) and a personality who gave his time to Ilm completely. He liked silence, spoke little, and had a Waqur (graceful) personality. He had Matanah (firmness) regarding Haqq (truth); was a generous person and he consecrated himself to Ilm. He was among the Ahl’ul Ibadaah and Tahajjud (People of Worship and Prayer of Tahajjud Prayer), he rarely went out to the people.

His Works

He studied many sciences and compiled many works. Some of his works are:

1- Muhktasar (summary) of the “Badai'ul Fawaid” which belongs to Ibn’ul Qayyim (rahimahullah).

2- Hashiya to the book “Sharh’ul Muntaha” which is regarding the Hanbali Fiqh.

3- Refutation to Dawud bin Jarjis an-Nakshiband, “Tasis’ut Takdis”.

4-
“al-Intisar li Hizbillah’il Muwahhid’in” . (Mentioned in ad-Durar’us Saniyyah, this book is a refutation against Dawud bin Jarjis).

5- A Mukhtasar Risalah regarding Usoul’ul Fiqh.

6- A Risalah regarding Tajwid.

7-
"Tawhid Related Issues"

His many Fatawa are found in “ad-Durar’us Saniyyah”, “Majmuat’ur Rasail” and other compilations, which gather the works of Ulamaa of Najd.

His Death

Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) died when he was eighty-eight years old in the Shakra region. May Allah Ta’ala have mercy upon him and may his abode be Jannah (Paradise). (Amin!)



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Footnotes:

6- We benefitted from the following sources while preparing the biography of Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah): ad-Durar’us Saniyyah fi’l Ajvibat’in Najdiyya, 16/427-429; Mashahir’u Ulama’in Najd, 176-179, and information given in the beginning of the book “al-Intisar” by the verifier.

7- Kunyah is a type of nickname that a person is praised and honoured with, unlike nicknames which may have connotations of praise or otherwise.

8- as-Suhub’ul Wabilah ala Daraih’il Hanabila, 626-633, no: 386.

9- The book titled “al-Majijja fi’r Raddi ala’l Lujja” and published in “al-Matlab’ul Hamid” comprises pamphlets of the Shaykh Abd’ir Rahman bin Hasan (rahimahullah). The Muhaqqiq of the “al-Matlab’ul Hamid” stated the reason for this Risalah to be written was the statements of Ibnu Humayd regarding Burda. Lujja was the nickname of Ibnu Humayd.
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"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

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Muqaddimah (Preface)

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,

From the Fataawa (pl. Fatwa; religiously verdicts) of the Allamah, Mufti of the Najd Region, Alim of the Taifat’us Salafiyyah, the Shaykh Abdullah bin Abd’ur Rahman known as Aba Butayn (rahimahullahi ta’ala).

Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) was asked10:

Issue: Shaykh Taqi ad-Din (rahimahullahi ta’ala) stated in his refutation to Ibn’ul Bakri11:


Quote from: Shaykh'ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah)

“For this reason, the Ahl’ul Ilm wa’s Sunnah (the People of Sacred-Knowledge and the Sunnah) do not declare Takfir of those who oppose them even if their opposition declares Takfir of them. The reason being that Kufr is a Hukm (ruling) of Shari’ah (Islamic law). People do not have the right to punish with its similar (as revenge). Just like if someone lies about you or fornicates with your spouse, it is not your right to lie about him and fornicate with his spouse, because Kazb (lying) and Zina (fornication) is among Haraam (the forbidden things), due to Allah Ta’ala’s right (to determine them as such). Similarly, Takfir is Allah Ta’ala’s right, so we do not apply Takfir to one unless it was applied to him by Allah Ta’ala or His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

In addition, Takfir of the Muayyan (specific) person and the permit of killing him are dependent on the reaching of the Nabawi Hujjah that which those who oppose are declared Takfir upon. Otherwise, not all those whom are ignorant of something from the Din are declared Takfir upon (...)"

Until Shaykh’ul Islam’s saying:

Quote from: Shaykh'ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah)

"(...) For this reason, I said to the Hululiyyah and the rejecters from among the Jahmiyyah whom deny (the fact) that Allah Ta’ala is above His Arsh (Throne). “If I consent with you (in such belief), I become Kafir. It is because I know that your statement is Kufr. In my presence you all are not declared Takfir upon because you are Juhaal (ignorant ones).” Ilkh (up to the end of his statement)...”

Issue a Fatwa for us. What does Qiyam’ul Hujjah mean (in this context)? May Allah reward you with His Ta’ala’s favors and kindness!

The Response:

All Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.

The statement of the Shaykh (rahimahullah) comprises two issues:



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Footnotes:

10- Majmuat’ur Rasa’il wa’l Masa’il’in Najdiyyah, (4th Juzz 2nd Part) 510-523.

11- Ibnu Taymiyyah, ar-Radd ala'l Bakri, 257.
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A Risalah Regarding Ruling of Those who Declare Takfir Upon Others From the Muslimin

The First Of The Two Issues

State of One Who Declares Takfir Upon the Muslimin


Our Takfir upon those who declare Takfir upon us is non existent. The Dhaahir (apparent) of Ibnu Taymiyyah’s statement is that; it is the same whether he is a doer of Ta’wil (forced interpretation) or not.

What is evident for a Taifah (group) from the Ulamaa (pl. Alim; scholars) is that if he said that as a doer of Ta’wil then Takfir will not be declared upon him. Ibnu Hajar al-Haythami narrated from a Taifah of Shafii (scholars) that what is evident for them is declaring Takfir of him when he did it without Ta’wil. Therefore, narrated on the authority of al-Mutawalli that he said:


إذا قال لمسلم: يا كافر، بلا تأويل، كفر

“If one says to a Muslim: 'O Kafir!' without having Ta’wil then he becomes Kafir (himself).”

(Among the Ulamaa) a Jama’ah (society/group) said (accepted) it and submitted to it and performed Ikhtijaaj (derived evidence) with the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam):


إذا قال الرجل لأخيه: يا كافر، فقد باء بها أحدهما
"If a man says to his brother (in Din), O Kafir (disbeliever)!' Then surely it returns to one of them." (Bukhari, Hadith no: 6103)

That it throws a Muslim (into Kufr) with it so he becomes Kaafir. They said: It is because Islam named it as Kufr. Some of them related it with reasoning and their statements are as follows: It is because Islam named it as Kufr. So they said: This is not the meaning comprehended from his words (the Hadith) nor is it the intent of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Indeed the intent of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his words (the Hadith) is as follows; “That you are not upon the Din of Islam which is upon Haqq (truth), that indeed you are a Kaafir and your Din is other than Islam and I am upon the Din of Islam.” No doubt, this is the intent of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

It is because there is attributing the person with the Kufr and not the Din of Islam. So him being upon the Din of Islam is nullified. Takfir will not be declared upon him with this statement. Nevertheless, he is acting with this obscene blasphemy in what reaches him.

Their statement necessitates that whoever says to a slave (of Allah): “O Faasiq (corrupted)” it is Kufr. It is because he named the Ibadaah (worship) as Fisq (corruption). I do not reckon any one would say such. When he declares Tafsiq (calls you as Fasiq) upon you he desires to say: “What you commit with your Ibadaah is Fisq.” and not (desire to say): “Your Ibadaah (itself) is Fisq.” Quotation (from Mutawalli) ends here.

The Dhaahir of Nawawi’s statement in “Sharhu Muslim” is also in agreement with this. So indeed he said the following regarding the (above) mentioned Hadith:

“This is what the Ulamaa had accounted among the Mushkilaat (problematic). So indeed the Madhhab of Ahl’ul Haqq is that Takfir will not be declared on the Muslim due to Masiyah (sin) such as killing and fornication. Just like his statement to his brother: “O Kaafir” is stated without having the I’tiqaad (creed) that the Din of Islam is Baatil (false).”

Nawawi then narrated various Ta’wil (regarding the word “return”) of the Ahadith (pl. Hadith)12:

The first Ta'wil: Kufr returns upon him if he is making lawful, therefore this person will be declared Takfir in this case. That it is ascribed to one who makes it lawful and meaning of
باء بها "would return to one of them" (which is mentioned in the Hadith) is the word of Kufr. Likewise, in the narration حار- عليه the word of Kufr returns upon him. (Different wording mentioned in the Ahadith) باء وحار ورجع "(return, rebound, revoke)” have the same meaning (return).

The second Ta'wil: His shortcoming to his brother (in Din) and Masiyah of his Takfir returns upon him.

The third Ta'wil: Ascribed upon the Khawaarij who declared Takfir upon the Mu’minin (pl. Mu’min; believers). Qaadhi Iyadh narrated this from Maalik. It is Dhayif (weak). It is because according to the Sahih (authentic) and preferred Madhhab (view) that which the majority of the verifiers said that the Khawaarij are not declared Takfir upon as it was the case for other Ahl’ul Bid’ah (People of Religious Innovation). 

The fourth Ta'wil: Its meaning takes to Kufr. So indeed Masiyah is -as they said- the postal service of Kufr. Its increase is feared from and that its’ ill consequence be the fate to Kufr. Narration of Abi Awana in his Takhrij (extraction, authentication, and validation of chains of transmitters of a Hadith) upon Muslim supports this:


فإن كان كما قال، وإلا فقد باء بالكفر
“...if he is actually as he says (i.e. Kafir then it is all right); if not, he will become a Kafir.”
(Abu Dawud, Hadith no: 4687; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/23)

The fifth Ta'wil: His Kufr returns him. The return of the Kufr is not in reality rather the Takfir that which makes his Mu’min brother (in Din) a Kaafir. So as if he declared Takfir upon his Nafs (own self) since he declared Takfir upon one who is like him (i.e., a Muslim). It is because either he declared Takfir upon one who is like him or a Kafir who believes that the religion of Islam is Baatil.” Quotation (from Nawawi) ends here.

Ibnu Daqiq al-Iyd said the following regarding the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam):


ومن دعا رجلا بالكفر كذلك إلا حار عليه
“...he who labeled anyone with Kufr, and he was in fact not so, it rebounded on him.”
(Muslim, Hadith no: 61; Ahmad, Musnad, 5/166; Bukhari, Adab’ul Mufrad, Hadith no: 433)13

Meaning returns upon him. This is a great Wa’id (threat) upon whoever declares Takfir upon the Muslimin. Whereas, it is not the case. It is an arduous difficult position created for those who are scholars, they made Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) regarding the Aqaaid (creed) and some of them passed judgment of declaring Takfir upon others.

Then he narrated from Ustadh (master) Abi Ishaaq al-Isfarayyani that he said:

“We do not declare Takfir upon anyone except for those who declared Takfir upon us.14 He said: This statement might become Khafi (obscure) to some people. He ascribes it to other than Sahih imputative.

That which should be ascribed to him is that he is aware of this Hadith, which ruled those who calls a man with Kufr, if it is not the case, the Kufr returns to him.
 
Likewise, the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam):


من قال لأخيه: يا كافر، فقد باء بها أحدهما
“If anyone says to his brother, 'O Kaafir! Then surely, it returns one of them.”
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 6104; Muslim, Hadith no: 60)

This speaker meaning Abu Ishaaq says:

“The Hadith indicates that the Kufr is ascribed for one of two people; could be the one who declares Takfir or could be the one who is declared Takfir. Therefore, if some people declare Takfir upon us then the Kufr occurs on one of us. I absolutely am not a Kaafir. So the Kufr returns to him (who declared Takfir upon us).” Quotation (from Ibnu Daqiq al-Iyd) ends here.

According to the Dhaahir of statement of Abi Ishaaq there is no difference between the doer of Ta’wil and other than him. Wallahu A’lam (And Allah knows best).

What was narrated by the Qadhi (Iyadh) from Malik regarding ascribing the Khawaarij is in agreement with two narrations from Ahmad (bin Hanbal) regarding declaring Takfir upon the Khawaarij. This was the preferred (view) by a Taifah among the Ashaab (pl. Sahabah; companions) and those other than them. It is because they declared Takfir upon many from the Ashaab. They made Istihlaal (made it Halaal i.e., permissible) of their blood (to shed) and their wealth (to be taken). With it they (deem that they) become closer to Allah Ta’ala. So their Baatil Ta’wil does not excuse them, however the majority of the Fuqahaa (pl, Faqih; jurists) are upon the lack of Takfir because of their Ta’wil. They said: Whoever performs Istihlaal for killing the innocent and taking their wealth, without doubt and without Ta’wil it is Kufr. And if his Istihlaal of this is with Ta’wil just as the Khawaarij then he will not be declared Takfir. Wallahu A’lam.




Quote
Footnotes:

12- The text of the Ahadith that which Nawawi commented and that were given under the heading: “Chapter: Clarifying the condition of Iman (faith) for the one who says to his Muslim brother: O Kafir (disbeliever)" by Muslim is as follows:

It was narrated from Ibnu Umar (radiyallahu anhuma) that the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


إِذَا كَفَّرَ الرَّجُلُ أَخَاهُ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِهَا أَحَدُهُمَا
“When a man calls his brother an unbeliever, it returns (at least) to one of them.” (Muslim, Hadith no: 60a)

It was narrated from Ibnu Umar (radiyallahu anhuma) in a different version of the Hadith that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

أَيُّمَا امْرِئٍ قَالَ لأَخِيهِ يَا كَافِرُ ‏.‏ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِهَا أَحَدُهُمَا إِنْ كَانَ كَمَا قَالَ وَإِلاَّ رَجَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ
“Any person who called his brother: "O unbeliever" (has in fact done an act by which this unbelief) would return to one of them. If it were so, as he asserted (then the unbelief of man was confirmed but if it was not true), then it returned to him (to the man who labeled it on his brother Muslim).” (Muslim, Hadith no: 60b)

13- The following is the full length of the Hadith quoted by Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah):

It is reported on the authority of Abu Dharr (radiyallahu anh) that he heard Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) saying:


لَيْسَ مِنْ رَجُلٍ ادَّعَى لِغَيْرِ أَبِيهِ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُهُ إِلاَّ كَفَرَ وَمَنِ ادَّعَى مَا لَيْسَ لَهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا وَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَنْ دَعَا رَجُلاً بِالْكُفْرِ أَوْ قَالَ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ وَلَيْسَ كَذَلِكَ إِلاَّ حَارَ عَلَيْهِ
“No person who claimed knowingly anyone else as his father besides (his own) committed nothing but infidelity, and he who made a claim of anything, which (in fact) did not belong to him, is not amongst us; he should make his abode in Fire, and he who labeled anyone with unbelief or called him the enemy of Allah, and he was in fact not so, it rebounded on him.” (Muslim, Hadith no: 61; Ahmad, Musnad, 5/166; Bukhari, Adab’ul Mufrad, Hadith no: 433)

14- Shaykh'ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

وهذا بخلاف ما كان يقوله بعض الناس كأبي إسحاق الإسفراييني ومن اتبعه يقولون: "لا نكفر إلا من يكفر" فإن الكفر ليس حقا لهم بل هو حق لله وليس للإنسان أن يكذب على من يكذب عليه ولا يفعل الفاحشة بأهل من فعل الفاحشة بأهله بل ولو استكرهه رجل على اللواطة لم يكن له أن يستكرهه على ذلك ولو قتله بتجريع خمر أو تلوط به لم يجز قتله بمثل ذلك لأن هذا حرام لحق الله تعالى ولو سب النصارى نبينا لم يكن لنا أن نسبح المسيح والرافضة إذا كفروا أبا بكر وعمر فليس لنا أن نكفر عليا

“This is the opposite of what some people say, like Abu Ishaaq al-Isfarayyani and those who follow him; they say: “We do not declare Takfir upon anyone except for those who declared Takfir upon us.” But labeling one with Kufr is not their right, it is Allah’s right. People do not have the right to lie about those who lie about them, nor to commit fornication with the spouse of those who have committed fornication with their spouse. Even if a man is raped by another man he doesn’t have the right to rape him in retaliation (…) because these are offenses against Allah Ta'ala. Even if a Christian slanders our Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), it is not allowed for us to slander Masih (alayhi salam), and if the Rawafid declared Takfir upon Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anh) and Umar (radiyallahu anh), it is not right for us to declare Takfir upon Ali (radiyallahu anh).” (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Minhaj’us Sunnah, 5/244)
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The Second Issue

Muayyan Takfir and Iqamat’ul Hujjah


“Indeed Takfir of the Muayyan (specific) person and permit of killing him is dependent upon the reaching of the Nabawi Hujjah that which those who oppose is declared Takfir upon. Ilkh”

His statement “those whom Da’wah (call) had not reached” includes what had already become evident in another place. Ibnu Aqil narrated from his Ashaab (companions) that there is no punishment. He said: Indeed Allah Ta’ala forgives those who acted upon –with traits of the Khayr (goodness) - and it is permissible because Da’wah had not reached them. Then he performed Istidlaal (inference) with what is narrated as Marfu (elevated report) in Sahih Muslim:


والذي نفسي بيده، لا يسمع بي أحد من هذه الأمة يهودي أو نصراني ثم يموت ولم يؤمن بالذي أرسلت به إلا كان من أصحاب النار
“By Him in Whose hand is my life, he who amongst the community of Jews or Christians hears about me, but does not affirm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state (of disbelief), he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire.” (Muslim, Hadith no: 153)

In the Sharh (comment) of Muslim he said: Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made it Khass (specified) for the Jews and the Christians since they are from the (People of) Book. He said, (It is understood) from its Mafhum (context) that those whom the Da’wah of Islam had not reached so he is Madhur (excused). He said, This is what was determined in the Usoul (methodology): “Upon the Sahih (correct view), there is no Hukm (ruling) prior to the presence of the Shari’ah.”

Qadhi Abu Ya’ala stated the following regarding the statement of Allah Ta’ala:


وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبْعَثَ رَسُولاً
“...nor would We punish until We had sent a messenger (to give warning).” (al-Isra 17/15)

“In this, there is a Dalil (evidence) upon that the Marifah (knowledge) of Allah Ta’ala is not Waajib (obligatory) by Aql (reasoning). Indeed, it becomes Waajib with the Shari’a, which is sending the messengers. If a person dies before this (reaching the messengers) then he will not receive the Naar (fire; Hell-fire).”

(Regarding) to whom the Da’wah had not reached there is another view that he will be punished (even if the Da’wah had not reached him). Ibnu Haamid preferred this view and performed Ihtijaaj (derived proof) with the statement of Allah Ta’ala:


أَيَحْسَبُ الْأِنْسَانُ أَنْ يُتْرَكَ سُدىً
“Does man think that he will be left uncontrolled, (without purpose)?” (al-Qiyamah 75/36)

Wallahu A’lam (and Allah knows)!

To whom the Risalah (prophethood) of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) reached and the Qur’an reached then the Hujjah is established upon him. Regarding the lack of Iman in; Allah Ta’ala, His Malaikah (pl. Malak; angels), His Books, His Messengers, Yawm’ul Akhir (Last Day) there is no Udhr (excuse). After reaching the Risalah and the Qur’an then there is no excuse by Jahl (ignorance) in it (principles of Iman). Allah Subhanahu informed regarding the Jahl of most the Kuffaar (pl. Kafir) along with openly mentioning their Kufr.

Allah Subhanahu described the Christians with the Jahl that a Muslim does not doubt regarding their Kufr. Indeed, it is accepted that most of the Jews and the Christians today are Jaahil (ignorant ones) Muqallid (imitators). We have I’tiqaad (belief) their Kufr and Kufr of those who doubt their Kufr.

The Qur’an indicates that the doubt regarding Usoul’ud Din (Fundamentals of the Religion) is Kufr. The doubt is hesitating between two things such as neither proving the Sidq (truthfulness) of the Rasul nor belying him or neither proving the occurrence of resurrection neither proving the absence of its occurrence and their likes such as neither having I’tiqaad regarding the Salaat (daily prayers) being obligatory nor (having I’tiqaad regarding) absence of it being obligatory, or neither having I’tiqaad on Zina (fornication) being Haraam (unlawful) nor (having I’tiqaad) the absence of its being Haraam.

This is Kufr with the Ijmaa (consensus) of the Ulamaa (pl. Alim; scholars). There is no Udhr for the one who is in this state (of doubting, hesitating). Likewise, one who did not comprehend Hujjah and Bayyanah (evidences) of Allah Ta’ala. It is because there is no Udhr for him after it had reached him even if he does not comprehend it. Allah Ta’ala informed regarding the Kuffar that they do not comprehend, so He Ta’ala states:


وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَنْ يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْراً
“... but We have thrown veils on their hearts, So they comprehend it not, and deafness in their ears.” (al-An’am 6/25);

إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُهْتَدُون
“...in that they took the Shayaatin (pl, Shaytan; devils), in preference to Allah, for their friends and protectors, and think that they receive guidance.” (al-A’raf 7/30)

Therefore, Allah Subhanahu clarified that they do not comprehend then they have no Udhr due to not comprehending. Rather the Qur’an (evidently) clarified the Kufr of this type among the Kuffar just as the statement of Allah Ta’ala:

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالاً الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعاً أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآياتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْناً
“Say: Shall we tell you of those who lose most in respect of their deeds? Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life, while they thought that they were acquiring good by their works? They are those who deny the Signs of their Lord and the fact of their having to meet Him (in the Hereafter): vain will be their works, nor shall We, on the Day of Judgment, give them any weight.” (al-Kahf 18/103-105)

While speaking about the matter of “whether or not all the Mujtahid are correct (in all their Ijtihaad)”, preferring the view that “not every Mujtahid can be correct (in his Ijtihaad) rather Haqq is the saying of one of the Mujtahid among the sayings of the Mujtahidin” the Shaykh Abu Muhammad Muwaffaq ad-Din Ibnu Qudamah (rahimahullahu ta’ala) said the following:

"(Surely every Mujtahid can not be correct in all of his Ijtihad. Haqq is the saying of one of the Mujtahid.) Jaahiz claimed that, one –opposes the Millah (Din) of Islam- who searched for the Haqq and is unable to apprehend is excused and not a sinner.

Shaykh (rahimahullah) continued until he said:

However, what came to Jaahiz is certainly Baatil (false); it is Kufr (denial) in Allah Ta’ala and rejecting Him Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Since we know that, the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded the Jews and the Christians with Islam and to submit to him and also condemned their persistence (for sticking to Kufr). Likewise, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) fought with them all and killed their Baligh (mature) ones.

We know that the Muannid (amongst the opponents of the Din of Islam) are those whom are very few. Most are Muqallid (imitator) and they have I’tiqaad in the Din of their ancestors by the way of imitation. They do not know the Mujizah (the miracles) of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Sidq (truthfulness). Ayaat (pl. Ayah; verses) in the Qur’an, which show Dallat (indication) to this matter, are many. Such as the statements of Allah Ta’ala:


ذَلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ
"That is the consideration of those who disbelieve! But woe to the Unbelievers because of the Fire (of Hell)!" (Sa’d 38/27);

وَذَلِكُمْ ظَنُّكُمُ الَّذِي ظَنَنتُم بِرَبِّكُمْ أَرْدَاكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم مِّنْ الْخَاسِرِينَ
"And that thought of yours which you thought about your Lord, has brought you to destruction, and you have become (this Day) of those utterly lost!" (al-Fussilat 41/23);

وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ
"(They have no knowledge); They merely conjecture." (Jathiya 45/24);

وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ
"They think that they have something (to stand upon)." (al-Mujadilah 58/18);

وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ
“...and think that they receive guidance.” (al-A’raf 7/30);

الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعاً أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآياتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْناً
“Say: Shall we tell you of those who lose most in respect of their deeds? Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life, while they thought that they were acquiring good by their works? They are those who deny the Signs of their Lord and the fact of their having to meet Him (in the Hereafter): vain will be their works, nor shall We, on the Day of Judgment, give them any weight.” (al-Kahf 18/104-105)

In short; (evidences for) condemnation of those who denied Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) are numerous in the Kitaab (the Book, i.e. Qur’an) and the Sunnah."

So, he (rahimahullahu ta’ala) clarified: “If we do not declare Takfir upon anyone but the acquainted Muannid it becomes necessary for us to rule most of the Jews and the Christians with Islam (account them as Muslim) and this is among the most clearest Baatil.”

So the statement of Shaykh Taqi ad-Din (rahimahullahu ta’ala): “Takfir of the Muayyan (specific) person and permit of killing him is dependent on the reaching of the (Nabawi) Hujjah” indicates his statement that these two matters –which are the Takfir and the killing- are not dependent on the absolute comprehension of the Hujjah rather it is dependent on its reaching. Its comprehension is something and its reaching is something else. So, if the Hukm was dependent upon comprehension of the Hujjah we would not declare Takfir upon anyone except one who knows and is a Muannid specifically. This is a clear Butlaan (slander).

Rather the last part of the statement of Shaykh Taqi ad-Din Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullahu ta’ala) indicates that comprehension of the Hujjah is respected (taken in consideration) regarding the matters that are Khafi (obscure) for most of the people. In it, there is no contradiction with Tawhid and the Risalah such as the Jahl regarding some of the Sifaat (pl. Sifat; descriptions, characteristics of Allah Ta’ala).

As for the matter (of Dhaahir; apparent) that which contradicts the Tawhid and the Iman with the Risaalah then Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullahu ta’ala) clearly stated in many places the Kufr of the doer and him being killed after offering him to make Tawbah (repentance). Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullahu ta’ala) did not excuse them due to their Jahl along with our Tahqiq (verification) that indeed the reason for this matter occurs is the Jahl in its reality. Therefore, if they knew that, it is a Kufr that takes out of fold of Islam they would not have performed.


Regarding this the Shaykh (rahimahullahu ta’ala) has says a great deal such as his (following) statement in some of his books:

“So all the types of Ghuluww (exaggeration) regarding a Nabi or a Saalih man; If he made a portion of Ilahiyyah (deifying) such as directing Dua to other than Allah by saying: “Ya (O) so and so, help me!” or “forgive me!” or “have mercy upon me!” or “help me!” or “cure me!” or “I put my Tawakkul (trust) upon you!” or “I am in your service and You are my guardian!” and their likes that are characteristics of Rububiyyah the (Lordship) that do not befit except Allah. So, all of this is Shirk and misguidance. The doer will be asked for Tawbah; if he makes Tawbah (he will be freed) otherwise he will be killed.”

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullahu ta’ala) said: "The one who puts Wasita (medium) between him and Allah and directs Du'a to them, has Tawakkul (trust) on them,  and asks from them is Kafir by Ijmaa."

He said: “Whoever has I’tiqaad that visiting Ahl’udh Dhimmah (non-Muslim who paid Jizyah; a protection tax to reside in Dar'ul Islam i.e., Abode of Islam) in their churches is nearness to Allah then he is Murtad (apostate). If he is ignorant regarding its being Haraam he will be instructed if he persists on it, he is clearly a Murtad.”

He (rahimahullahu ta’ala) said: "Whoever Sab (curses) the Sahabah or one of them or adds to his Sab calling Ali (radiyallahu anh) being an Ilah (God) or he was a Nabi (Prophet) or Jibril (alayhi salam) was mistaken (in delivering the Risalah; prophet-hood) then there is no doubt concerning this being Kufr. Moreover there is no doubt concerning the Kufr of the one who does Waqf (pauses) his Takfir upon him."

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullahu ta’ala) said: "And whosoever claims that the Sahabah performed Irtidad (became Murtad) after Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), except a few; not more than ten odd people in number, or that they were Fussaq (pl., Faasiq; disobedient sinners), then there is also no doubt about the Kufr of the who says this. Moreover who ever doubts his Kufr then he is also Kafir." Quotatıon (from Ibnu Taymiyyah) ends here.

So look at how the Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) declares Takfir upon the doubter while the doubter is Jaahil. He did not take in consideration the Jahl as an Udhr matters as such. Shaykh (rahimahullah) during his speech stated: “For this reason they said: Whoever rebels arrogantly just as Iblis (daemon) did, is Kafir with the Ittifaaq (of the Muslimin). Whoever rebels by desire does not become Kafir in the presence of the Ahl’us Sunnah. Whoever commits it while taking in consideration a Haraam as Halaal then he is Kaafir with the Ittifaaq (of the Muslimin).

Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said: “Istihlaal (making a Haraam Halaal i.e., permissible) is having I’tiqaad that it is Halaal and this would take place sometimes as having I’tiqaad that Allah did not make it Haraam, sometimes it takes place with the absence of I’tiqaad that Allah made it Haraam. This is the defect in Imaan of the Rububiyyah or the Risalah. This is merely denial not based on an introduction.

Sometimes knowing that Allah Ta’ala made it Haraam then he refrains from commitment to this prohibition and persists, so this is more severe in Kufr than the previous one.” Quotation (from Ibnu Taymiyyah) ends here.   

There are many statements of the Shaykh (rahimahullah) as such. Absolute Takfir is not specific for the Muannid because the majority of them are Juhaal (ignorant ones) who do not know what they say or what they commit is Kufr. Therefore, he did not excuse them due to their Jahl regarding this type of things (matters). It is because what they have with them contradicts the Tawhid, which is the greatest Wajibaat (obligations). From them is the inclusion of the opposition to the Risalah and rejection of the Nusus (pl. Nass; textual proofs) the Kitaab and the Sunnah. The Dhaahir of this is the Ijmaa done by the Ulamaa of the Salaf.

The Salaf and the A’immah (pl. Imam) remarked on the Takfir of people due to statements that originate from them with knowledge without being Muannid. For this reason, the Fuqaha (rahimahumullahu ta’ala) said, “Whoever rejects Ibadaah from the five Ibadaah being Wajib (obligatory) or rejects Khamr (alcoholic beverages) and their likes being prohibited or doubts regarding it and its likes, and is not Jaahil of the matter, is Kafir. If some one like him is Jaahil of the matter then he will be instructed. So indeed if he persists after Ta’rif (instruction, establishment of the Hujjah upon him) he is Kafir and will be killed.” The Hukm cannot be specific to the Muannid. So many things –statements and acts- that its doer becomes Murtad with are mentioned in “Baab’u Hukmi’l Murtad (section of Ruling of the Apostate)” and never is it limited with the Muannid.”

The Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah also said: “When the likes of Qudamah (radiyallahu anh) and his companions; a Ta’ifah among the Sahabah and the Tabi’in made Istihlaal regarding Khamr deeming Khamr is Mubah (permissible) for the one who believes and acts as a Saalih (righteous) upon what they comprehend from the Ayah in al-Ma’idah15, the Ulamaa of the Sahabaah such as Umar (radiyallahu anh), Ali (radiyallahu anh) and other than them made Ittifaaq (agreed) that Tawbah is requested from them. If they persisted upon their Istihlaal they become Kafir and if they affirm (it is Haraam and a sin) Jalda (flogged, 80 lashes) is applied to them. Accordingly, due to the obscurity (of the matter to them) until clarifying to them the Haqq, Takfir is not declared on them due to Istihlaal in the beginning. They do become Kafir if they persist.

The Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah again said: “We know by necessity that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not legalize to his Ummah (nation) to direct Dua to anyone among the alive and the dead neither the Anbiya nor other than them neither by the Lafdh (wording) of the Istighatha (seeking help) nor with the Lafdh of Istiana (seeking aid) or other than it. Just as he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not legalize (to his Ummah) performing the Sujud for dead nor (performing the Sujud) towards a deceased and its likes. Rather we know that indeed, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited them all and indeed it is from the Shirk that Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made Haraam. However because of the overcoming Jahl and the decrease of Ilm regarding monuments of the Risalah among many of the Mutaakhirin (latter-day scholars); until explaining to them what the Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) came with it became impossible to declare Takfir upon them.” Quotation (from Ibnu Taymiyyah) ends here.

Look at his statement: “…until explaining to them what the Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) came with it became impossible to declare Takfir upon them” yet he did not say “…until clarifying to them and (until) we verify from them the Muannid after the Marifah.”

The Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah also said while completing his statement of mentioning what most people are upon from the Kufr and their Khuruuj (going out of fold) of Islam: “This is more prevailed especially in the time and cities that which the Jaahiliyyah (days of ignorance pre-Islam) the Kufr, the Nifaaq (hypocrisy) have prevailed in it. Therefore, the Jahl, the Dhulm (oppression), the Kazb (lie), the Kufr, the Nifaaq, the misguidance; that which cannot be expanded to mention in this article are from their strangeness.

"When this occurs in the Khafi matters, it might be said: “Indeed he is mistaken and misguided regarding it, the Hujjah that which causes its doer committing Kufr had not been established upon him.” However, this (Kufr) occurs in a group of them in the Dhaahir affairs; that are known by both the Khass (the elite) and the Amm (common folk) of the Muslimin that it is from the Din al-Islam. Even the Jews and the Christians know that with it Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was sent (as a Rasul and Nabi) and the one who opposes it is Kafir. Such as the commandment of worshiping Allah -Alone Who has no partner- and forbidding from worshiping any other than Allah Ta’ala such as the Malaikah, the Anbiya and other than them. Indeed these are among the most apparent Sha’air (p.l, Shiar; signs) of Islam such as; enmity towards the Jews, The Christians and the Mushrikin. Also the prohibition of the Fawaahish (shameful, evil deeds) such as; the Riba (interest), the Khamr, gambling and their likes. Then you will find many from their leaders fell into/caught in these types and thus became Murtadin. They may make Tawbah from it or they may turn from it.

The Shaykh (rahimahullah) continued until he said:

Those who compiled (books) regarding the Din of the Mushrikin and performed the Riddah (apostated) from Islam acted upon this. Such as ar-Razi compiled a book regarding worshiping the stars. He brought evidences for it (i.e. worshiping the stars) being good, its benefit and encouragement (aspiration).16 This is a Riddah from the Islam with Ittifaaq of the Muslimin. He might have made Tawbah from it and turned to Islam.” Quotation (of the statement of Ibnu Taymiyyah) ends here.

Pay attention to Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah separating the matters between the matters of the Khafi and the matters of the Dhaahir. So he said regarding the matters of Khafi that is Kufr: “(When this occurs in the Khafi matters,) it might be said: “Indeed in it he is mistaken and misguided, the Hujjah that which causes its possessor to be Kafir had not been established upon him.” Shaykh Ibnu Taymiyyah did not say this regarding the Dhaahir matters.

So his statement he manifested the separation between the matters of Dhaahir and Khafi. He declared Takfir upon the matters of the Dhaahir with an absolute Hukm. What is occurring from a Muslim by ignorance, such as making Istihlaal of a Haraam or acts or statements of Shirk after Ta’rif and does not declare Takfir upon them in matters of Khafi by ignorance such as ignorance regarding some of the Sifaat. So he did not declare upon the Jaahil with it absolutely even he is a Dai (caller) such as the statement for the Jahmiyyah: “You all -in my presence- are not declared Takfir upon because you are Juhaal (ignorant ones).”

His statement “in my presence” clarifies that the lack of declaring Takfir on them is not a matter that there is Ijmaa upon it however, it was his preference. His view in this matter is in opposition to the Mashhur (well-known) view in the Madhhab. So indeed the Sahih view in the Madhhab is declaring Takfir of the Mujtahid who calls to saying the Qur’an is created or the one who calls to Nafy (nullifying) or the rejection of the Ruyat (Allah being seen in the Jannah by the Muslimin) and their likes and the Muqallid (imitator) will be declared Tafsiq (labeled as Faasiq).

(The Grandfather of Ibnu Taymiyyah; Majd Abd’ul Barakat Abd’us Salam Ibnu Taymiyyah 652H) Majd Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"The Sahih (view) is that we consider the Muqallid (imitator) of every Bid’ah (religious innovation) that we declare Takfir upon its Dai (caller) as Faasiq (corrupt). Such as the one who says; that the Qur’an is created, Ilm (knowledge) of Allah is created, His Asmaa (Names) are created or Allah is not going to be seen in the Akhirah (Hereafter) or the one who curses the Sahabah (by taking it) as a religion or the one who says that Iman (faith) is a Mujarrad (abstract) I’tiqaad (creed) or whatever resembles it.  Whoever becomes an Alim (has knowledge) regarding one of these Bid’ah, calls to it and defends it then he is convicted (ruled) with being declared Takfir upon. Imam Ahmad mentioned this in many places." Quotation (from Majd) ends here.

So look! How he ruled them with Kufr along with their Jahl (ignorance). The Shaykh (rahimahullah) preferred the lack of their Kufr and declared them with Fisq in his presence.

Similar to this is the statement of Ibn’ul Qayyim (rahimahullahu ta’ala) indeed he said: “Fisq in I’tiqaad is like Fisq of the Ahl’ul Bid’ah whom believe in Allah, Yawm’ul Akhir (the Last Day), accounted as Haraam what has been made Haraam by Allah, accounted as Waajib what has been made Waajib by Allah however they nullify many things that are affirmed by Allah and His Rasul by the way of ignorance, Ta’wil and Taqlid (imitating) the Shuyukh (pl. Shaykh) likewise they affirm what Allah and His Rasul did not affirm. They are like the renegade Khawaarij (who go through pass in and out of the religion), most of the Rafaawidh (Shia), the Qadariyyah, Mu’tazilah, most of the Jahmiyyah that are not Ghulat (extreme) in the Tajahhum (way/innovation of the Jahmiyyah; Jahmism).

As for the Ghulat Jahmiyyah and the Ghulat Rafaawidh they were not accounted among the groups who have a share in Islam. For this they were taken out of seventy-two Firqah (sects) by a Jama’ah of the Salaf and said: They are different Millah (Din).” Quotation (from the statement of Ibn’ul Qayyim) ends here.

In general: It is Waajib upon the one who advises his Nafs (ownself) not to speak concerning this matter except with Ilm and Burhaan (proof) from Allah; to beware of taking a man out of the fold of Islam with Mujarrad (simple) comprehension and desirability/approval of his Aql (mind, reasoning). Because indeed taking a man out of the fold of Islam or entering him into it, is the greatest matter in Din. The explanation of this matter like others has sufficed us. Rather its Hukm in short is the clearest Ahkaam (pl. Hukm; rulings) of the Din.

Therefore, it is Waajib upon us to follow and abandon the Bid’ah just as Ibnu Mas’ud (radiyallahu anh) said:


اتبعوا ولا تبتدعوا فقد كفيتم
“Follow and do not innovate, for you have been sufficed.”

It is the same in the matters that the Ulamaa conflicted regarding being Kufr. So precaution for the Din and the Tawqif (stopping at the texts of the Book and the Sunnah) and do not step in unless there is a clear Nass from the Ma’sum (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) regarding the matter.

The Shaytaan tempted most of the people regarding this matter two Ta’ifah were deficient. Therefore, they (one Ta’ifah) passed Hukm, for the one whom the Nusus from the Kitaab, the Sunnah and the Ijmaa indicated to be upon Kufr, with Islam. Others passed Hukm, for those whom by the Kitaab, the Sunnah along with the Ijmaa is Muslim, with Kufr.

From the strangest things that one of them if asks concerning a matter about the Taharah (purification) or the Buyu (commercial transaction) they do not issue a Fatwa by Mujarrad comprehension and desirability/approval of his Aql (mind, reasoning). Rather they will investigate the statements of the Ulamaa and issue a Fatwa accordingly to their statements. So how come, they rely in this greatest matter that which is the greatest matter of the Din and the severest/the most dangerous (of the Din) upon Mujarrad comprehension and desirability/approval?

Is there a bane to Islam from these two Ta’ifah and plight of those two misfortunes?

We ask Allah that guides us to Sirat’il Mustaqim (the straight path). The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray. All Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Blessings and greetings upon Muhammad, his household and his companions.



Quote
Footnotes:

15- Allah Ta’ala states,

لَيْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا طَعِمُواْ إِذَا مَا اتَّقَواْ وَّآمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّقَواْ وَّآمَنُواْ ثُمَّ اتَّقَواْ وَّأَحْسَنُواْ وَاللّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
"On those who believe and do good there is no blame for what they ate (in the past), if they fear Allah, and believe and do righteous deeds, and again fear Allah and believe, and once again fear Allah and do good deeds with Ihsan (perfection). And Allah loves the good-doers." (al-Ma'idah 5/93)

16- There are various views regarding the title of the book of Fakhr’ur Razi. Its name starts with “The Hidden Mystery” and there is disagreement regarding the rest of it. Ibnu Taymiyyah mentioned its name as: “السر المكتوم في دعوة الكواكب والنجوم والسحر والطلاسم والعزائم” (The Hidden Mystery Regarding Worshiping the Planets and the Stars & the Magic, the Incantation and the Spells). (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Dar’u Taarudh’il Aqli wa’n Naql, 1/111)

Both Ibnu Kathir (in the Tafsir of al-Baqarah 2/102) and Dhahabi (in Mizan’ul I’tidal, 3/340) attribute this book to him but they mentioned that he might have made Tawbah (repentance) from it. Ibnu Haldun also mentioned about it. (Ibnu Haldun, Muqaddimah, 1154) Subki and others reject its attribution to him. (Subki, Tabaqat’ush Shafi’iyyin, 8/87)

Haji Khalfah informed that Zayn’ud Din al-Malati wrote a refutation to it which is known as
“انقضاض البازي في انفضاض الرازي” (Haji Khalfah, Kashf’uz Zunun an Asami’l Kutub wa’l Funun, 2/989) Wallahu A’lam (and Allah knows)!..
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

 

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