دار التوحيد Dâr'ul Tawhîd

Author Topic: CLEARING THE DOUBTS REGARDING THE INCIDENT OF HAATIB BIN ABI BALTA’AH  (Read 1082 times)

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بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِِ
Clearing the Doubts Regarding the Incident of Haatib bin Abi Balt’ah (radiyallahu anh) Being an Example for Jahl (Ignorance) as an Udhr (Excuse) in the Matters of Asl’ud Din (Fundamentals of the Religion Islam)

This is a refutation to the claim brought forth by the opponent who claims there is an example in “the incident of Haatib (radiyallahu)”1, regarding Jahl (ignorance) being an Udhr (excuse) in the matters of Asl’ud Din (Fundamentals of the Religion Islam).

This view is newly innovated by the Mu’asir Ulamaa (Contemporary Scholars) of the so-called Jihaadi sects of today such as one of their ideologist namely Abd’ul Qadir bin Abd’ul Aziz known as, Sayyid Imam ash-Sharif or Dr Fadl. Many other contemporary sects also admitted this view. Among them is “the Kaplaniyyun Caliphate Movement (The Caliphate State)” which was based in Germany with in the Turkish population. Their leader Jamal’ad-Din Kaplan (who preferred later “Hocaoglu” instead as his last name) announced and proclaimed his Caliphate.

A while after his death, a group who submitted to him and his Jama’ah (society) published a book regarding the ruling of taking position in the military services of the Taghout. Once we had the opportunity –with the permit of Allah Ta’ala- to examine the finished product, we witnessed so many fatal mistakes in it. We are going to publish the related part of our refutation to the book and the fatal mistakes in it, done by the opponent, regarding the topic “the Incident of Haatib bin Abi Balt’ah (radiyallahu anh) and it being accounted as an example for Jahl, being an Udhr in the Matters of Asl’ud Din” Inshallah (with the permit and the will of Allah).

Before we present our refutation, we would like to share our opinion concerning the above-mentioned book. It can be accounted as a great development for a group among the Jama’ah publishing a book titled as “Tağuti Rejimlere Askerlik Yapmanın Hükmü ve Şüphelerin Aydınlatılması (The Ruling of Being a Soldier in the Taghouti Regimes and Elucidating the Doubts)”. It is because we knew from the past years that this sect did not account taking position in the military services of the Taghout to be Kufr (disbelief). There were Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) and division among them, because of this and similar matters.

Allahu A’lam (Allah knows the best), by the means of technology and the internet, the Ilm (sacred knowledge) is widespread among the people and the sects. For this reason, many of the deviated sects of our era have revised their old views and –even though they do not admit to the Tawhid in the Sahih (authentic) manner- they had to abandon some of their Baatil (falsehood) views.

Moreover, we witness that there are quotations from the authors such as Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) and the Ulamaa of Najd region. Since we knew they had negative thoughts regarding them in the past, this also can be accounted as a great development for them.

Yet still there are, many grave mistakes concerning the matters of the Islamic Aqidah (creed) that causes these developments presented in the book to be shadowed. Among them is the topic, which we will deal with and clear the doubts regarding the Incident of Haatib bin Abi Balt’ah (radiyallahu anh) being an example for Jahl as an Udhr in the Matters of Asl’ud Din, Inshallah..


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Many of the Hadith scholars, Tafsir scholars and authors of the Siyar books narrated the Incident of Haatib (radiyallahu anh). Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibnu Jarir Tabari, Ibnu Hisham, Ibnu Hibban, Ibnu Abi Hatim, Ibn’ul Athir, Wahidi and others have related this incident on the authority of several reliable transmitters, in different traditions from different narrators using different wordings.

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) stated the following in this regards:


وهذه القصة مما اتفق أهل العلم على صحتها وهي متواترة عندهم معروفة عند علماء التفسير وعلماء الحديث وعلماء المغازي والسير والتواريخ وعلماء الفقه وغير هؤلاء

“Ahl’ul Ilm (People of Sacred Knowledge) have Ittifaaq (agreed) on the authenticity of this story which is Mutawatir (mass transmitted narration) and Ma’ruf (well known) by the Ulamaa of Tafsir (exegetis), the Ulamaa of Hadith, the scholars of the Ulamaa of Maghazi (military expeditions), Siyar (life of the Prophet), Tarikh (history) and the Ulamaa of Fiqh (jurisprudence) and others...” (Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Minhaj, 4/331)

It is narrated that al-Mumtahina 60/1 (or the first part of Surah al-Mumtahina or the whole Surah) was revealed at the time Haatib bin Abi Balta'ah’s incident occurred. Detailed information can be found in the Tafsir books, Inshallah.

We are going to provide the text of Wahidi and it will be followed by the text recorded by Bukhari in order to inform the reader regarding the incident. Wahidi stated:


قَوْلُهُ - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ - {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ} الْآيَةَ

The statement in the Ayah (verse of the Qur’an) of Allah Azza wa Jalla:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ
“(O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for allies…” (al-Mumtahinah 60/1)

قَالَ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنَ الْمُفَسِّرِينَ: نَزَلَتْ فِي حَاطِبِ بْنِ أَبِي بَلْتَعَةَ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ سَارَةَ مَوْلَاةَ أَبِي عَمْرِو بْنِ صَيْفِيِّ بْنِ هَاشِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ مَنَافٍ أَتَتْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - مِنْ مَكَّةَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - يَتَجَهَّزُ لِفَتْحِ مَكَّةَ فَقَالَ لَهَا: "أَمُسْلِمَةً جِئْتِ؟ " قَالَتْ: لَا، قَالَ: "فَمَا جَاءَ بِكِ؟ " قَالَتْ: أَنْتُمْ كُنْتُمُ الْأَهْلَ وَالْعَشِيرَةَ وَالْمَوَالِيَ، وَقَدِ احْتَجْتُ حَاجَةً شَدِيدَةً فَقَدِمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِتُعْطُونِي وَتَكْسُوَنِي، قَالَ لَهَا: "فَأَيْنَ أَنْتَ مِنْ شَبَابِ أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ"، وَكَانَتْ مُغَنِّيَةً، قَالَتْ: مَا طُلِبَ مِنِّي شَيْءٌ بَعْدَ وَقْعَةِ بَدْرٍ فَحَثَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ فَكَسَوْهَا وَحَمَلُوهَا وَأَعْطَوْهَا، فَأَتَاهَا حَاطِبُ بْنُ أَبِي بَلْتَعَةَ وَكَتَبَ مَعَهَا إِلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ وَأَعْطَاهَا عَشَرَةَ دَنَانِيرَ عَلَى أَنْ تُوَصِّلَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ، وَكَتَبَ فِي الْكِتَابِ: مِنْ حَاطِبٍ إِلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ، إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - يُرِيدُكُمْ فَخُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ، فَخَرَجَتْ سَارَةُ وَنَزَلَ جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ، فَأَخْبَرَ النَّبِيَّ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - بِمَا فَعَلَ حَاطِبٌ، فَبَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - عَلِيًّا وَعَمَّارًا وَالزُّبَيْرَ وَطَلْحَةَ وَالْمِقْدَادَ بْنَ الْأَسْوَدِ وَأَبَا مَرْثَدٍ وَكَانُوا كُلُّهُمْ فُرْسَانًا، وَقَالَ لَهُمُ: "انْطَلِقُوا حَتَّى تَأْتُوا رَوْضَةَ خَاخٍ، فَإِنَّ فِيهَا ظَعِينَةً مَعَهَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ حَاطِبٍ إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ، فَخُذُوهُ مِنْهَا وَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهَا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَدْفَعْهُ إِلَيْكُمْ فَاضْرِبُوا عُنُقَهَا"، فَخَرَجُوا حَتَّى أَدْرَكُوهَا فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ، فَقَالُوا لَهَا: أَيْنَ الْكِتَابُ؟ فَحَلَفَتْ بِاللَّهِ مَا مَعَهَا مِنْ كِتَابٍ، فَفَتَّشُوا مَتَاعَهَا فلم يجدوا معا كِتَابًا، فَهَمُّوا بِالرُّجُوعِ، فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ: وَاللَّهِ مَا كَذَبَنَا وَلَا كَذَّبْنَا، وَسَلَّ سَيْفَهُ، وَقَالَ: أَخْرِجِي الْكِتَابَ وَإِلَّا وَاللَّهِ لَأُجَرِّدَنَّكِ وَلَأَضْرِبَنَّ عُنُقَكِ، فَلَمَّا رَأَتِ الْجِدَّ أَخْرَجَتْهُ مِنْ ذُؤَابَتِهَا وَكَانَتْ قَدْ خَبَّأَتْهُ فِي شَعْرِهَا، فَخَلَّوْا سَبِيلَهَا وَرَجَعُوا بِالْكِتَابِ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فَأَرْسَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - إِلَى حَاطِبٍ فَأَتَاهُ، فَقَالَ لَهُ: "هَلْ تَعْرِفُ الْكِتَابَ؟ " قَالَ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: "فَمَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى مَا صَنَعْتَ؟ " فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، وَاللَّهِ مَا كَفَرْتُ مُنْذُ أَسْلَمْتُ، وَلَا غَشَشْتُكَ مُنْذُ نَصَحْتُكَ، وَلَا أَحْبَبْتُهُمْ مُنْذُ فَارَقْتُهُمْ، وَلَكِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ إِلَّا وَلَهُ بِمَكَّةَ مَنْ يَمْنَعُ عَشِيرَتَهُ، وَكُنْتُ غَرِيبًا فِيهِمْ وَكَانَ أَهْلِي بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْهِمْ، فَخَشِيتُ عَلَى أَهْلِي فَأَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَتَّخِذَ عِنْدَهُمْ يَدًا وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُنْزِلُ بِهِمْ بَأْسَهُ وَأَنَّ كِتَابِي لَا يُغْنِي عَنْهُمْ شَيْئًا. فَصَدَّقَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - وَعَذَرَهُ، فَنَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ السورة: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ} فَقَامَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ: دَعْنِي يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَضْرِبُ عُنُقَ هَذَا الْمُنَافِقِ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - "وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ يَا عُمَرُ لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ قَدِ اطَّلَعَ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ: اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ فَقَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَكُمْ

A Jama’ah (group) of Mufassirin (pl. Mufassir; Qur'anic exegetes) said: “This verse was revealed about Haatib bin Abi Balta'ah (radiyallahu anh). It happened that Saarah, the client of Abu Amr bin Sayfi bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf travelled from Makkah to Medina to see Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and found Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) getting ready to conquer Makkah. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked her: Have you come as a Muslim? She said, No. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked, What has brought you here, then? She said: You were my family, my clan and my Mawali (patrons); I am in desperate need and have come so that you give me and clothe me. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: What happened to all the youths of Makkah? Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked her this because she was a singer. She said: No one has ever requested anything from me after the Battle of Badr! Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) encouraged the Banu Abd’ul Muttalib to be generous to her. They clothed her, gave her money and provided her with a mount. Haatib bin Abi Balta'ah (radiyallahu anh) then got in touch with her, gave her ten pieces of gold and gave her a letter to hand over to the people of Makkah. He wrote in this letter: From Haatib to the people of Makkah: Indeed Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is about to attack you, so take precautions. Saarah left and Jibril (alayhi salam), came down and informed the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), of what Haatib (radiyallahu anh) had done. Then Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent Ali (radiyallahu anh), Ammar (radiyallahu anh), Zubayr (radiyallahu anh), Talhah (radiyallahu anh), Miqdad Ibn’ul Aswad (radiyallahu anh) and Abu Marthad (radiyallahu anh) -who were all horsemen- saying to them: Proceed to the Rawhd (meadow) of Khakh. You will find there a woman on a camel borne sedan chair. This woman has a letter from Haatib to the Mushrikin (pl. Mushri; pagans/idolaters). Take that letter from her and let her go on her way. But if she refuses to hand over the letter to you, behead her. They proceeded to that location and found the woman there. They asked her, Where is the letter? She took an oath by Allah Ta’ala that she did not have any letter with her. They searched her belongings but could not find the letter. They were about to leave when Ali (radiyallahu anh) said: By Allah, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not tell us a lie, nor do we disbelieve in what he said to us. Ali (radiyallahu anh) unsheathed his sword and said: Give us the letter or, by Allah, I will strip you of your clothes and then severe your head. When she saw the seriousness of the matter, she got out the letter from her lock, for she had hid it in her hair, and they let her go. They went back to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent for Haatib (radiyallahu anh) and when Haatib (radiyallahu anh) came, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked him, Do you recognize this letter? Haatib (radiyallahu anh) said, Yes. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked, What drove you to do it? Haatib (radiyallahu anh) said, O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, I have not disbelieved since I became Muslim, nor did I betray you since I took your side, nor did I love them (i.e. the Mushrikin) since I departed from them. However, there is not a single person among the Muhajirun (pl. Muhaajir; emigrants) except that he has someone to defend his closest relatives (in Makkah). Since I am a stranger among them, and my family lives amongst them, I feared for them, and so I wanted to have some assistance from them, even though I knew that Allah Ta’ala will send His harm upon them and that my letter will be of no avail to them. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) believed and forgave him. This Surah (chapter of the Qur’an) was then revealed,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ
“(O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for allies…” (al-Mumtahinah 60/1)

Umar Ibn’ul Khattab (radiyallahu anh) stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah, let me strike the neck of this Munaafiq (hypocrite)! But Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: O Umar, what do you know? It could be that Allah Ta’ala has looked at the Badr warriors and said: Do what you please for I have forgiven you.”

Wahidi then mentions the second narration which is as follows,


أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ أحمد بن الحسن بْنُ عَمْرٍو، أخبرنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ، أَخْبَرَنَا الربيع، أخبرنا الشَّافِعِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عَلِيًّا يَقُولُ: بَعَثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - أَنَا وَالزُّبَيْرُ وَالْمِقْدَادُ بْنُ الْأَسْوَدِ قَالَ: "انطلقوا حتى تأتؤا روضة خاخ فإت فِيهَا ظَعِينَةً مَعَهَا كِتَابٌ" فَخَرَجْنَا تُعَادِي بِنَا خَيْلُنَا فَإِذَا نَحْنُ بِظَعِينَةٍ فَقُلْنَا أَخْرِجِي الْكِتَابَ. فَقَالَتْ: مَا مَعِي كِتَابٌ. فَقُلْنَا لَهَا: لَتُخْرِجِنَّ الْكِتَابَ أَوْ لَنُلْقِيَنَّ الثِّيَابَ، فَأَخْرَجَتْهُ مِنْ عِقَاصِهَا فَأَتَيْنَا بِهِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فَإِذَا فِيهِ: مِنْ حَاطِبِ بْنِ أَبِي بَلْتَعَةَ إِلَى نَاسٍ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِمَّنْ كَانَ بِمَكَّةَ، يُخْبِرُ بِبَعْضِ أَمْرِ النَّبِيِّ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فَقَالَ: "مَا هَذَا يَا حَاطِبُ؟ " فَقَالَ: لَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيَّ، إِنِّي كُنْتُ امْرَأً مُلْصَقًا فِي قُرَيْشٍ وَلَمْ أَكُنْ مِنْ نَفْسِهَا، وَكَانَ مَنْ مَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ لَهُمْ قَرَابَاتٌ يَحْمُونَ بِهَا قَرَابَاتِهِمْ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِي بِمَكَّةَ قَرَابَةٌ، فَأَحْبَبْتُ إِذْ فَاتَنِي ذَلِكَ أَنْ أَتَّخِذَ عِنْدَهُمْ يَدًا، وَاللَّهِ مَا فَعَلْتُهُ شَاكًّا فِي دِينِي وَلَا رِضًا بِالْكُفْرِ بَعْدَ الْإِسْلَامِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - "إِنَّهُ قَدْ صَدَقَ"، فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: دَعْنِي يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَضْرِبُ عُنُقَ هَذَا الْمُنَافِقِ فَقَالَ: "إِنَّهُ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا، وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ اطَّلَعَ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ فَقَالَ: اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ فَقَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَكُمْ"، وَنَزَلَتْ: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ} رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ عَنِ الْحُمَيْدِيِّ، وَرَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ وَجَمَاعَةٍ، كُلُّهُمْ عَنْ سفيان

Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn’ul Hasan bin Amr informed us (the chain of narration) from Ali (radiyallahu anh) who said:

“Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent us; me, Zubayr and Miqdad Ibn’ul Aswad, saying: Proceed to the Rawdh (meadow) of Khakh where you will find a woman on a camel borne sedan chair who has a letter. And so we set off riding our horses and proceeded until we found a woman on a camel-borne sedan chair. We said to her: Take the letter out. She said: I do not have any letter with me! We said to her: You will either give us the letter or we will strip you naked. When she heard this, she got the letter from her braids. We took it to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). The letter read: From Haatib bin Abi Balta'ah to some people of the Mushrikin of Makkah, and informed them about some of what Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) intended to do. The Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked Haatib, What is this, O Haatib? Haatib (radiyallhu anh) answered, Do not be hasty (in judging me), I am a man who is just annexed to the Quraysh, for I am not a Qurashite. All the Muhaajirin you have with you have relatives who will protect their own relatives. I have no relatives in Makkah, and since I lacked relatives I wanted to get some assistance from them. By Allah, I did not do it because I doubt my religion nor because I have accepted disbelief after choosing Islam. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, He has said the truth! But Umar (radiyallahu anh) exclaimed: O Messenger of Allah! Let me strike the neck of this Munafiq! Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, He has taken part in the Battle of Badr; and you do not know, perhaps Allah Ta’ala has looked at those who took part in the Battle of Badr and said: Do as you please for I have forgiven you. Then this verse was revealed,


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ
“(O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for allies…” (al-Mumtahinah 60/1)

This was narrated by Bukhari from Humaydi and by Muslim from Abu Bakr bin Shaybah and another group, all of whom related it from Sufyan.” (Wahidi, Asbab’un Nuzul, 421-423)

Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) narrated on the authority of Ali (radiyallahu anh) that he said,


بَعَثَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبَا مَرْثَدٍ وَالزُّبَيْرَ وَكُلُّنَا فَارِسٌ قَالَ ‏"‏ انْطَلِقُوا حَتَّى تَأْتُوا رَوْضَةَ خَاخٍ، فَإِنَّ بِهَا امْرَأَةً مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، مَعَهَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ حَاطِبِ بْنِ أَبِي بَلْتَعَةَ إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَأَدْرَكْنَاهَا تَسِيرُ عَلَى بَعِيرٍ لَهَا حَيْثُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْنَا الْكِتَابُ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ مَا مَعَنَا كِتَابٌ‏.‏ فَأَنَخْنَاهَا فَالْتَمَسْنَا فَلَمْ نَرَ كِتَابًا، فَقُلْنَا مَا كَذَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، لَتُخْرِجِنَّ الْكِتَابَ أَوْ لَنُجَرِّدَنَّكِ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا رَأَتِ الْجِدَّ أَهْوَتْ إِلَى حُجْزَتِهَا وَهْىَ مُحْتَجِزَةٌ بِكِسَاءٍ فَأَخْرَجَتْهُ، فَانْطَلَقْنَا بِهَا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَدْ خَانَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ، فَدَعْنِي فَلأَضْرِبْ عُنُقَهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى مَا صَنَعْتَ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ حَاطِبٌ وَاللَّهِ مَا بِي أَنْ لاَ أَكُونَ مُؤْمِنًا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَرَدْتُ أَنْ يَكُونَ لِي عِنْدَ الْقَوْمِ يَدٌ يَدْفَعُ اللَّهُ بِهَا عَنْ أَهْلِي وَمَالِي، وَلَيْسَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِكَ إِلاَّ لَهُ هُنَاكَ مِنْ عَشِيرَتِهِ مَنْ يَدْفَعُ اللَّهُ بِهِ عَنْ أَهْلِهِ وَمَالِهِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ صَدَقَ، وَلاَ تَقُولُوا لَهُ إِلاَّ خَيْرًا ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ إِنَّهُ قَدْ خَانَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ، فَدَعْنِي فَلأَضْرِبَ عُنُقَهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَلَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ اطَّلَعَ إِلَى أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ فَقَالَ اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ فَقَدْ وَجَبَتْ لَكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ، أَوْ فَقَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَكُمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَدَمَعَتْ عَيْنَا عُمَرَ وَقَالَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ‏

“Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent me, Abu Marthad and Zubayr, and all of us were riding horses, and said, Go till you reach Rawdat-Khakh where there is a Mushrik (pagan) woman carrying a letter from Hatib bin Abi Balta'ah (radiyallahu anh) to the Mushrikin of Makkah. So we found her riding her camel at the place which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had mentioned. We said (to her), (Give us) the letter. She said, I have no letter with me. Then we made her camel kneel down and we searched her, but we found no letter. Then we said, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had not told us a lie, certainly. Take out the letter, otherwise we will strip you naked. When she saw that we were determined, she put her hand below her waist belt, for she had tied her cloak round her waist, and she took out the letter, and we brought her to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Then Umar (radiyallahu anh) said, O Rasulullah! Haatib has betrayed Allah Ta’ala, His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and the Mu’minin (pl. Mu’min; believers)! Let me cut off his neck!" The Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked Haatib, What made you do this? Hatib (radiyallahu anh) said, By Allah, I did not intend to give up my belief in Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul but I wanted to have some influence among the people (of Makkah) so that through it, Allah Ta’ala might protect my family and property. There is none of your Ashaab (companions) but has some of his relatives there through whom Allah Ta’ala protects his family and property. The Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, Haatib has spoken the truth; do no say to him but good. Therefore Umar (radiyallahu anh) said, Haatib has betrayed Allah Ta’ala, His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and the Mu’minin. Let me cut off his neck! The Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, Is Haatib not one of the Badr warriors? May be Allah Ta’ala looked at the Badr warriors and said, Do whatever you like, as I have granted Jannah (Paradise) to you, or said, I have forgiven you. On this, tears came out of Umar's eyes, and he said, Allah and His Rasul know better.” (Bukhari, Hadith no: 3983)
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

Julaybib

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The author brought forth “the incident of Haatib (radiyallahu anh)” as evidence for his claim that Jahl (ignorance) is an Udhr (excuse). So he said,

Quote
“For example; as in the story of Haatib bin Abi Balta’ah. He helped the Mushrikin of the Mecca against Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). He committed an act of Kufr. Umar (radiyallahu anh) asked Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) for permission to strike his neck. Nevertheless, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, Perhaps Allah Ta’ala has looked at those who took part in the Battle of Badr and said, Do as you please for I have forgiven you. When Haatib (radiyallahu anh) mentioned that he has a Ta’wil (interpretation) Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) informed regarding him being truthful inwardly and said, He has said the truth!” (pg. 20)

Can the author bring evidence/quote for his claim that “even though Haatib (radiyallahu anh) committed Kufr’ul Akbar (Major Disbelief), he had not been declared Takfir upon, due to his Jahl or Ta’wil” from any scholar among the Ahl’us Sunnah besides the Juhaal (ignorant ones) of our era whom are called “the Mu’asir Ulamaa (Contemporary Scholars)!” the likes of Abd’ul Qadir bin Abd’ul Aziz? Regardless of which Tafsir one looks in it is not possible to come across such statement from the Ulamaa in the Tafsir of the Surah al-Mumtahinah. On the contrary it is evident that the Ulamaa considered the act Haatib (radiyallahu anh) committed as “spying” and the majority of them mentioned on the spot that the spy will not be held as performing Riddah (apostasy) just like Haatib (radiyallahu anh), if he performs it only for worldly purposes and worries without being content with the Kufr.

Imam Qurtubi (rahimahullah) stated the following in his Tafsir, while explaining Surah al-Mumtahinah, regarding the matter in question:


الرَّابِعَةُ: مَنْ كَثُرَ تَطَلُّعُهُ عَلَى عَوْرَاتِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَيُنَبِّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيُعَرِّفُ عَدُوَّهُمْ بِأَخْبَارِهِمْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِذَلِكَ كَافِرًا إِذَا كَانَ فَعَلَهُ لِغَرَضٍ دُنْيَوِيٍّ وَاعْتِقَادُهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ سَلِيمٌ، كَمَا فَعَلَ حَاطِبٌ حِينَ قَصَدَ بِذَلِكَ اتِّخَاذَ الْيَدِ وَلَمْ ينو الردة عن الدين

”The fourth: The one who knows the secrets of the Muslim and attracts this against them, informs their news to their enemies, if he does this for worldly purposes and although his I'tiqaad (creed) is sound; -as Haatib (radiyallahu anh), when he did that, had not the intention to perform Riddah (apostasy) from Din, but intending to keep them under indebtedness- he will not become Kafir because of his this behavior.

الْخَامِسَةُ- إِذَا قُلْنَا لَا يَكُونُ بِذَلِكَ كَافِرًا فَهَلْ يُقْتَلُ بِذَلِكَ حَدًّا أَمْ لَا؟ اخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِيهِ، فَقَالَ مَالِكٌ وَابْنُ الْقَاسِمِ وَأَشْهَبُ: يَجْتَهِدُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْإِمَامُ. وَقَالَ عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ: إِذَا كَانَتْ عَادَتُهُ تِلْكَ قُتِلَ، لِأَنَّهُ جَاسُوسٌ، وَقَدْ قَالَ مَالِكٌ بِقَتْلِ الْجَاسُوسِ- وَهُوَ صَحِيحٌ لِإِضْرَارِهِ بِالْمُسْلِمِينَ وَسَعْيِهِ بِالْفَسَادِ فِي الْأَرْضِ. وَلَعَلَّ ابْنَ الْمَاجِشُونِ إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذَ التَّكْرَارَ فِي هَذَا لِأَنَّ حَاطِبًا أُخِذَ فِي أَوَّلِ فِعْلِهِ. وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

The fifth: When we say (accept) that in such situation one will not be Kafir due to such behavior, will he be killed out of Hadd (punishment) or not? People (scholars) made Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) regarding this matter. Maalik, Ibnu’l Qasim and Ashab said, “The Imam (leader of Islamic community) would perform Ijtihaad (interpretive judgment) concerning the issue.” Abd'ul Maalik said, “If he makes this a habit he will be killed. It is because such person is a spy.” Malik also mentioned that the spy should be killed. This view is also Sahih (correct) it is because such person will harm the Muslimin and he is a person who tries to do Fasaad (mischief) on the earth. Ibnu Maajishun might consider the repetition in this matter (making it a habit) due to Haatib (radiyallahu anh) performed it first. Wallahu A’lam (Allah knows the best)!

فَإِنْ كَانَ الْجَاسُوسُ كَافِرًا فَقَالَ الْأَوْزَاعِيُّ: يَكُونُ نَقْضًا لِعَهْدِهِ وَقَالَ أَصْبَغُ الْجَاسُوسُ الحربي يُقْتَلُ، وَالْجَاسُوسُ الْمُسْلِمُ وَالذِّمِّيُّ يُعَاقَبَانِ إِلَّا إِنْ تَظَاهَرَا عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ فَيُقْتَلَانِ

The sixth: Regarding the spy being Kafir, Awzai stated, “(It means) breaching of his covenant.” Asbagh said, “Harbi (non-Muslim who is at war with the Muslims or belonging to a people who are hostile towards Islam) spy will be killed; the Muslim and the Dhimmi (non-Muslim living under Muslim rule) spy will both be punished. But if they openly show/manifest (enmity) against Islam then they will be killed.”

Then Qurtubi (rahimahullah) mentioned the following Hadith:


وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أُتِيَ بِعَيْنٍ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْمُهُ فُرَاتُ بْنُ حَيَّانَ، فَأَمَرَ بِهِ أَنْ يُقْتَلَ، فَصَاحَ: يَا مَعْشَرَ الْأَنْصَارِ، أُقْتَلُ وَأَنَا أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ! فَأَمَرَ بِهِ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَخَلَّى سَبِيلَهُ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: إِنَّ مِنْكُمْ مَنْ أَكِلُهُ إِلَى إِيمَانِهِ مِنْهُمْ فُرَاتُ بْنُ حَيَّانَ
It was narrated on the authority of Ali bin Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh) that someone whose name was Furat bin Hayyaan had been brought to Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) due to spying for the Mushrikin. The Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded them to kill him. Then Furat shouted out: O gathering of the people of Ansaar (Helpers) I am being killed when I testify that there is no –true- god –deserving to be worshiped- but Allah and that Muhammad is His Rasul? Therefore, the Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded and they let him go on his way (he was freed). Then Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) stated: There are people among you in whose Imaan (faith) we trust. Furat bin Hayyaan is one of them."

Quotation from Qurtubi ends here. (Imam Qurtubi, Tafsir)

At this point, we would like to deal with another claim of the author, he stated later on, in his book (pg. 37),


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You would not see any other incident that is alike this story in which any other Sahabah committed similar act (committed by Haatib). Once they learned it is wrong from the act of Haatib (radiyallahu anh) they had never attempted to commit it.”

However, there are many people among the Muslimin who performed the act of spying for the Kuffar (pl. Kafir; disbelievers) and informing them regarding the matters of the Muslimin (pl. Muslim; believers). The incident of Furat bin Hayyaan related by Qurtubi (rahimahullah) is one of them. What is more prevalent than it, is the incident of Abu Lubabah. Allah Ta’ala states the following,

وَآخَرُونَ اعْتَرَفُواْ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ خَلَطُواْ عَمَلاً صَالِحاً وَآخَرَ سَيِّئاً عَسَى اللّهُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
“Others (there are who) have acknowledged their wrong-doings: they have mixed an act that was good with another that was evil. Perhaps Allah will turn unto them (in Mercy): for Allah is Ghafur (Oft-Forgiving), Rahim (Most Merciful).” (at-Tawbah 9/102)

Following is the explanation of the Ayah by Qurtubi (rahimahullah),

أَيْ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُمْ قَوْمٌ أَقَرُّوا بِذُنُوبِهِمْ، وَآخَرُونَ مُرْجَوْنَ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ يَحْكُمُ فِيهِمْ بِمَا يُرِيدُ. فَالصِّنْفُ الْأَوَّلُ يَحْتَمِلُ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُنَافِقِينَ وَمَا مَرَدُوا على النفاق، ويحتمل أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: نَزَلَتْ فِي عَشَرَةٍ تَخَلَّفُوا عَنْ غَزْوَةِ تَبُوكَ فَأَوْثَقَ سَبْعَةٌ مِنْهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ فِي سَوَارِي الْمَسْجِدِ. وَقَالَ بِنَحْوِهِ قَتَادَةُ وَقَالَ: وَفِيهِمْ نَزَلَ" خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً" [التوبة: 103]، ذَكَرَهُ الْمَهْدَوِيُّ. وَقَالَ زَيْدُ بْنُ أَسْلَمَ: كَانُوا ثَمَانِيَةً. وَقِيلَ: كَانُوا سِتَّةً. وَقِيلَ: خَمْسَةٌ. وَقَالَ مُجَاهِدٌ: نَزَلَتِ الْآيَةُ فِي أَبِي لُبَابَةَ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ خَاصَّةً فِي شَأْنِهِ مَعَ بَنِي قُرَيْظَةَ، وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُمْ كَلَّمُوهُ فِي النُّزُولِ عَلَى حُكْمِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَشَارَ لَهُمْ إِلَى حَلْقِهِ. يُرِيدُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَذْبَحُهُمْ إِنْ نَزَلُوا، فَلَمَّا افْتَضَحَ تَابَ وَنَدِمَ وَرَبَطَ نَفْسَهُ فِي سَارِيَةٍ مِنْ سَوَارِي الْمَسْجِدِ، وَأَقْسَمَ أَلَّا يَطْعَمَ وَلَا يَشْرَبَ حَتَّى يَعْفُوَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَوْ يَمُوتَ، فَمَكَثَ كَذَلِكَ حَتَّى عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، وَنَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الآية، وَأَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِحَلِّهِ، ذَكَرَهُ الطَّبَرِيُّ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، وَذَكَرَهُ ابْنُ إِسْحَاقَ فِي السِّيرَةِ أَوْعَبَ مِنْ هَذَا

“Meaning; there is a group who confirm their sins among the Ahl’ul Medina (People of the city Medina) and those around you. Besides them, a group who waits the command of Allah Ta’ala to rule on them as He Ta’ala wills. As for the first category, it is possible that they are Munaafiqin (pl. Munaafiq; hypocrites) who had not patronized the Nifaaq (hypocrisy). It is possible that they are Mu’minin (pl. Mu’min; believers).

Ibnu Abbaas (radiyallahu ahuma) said, This Ayah (Qur’anic verse) had been revealed regarding ten (people) who stayed behind from the Ghazwah (military expedition) of Tabuk. Then seven of them tied themselves to the pillars of the Masjid (mosque). Qatadah said something similar to it. The following had been revealed regarding them:


خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً
“Take Sadaqah (charity) from their wealth...” (at-Tawbah 9/103)

Mahdawi mentioned it (from Qatadah). Zayd bin Aslam said, They were eight (people). It was said, They were six (people). It was also said, They were five (people). Mujaahid said, This Ayah had been revealed regarding Abu Lubabah al-Ansari exclusively regarding his case with Bani Qurayza. Bani Qurayza spoke with Abu Lubabah regarding them coming down (from their castle) upon the ruling of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) then Abu Lubabah pointed them his throat while intending that the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) will slaughter them in the case they come down (from their castle). Once it was revealed he made Tawbah (repent) and regretted, he tied himself to a pillar among the pillars of the Masjid. He took an oath that he would neither eat nor drink anything until Allah Ta’ala forgives him or he dies (in this state). He stayed in this state until Allah Ta’ala forgave him and this Ayah had been revealed. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded him to be untied. Tabari narrated this from Mujaahid and Ibnu Ishaaq mentioned it in his (book) “Sirah” more comprehensive than this.” Quotation from Qurtubi ends here.

Whereas the scholars discussed the state of the spy in general terms and did not constrict it to the incident of Haatib (radiyallahu anh). The majority of the Ahl’ul Ilm do not declare Takfir upon the spy whereas there is Ikhtilaaf regarding whether the spy is to be killed or not be killed. If being a spy is an act that is Kufr per se, then he would be killed right after Tawbah is offered to him when he rejects making Tawbah, just as in the case of Murtad.

The author then said,


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“In another narration which was narrated by Bukhari with a (slightly) different wording, Haatib (radiyallahu anh) said, “I did not do this out of Kufr or an inclination to perform Riddah from my religion.” Helping the Kuffar, acting as a spy for them, revealing the secrets of the Muslimin to them, helping them against the Muslimin was known as an act of Riddah from the Religion of Islam by the companions including this Sahabah (i.e. Haatib).”

Nevertheless, the truth regarding the matter is as follows; manifesting the secrets of the Muslimin to the Kuffar is not Kufr per se however, it is an act that can be interpreted as Kufr. For this reason, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) questioned Haatib (radiyallahu anh) in order to find out for what reason he manifested the secrets of the Muslimin to the Kuffar likewise for this very reason Haatib (radiyallahu anh) explained for what reason he manifested the secrets of the Muslimin to the Kuffar. Whereas, Umar (radiyallahu anh) considered it as an act of Irtidaad while not thinking that there is a possibility that such act might occur from a Mu’min (believer). In short, even though the act of Haatib (radiyallahu anh) is a matter of Wala in Islam, what Haatib (radiyallahu anh) committed was an act of Haraam and not Kufr, meaning it is a Haraam type of Wala and not the Kufr type of Wala.

On this topic, Shaykh Abd’ul Latif bin Abd’ur Rahman bin Hasan al'ush Shaykh (d1293H) among the scholars of Najd region stated the following:


وعرفتم أن مسمى الموالاة يقع على شعب متفاوتة: منها ما يوجب الردة، وذهاب الإسلام بالكلية ; ومنها ما هو دون ذلك، من الكبائر والمحرمات
 
وعرفتم قوله تعالى: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ} [سورة الممتحنة آية: 1]، وأنها نزلت فيمن كاتب المشركين بسر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وقد جعل ذلك من الموالاة المحرمة، وإن اطمأن قلبه بالإيمان

“You know that; what is named as Muwaalaat takes place in two substations according to in which type it matches; among them is what necessitates the Riddah and leaving Islam completely. Among them is which is lesser than this, from the Kabaa’ir (major sins) and the Muharamaat (prohibitions). You know the statement of Allah Ta’ala,

َا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ
“O ye who believe! Take not My enemies and yours as Awliyaa (friends/protectors)...” (al-Mumtahinah 60/1)

This (Ayah) had been revealed regarding the person (Haatib) who wrote secrets of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) to the Mushrikin. His act is among the prohibited Muwaalaat if his heart is remaining firm in Imaan.” (ad-Durar’us Saniyyah, 8/342)

None of these statements contradicts with the statements of the Ulamaa and the Ijmaa (consensus) regarding help to the Kuffar against the Muslimin being Kufr. In example, again Shaykh Abd’ul Latif (rahimahullah) stated the following right after mentioning that not befriending the Kuffar and being distant from them is obligatory:


فكيف بمن أعانهم أو جرهم على بلاد أهل الإسلام، أو أثنى عليهم أو فضلهم بالعدل على أهل الإسلام، واختار ديارهم ومساكنتهم وولايتهم، وأحب ظهورهم؟! فإن هذا ردة صريحة بالاتفاق، قال الله تعالى: {وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْأِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ} [سورة المائدة آية: 5]

“Then what about the one who assisted them or led them to the Bilaad (lands) of Ahl’ul Islam (the people of Islam), complimented them, preferred them with justice against the Ahl’ul Islam, who choose their lands, living with them, and their Wilayah and loved helping them? Verily this is Sarih (clear/evident) Riddah apostasy by the Ittifaaq (agreement). Allah Ta’ala states,

وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
"And whoever denies Imaan; his work has become worthless, and he, in the hereafter will be among the losers." (al-Ma’idah 5/5)

Quotation ends here. (ad-Durrar'us Sanniyah, 8/326)

Imam Qurtubi (rahimahullah) said:


قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى: (وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ) أَيْ يَعْضُدْهُمْ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ (فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ) بَيَّنَ تَعَالَى أَنَّ حُكْمَهُ كَحُكْمِهِمْ، وَهُوَ يَمْنَعُ إِثْبَاتَ الْمِيرَاثِ لِلْمُسْلِمِ مِنَ الْمُرْتَدِّ، وَكَانَ الَّذِي تَوَلَّاهُمِ ابْنُ أُبَيٍّ ثُمَّ هَذَا الْحُكْمُ بَاقٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي قَطْعِ الْمُوَالَاةِ

“The command of Allah Ta'ala وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ “And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship).” (al-Ma’idah 5/51) means whoever gave them support against the Muslimin فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ “is of them.” (al-Ma’idah 5/51) Allah Ta'ala in this command clarifies that the ruling of such person is the same as their ruling (i.e Murtad). This means this is an obstacle for the Muslim to take inheritance from the Murtad. The one who performed Tawalli to them (during the period of Rasulullah) was Ibnu Ubayy. So this ruling is valid till Yawm’ul Qiyamah (the Doomsday) with regards to cutting the (relations of) Muwalat (with them).” (Qurtubi, Tafsir),

Regarding the matter in question, Ibnu Hazm (rahimahullah) said the following under the issue no: 2202 in his book "Muhalla (12/123-127)",


-2202مَسْأَلَةٌ: مَنْ صَارَ مُخْتَارًا إلَى أَرْضِ الْحَرْبِ، مُشَاقًّا لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ أَمُرْتَدٌّ هُوَ بِذَلِكَ أَمْ لَا؟ وَمَنْ اعْتَضَدَ بِأَهْلِ الْحَرْبِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْإِسْلَامِ - وَإِنْ لَمْ يُفَارِقْ دَارَ الْإِسْلَامِ - أَمُرْتَدٌّ هُوَ بِذَلِكَ أَمْ لَا؟

“Whether the one who voluntarily goes and resides in Ard'ul Harb (the land of the enemy) contending (fighting) against the Muslimin is he a Murtad due to that or not? The one who supports the Ahl'ul Harb (the people of war) against Ahl’ul Islam (the people of Islam), even if he did not separate himself from Daar'ul Islam (the land of Islam); is he a Murtad due to that or not?” (Ibnu Hazm, al-Muhalla, 12/123)

فَصَحَّ بِهَذَا أَنَّ مَنْ لَحِقَ بِدَارِ الْكُفْرِ وَالْحَرْبِ مُخْتَارًا مُحَارِبًا لِمَنْ يَلِيهِ مِنْ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، فَهُوَ بِهَذَا الْفِعْلِ مُرْتَدٌّ لَهُ أَحْكَامُ الْمُرْتَدِّ كُلُّهَا: مِنْ وُجُوبِ الْقَتْلِ عَلَيْهِ، مَتَى قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ، وَمِنْ إبَاحَةِ مَالِهِ، وَانْفِسَاخِ نِكَاحِهِ، وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ، لِأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - لَمْ يَبْرَأْ مِنْ مُسْلِم

“By this, what is correct is that whoever voluntarily joins up with Daar'ul Kufr wa’l Harb (the land of Kufr and war) out of his own choice, waging war against those that he encounters from the Muslimin, then by such an action he is a Murtad (apostate). All the Ahkaam (pl. Hukm; rulings) of apostasy must be applied upon him; such as the obligation to kill him if one has ability to do so, his wealth being free for taking his Nikah (marriage) being annulled, and so forth. The reason being is that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) did not ever withdrew from a Muslim.” (Ibnu Hazm, al-Muhalla, 12/125)

He (rahimahullah) said after some words:


فَإِنْ كَانَ هُنَاكَ مُحَارِبًا لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ مُعِينًا لِلْكُفَّارِ بِخِدْمَةٍ، أَوْ كِتَابَةٍ: فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ - وَإِنْ كَانَ إنَّمَا يُقِيمُ هُنَالِكَ لِدُنْيَا يُصِيبُهَا، وَهُوَ كَالذِّمِّيِّ لَهُمْ، وَهُوَ قَادِرٌ عَلَى اللِّحَاقِ بِجَمْهَرَةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَأَرْضِهِمْ، فَمَا يَبْعُدُ عَنْ الْكُفْرِ، وَمَا نَرَى لَهُ عُذْرًا - وَنَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الْعَافِيَةَ

“If he was there waging war against the Muslimin and assisting the Kuffar with a service or writing then he is a Kafir, even if he lives there for worldly reasons, for he is like a Dhimmi (non-Muslim subject of the Islamic State) for them, even though, he is capable of joining the main body of the Muslimin and their lands. He is not far from Kufr and we see no excuse for him and we ask Allah Ta’ala for Afiyah (protection).” (Ibnu Hazm, al-Muhalla, 12/126)

The statements of the Ulamaa in this regards are so much that it is not possible to quote all and mention them here. Whosoever performs an act of helping to the Kuffar that which can not be interpreted other than Kufr such as; joining their military and the ranks of the Kuffar, helping them in their Kufr, complying with them in Dhaahir (outwardly) then it is Kufr by the Ijmaa (consensus) of the Ulamaa.

However, regarding an act of help to the Kuffar by a person that which can be interpreted both Islam and Kufr just like it took place in the incident of Haatib (radiyallahu anh) then ruling can not be passed before investigating the state of the doer. Stating “What Haatib (radiyallahu anh) committed did, does not fall under help to the Kuffar against the Muslimin” has no value since there is no greater help than manifesting the secret of the Muslimin to the Kuffar.

If the act of Haatib (radiyallahu anh) was not an act considered as help to the Kuffar, the Ayah would have not been revealed in order to condemn Haatib (radiyallahu anh), and the Ulamaa would not name the act that Haatib (radiyallahu anh) performed as Muwaalaat. The scale for distinguishing an act being Haraam type of Muwalaat or Kufr type of Muwalaat is, manifesting whether the act can be interpreted other than consent with the Kufr and opening the heart to Kufr or not. If there is the possibility to interpret the act that it can occur from a Mu’min then he can not be declared Takfir upon or if not and there is no other possibility then it is Kufr.

Since we are at this topic, it is beneficial to mention that the principle “Consent with Kufr is Kufr” is not limited to having I’tiqaad (creed) of Kufr as the Juhaal (ignorant ones) deem to be. Since it is clear that having I’tiqaad of Kufr is Kufr and there is no benefit to mention this. This principle that the Ulamaa mentioned, is regarding everyone who does not have Bughd (hatred) towards Kufr, one who abandons the enmity towards Kufr both in the Dhaahir and the Baatin (inwardly) even if he does not attain Kufr as a Din (religion) for himself.

This shall be comprehended very well so that one would not have been befooled by the trap of the so called Mu’asir Murji’ah of our era who interpret the statement of the Ulamaa “the individual who helps the Kuffar would only be Kafir if he consents with the Din of the Kuffar” as “the individual can not become a Kafir and can not be declared Takfir upon even if he joins the military of the Kuffar and fights with them against Islam as long as he does not enter into the Din of the Kuffar”!

The issue of “The Ruling of Helping the Kuffar against the Muslimin” is very precise and a critical issue in which there is not much people who speak in the Wasat (mediocre) manner regarding the matter without falling into Ifrat (taking it to the extreme) and Tafrit (neglecting its true meaning). The state of an individual who fights in the ranks of the Kuffar, increases their number, working in their intelligence services or campaigns in order to strengthen the Taghout with his life and wealth is different than the state of an individual who stays in the ranks of the Muslimin, campaigns in order to strengthen Islam informs the Kuffar regarding the state of Muslimin for the sake of the worldly concerns (worries and purposes). Even though this act is a type of help to the Kuffar against the Muslimin, it is not Kufr, but Haraam.

In our era, some people do not even declare Takfir upon the person who falls into the first category; the one who joins the ranks of the Kuffar, seems to be one of them. On the other hand, others while deeming it to be Kufr declare Takfir upon the person who commits acts of spying which the Ulamaa rule as Haraam only.

This issue is an issue that should be taken in hand in detail therefore it necessitates to be dealt with in a separate article. Anyways Jahl has no effect on knowing the Hukm concerning distinguishing the help to the Kuffar having different types; the Kufr type and the Haraam type. Since Allah Ta’ala had not differentiated it while declaring Takfir upon those who commit Tawalli to the Kuffar, meaning assisting them and showing friendship towards them rather Allah Ta’ala states,


وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ
“And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them.” (al-Ma’idh 551)

Wallahu A’lam (Allah knows the best)!
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

 

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