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Author Topic: AN EXPLANATION OF SOME ISSUES REGARDING THE PRINCIPLE: CONSENT TO KUFR IS KUFR  (Read 1495 times)

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An Explanation of Some Issues Regarding the Principle Showing Consent to Kufr is Kufr

Author: Abdulhakim Hanif
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Ruling of Being Present at Gatherings of Kufr

Quote from: Question
May peace be upon those who follow the truth.

I have two questions which I have previously inquired about it. May Allah jalla jalaluhu guide to the truth.

My first question is about consent to kufr. If the religion of Allah is being mocked or denied, we must leave the gathering or oppose the statement. As it is nowadays, sometimes music is suddenly blasted in public transportation or places like markets. When there are words of Kufr in the lyrics, we have to leave that place. What approach should we take regarding those who do not leave such places since there is kufr statements in the lyrics? What should our approach be towards kufr in gatherings of people and kufr in music or on the radio?

My second question is about some statements found in the commentary of Fiqhul Akbar which you also cite from in some articles. Statements similar to, if a person says a statement of kufr and another person laughs at it due to his astonishment to the statement, such person will not enter kufr is found in the book. How do we apply these quotations according to Surah Nis, verse 140?

There are some from both the murjiah and jihaadee movements who attribute showing consent to Kufr gatherings to the enmity within the heart by bringing such quotations. InshaAllah I was able to explain myself.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

Although the issue of showing consent to Kufr -which you have asked about- is a simple issue, it is a matter that requires detailed explanation because it has become a confusing issue in the eyes of the common folk due to people distancing from the religion and knowledge. However, we will try to address this issue as briefly as possible, Inshllh.

As was stated by Ibnu Mandhr in his work Lisnul Arab, the word
الرِّضَا ar-Ridh (consent) is the opposite of the word السَّخَط as-Sakhat,[1] which means anger and discontentment. Even from a simple Arabic lexicon, it can be learned that the word الرِّضَا ar-Ridh means being content and pleased with something. On the other hand, Kufr is renowned: It is the opposite of mn (belief) and means belying and denial of the truth. Therefore, the issue we call consent to Kufr consists of being content with Kufr, liking, and approving Kufr. In light of the lexical meaning, the measure of whether a deed is included in the scope of consent to Kufr is as follows: If a deed or word does not carry a meaning other than the doer being pleased with Kufr or at the least not being uncomfortable with Kufr and that such person has opened their heart to Kufr, then this means, that person is consenting to Kufr, consequently this is not found in a person who possesses mn and it denotes this person does not have mn in their heart. If this word or deed may mean something other than being pleased with Kufr, even if the possibility is minute, such person will not be declared Takfr upon.

Allhu Tal said in Sratun Nis, verse 140,

﴿وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا.﴾
And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qurn) that when you hear the Verses of Allh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allh will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Jahannam.

Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh says,[2]


معنى الآية على ظاهرها، وهو أن الرجل إذا سمع آيات الله يكفر بها، ويستهزأ بها، فجلس عند الكافرين المستهزئين، من غير إكراه ولا إنكار، ولا قيام عنهم حتى يخوضوا في حديث غيره، فهو كافر مثلهم، وإن لم يفعل فعلهم، لأن ذلك يتضمن الرضاء بالكفر، والرضاء بالكفر كفر.

وبهذه الآية ونحوها، استدل العلماء على أن الراضي بالذنب كفاعله، فإن ادعى أنه يكره ذلك بقلبه لم يقبل منه لأن الحكم على الظاهر، وهو قد أظهر الكفر، فيكون كافرًا.
The meaning of the verse is upon its Dhhir (apparent meaning). This is that: when a man hears the verses of Allh being rejected and mocked, then sits in the presence of the mocking Kuffr without Ikrh (coercion), rejecting it, and departing from them until they speak about something else, then he is a Kfir like them. Even if he did not commit what they did, as this (sitting with them without denying) necessitates his consent with Kufr, and consent to Kufr is Kufr.

The Ulam made Istidll (derived) from this verse and its likes that the one who shows consent to a sin is like the one who committed it. If he claims that he dislikes it with his heart, then it will not be accepted from him (as an excuse). This is because the ruling is based upon the Dhhir, and he has manifested Kufr; therefore, he becomes a Kfir.

As seen, a person who hears Kufr must oppose them with his hand or tongue, and if he cannot do these, he must leave the gathering. If the person did not manifest his enmity in any way, this denotes that this person does not have any enmity towards them. In this issue, what difference would there be between the music played on a radio and someone speaking in person? The above-mentioned Nass (textual-proof) is clear and states that those who show consent to any gathering of Kufr will be Kuffr.

There are many lyrics which contain words of Kufr and rebellion that would not emanate from a normal speaking person done in the name of art. A Mumin, that is, a person who has mn in his heart, can never consent to these. Those who allege that they can keep silent with the pretext of it being played on the radio are people who have no share of mn. What must be done when music starts playing is to get off the bus or leave the market, in short, to abandon the gathering of Munkar (evil). Which Islm and which cause do people, who do not even possess the mn to achieve this, talk about?

In fact, these discussions are unnecessary for Ahlul mn (People of mn), because a Mumin does not need to learn from someone what to do in a gathering of Kufr, if his heart is alive and recognizes Marf (good) and rejects Munkar, that heart will give him the necessary instructions on what to do. However, if his heart is dead and does not recognize Marf and does not reject Munkar, it is only natural that such heart will not tell him what needs to be done, and this dead creature, who does not feel anything against Shirk in his heart, will constantly debate saying it is okay to sit in this gathering and not okay to sit in that gathering.

A man came to Abdullh bin Masd Radiyallhu Anh and said to him, Those who do not order Marf and prevent from Munkar have perished. Ibnu Masd Radiyallhu Anh answered him as follows, Rather, the one whose heart does not recognize Marf and does not deny Munkar has perished.[3]

If this point is understood, the answer to your second question will establish automatically. Yes, we have quoted from the commentary of Fiqhul Akbar many times because it contains the subject of showing consent to Kufr in detail.  Although the afore-mentioned book is based on the Mturd creed, most of the Fatw given especially regarding the statements and actions of Kufr are in accordance with Ahlus Sunnah and the Usl of the Salaf. However, it is necessary to not convert peculiar Fatw related to the rulings of mn and Kufr in that book or other books into the Nass, as some ignorant people do. Most of these Fatw are given by scholars on Muayyan, meaning specific cases, and many of them aim to bring the issue closer to students of knowledge. Otherwise, you will fall in a paradox and accuse scholars of contradictions if you take the phrase the one who laughs at a Kufr word is a Kfir found in one section of the book outwardly and without comprehending it and another phrase found in the same book stating that such person will not become Kfir. The scholar has already limited his words and stated that the main reason in this issue is being content with, in other words, being pleased with Kufr. Accordingly, if a person's laughter is due to consent, such person becomes a Kfir. However, such person will not become a Kfir if he cannot hold back his laughter even though he hates this statement. A person may even experience this in his own life. You may hear or read a word of Kufr belonging to a Kfir, and although you curse and damn this person, perhaps you may laugh out because of your astonishment for the Kfir saying the word jestingly. In this situation, it is clear from all aspects that there is no consent to Kufr.

As for coming to the conclusion that sitting in gatherings of Kufr is not an act of Kufr; this is undoubtedly the product of malicious intentions and a mischievous point of view. What is mentioned by the scholar is a Fatw regarding the ruling of solely laughing at a word of Kufr. The person may have objected to this word of Kufr after laughing or before; this is another matter. As we have mentioned above, the laughter of a person does not necessarily mean that he remained silent to that Kufr. One is astonished at how it can be deduced that being present in Kufr gatherings is regarded as normal from the scholar expounding on the issue of laughing at a Kufr statement. We wonder how those who allege that one may sit in gatherings of Kufr while hating it with the heart and base this on the commentary of Fiqhul Akbar explain the following types of Fatw found in the same book after the phrase about laughter,


وفيه أيضًا أن مَن ضحك مع الرضاء عمّن تكلم بالكفر كفر. انتهى. ومفهومه أن مَن ضحك تعجبًا من مقالته مع عدم الرضاء بحالته لا يكفر، فالمدار على الرضاء، وإنما قيّد المسألة بالضحك لأن الغالب أن يكون مع الرضاء، ولذا أطلق في مجمع الفتاوى، وقال : مَن تكلم بكلمة الكفر وضحك به غيره كفر.

ولو تكلم به مذكّر وقبل القوم ذلك كفروا يعني لو تكلم به واعظ أو مدرّس أو مصنّف واعتقده القوم الذين اطّلعوا عليه كفروا، ولا عذر لهم فيه إلا إن كان الكفر مختلفًا فيه، وزاد في المحيط، وقيل: إذا سكت القوم عن المذكر وجلسوا عنده بعد تكلمه بالكفر كفروا.
It is also recorded in the same book that whoever laughs with consent to the person who speaks a word of Kufr is a Kfir. End quote. This means that whoever laughs out of astonishment of his statement without consent of his state does not become Kfir. Therefore, the crucial factor is consent. He only limited this issue with laughter because laughter usually occurs with consent. For this reason, it was stated in Majmaul Fatw, he said: Whoever speaks a word of Kufr and someone else laughs because of that word, that person becomes a Kfir. If a preaching scholar utters the word of Kufr and the congregation accepts this, all of them will become Kuffr. Meaning, if an admonisher, teacher, or writer speaks this word, and those who are acquainted with it believe in it, they will become Kuffr. They do not have an excuse regarding this, except if there is Ikhtilf in their Kufr. Al-Muht added: It is said that when the congregation is quiet to the preaching scholar and sit near him after he stated Kufr, all of them become Kuffr. [4]

As seen, it is mentioned that sitting in a place where Kufr is spoken is Kufr in the continuation of the Fatw which bases the ruling of laughter on the reason of consent. This is because the same reason of consent occurs here. The fact that a person is present in the gathering of Kufr without objection has no meaning other than Kufr, as this would only manifest from those who do not hate Kufr. Someone who hates Kufr will definitely manifest his hatred. Actually, it is necessary to comprehend Ahlus Sunnahs definition of mn in order to understand these issues thoroughly. The Ahlus Sunnah believe in the harmony of the external and internal and acknowledge that the good or bad internal conditions will definitely manifest externally. As stated in the Sahh (authentic) Hadth,


وَإِنَّ فِي الْجَسَدِ مُضْغَةً إِذَا صَلَحَتْ صَلَحَ الْجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ، وَإِذَا فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ الْجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ‏.‏ أَلاَ وَهِيَ الْقَلْبُ.
There is a piece of flesh in the body, if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good, but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoilt. Truly, it is the heart.[5]

Therefore, the state of someone who has enmity for Kufr in his heart definitely reflects it through his body. If it is not reflected, the claim that the person has enmity in his heart is a hoax. Ikrh which is coercion is an exception for this, and the consent of a person and his freewill have already faded away in the case of Ikrh, and this is outside our topic. In short, these people who allege that they have enmity against Kufr words in their hearts are liars. If it was as such, they would not have been able to tolerate being present in a gathering wherein the religion of Allh is degraded.

In conclusion, the main Illah (reason) for the ruling of sitting in gatherings of Kufr, is consent to Kufr, being pleased with Kufr. The location of consent and enmity is the heart. Outward deeds manifest the consent or discontent found within the heart. If enmity in the heart of a person who witnesses gatherings of Kufr is not revealed in any way, it becomes evident that this person is content with Kufr. If enmity appears in a greater or lesser manner, depending on the strength of ones mn, it means that this person is discontent with Kufr. Speaking of which, we would like to mention that these are general rules that we are stating. In particular, one should not hurry to make judgments on issues that are closely related to the state of a persons heart, such as the issue of showing consent to Kufr. In fact, it is not the job of a layman to make a judgment in particular incidents. It is upon the common folk to learn and espouse the general rulings on this issue. In particular incidents, whether the person really showed consent to Kufr or has revealed his enmity towards it etc. should be investigated and revealed by those who are authorized to do so. However, if a person is blatantly silent in the face of Kufr and rejection, then his Takfr is not paused. Wallhu Alm (and Allh knows best)
 1. Ibnu Mandhr, Lisnul Arab, 14/323.
 
 2. Majmatut Tawhd, Tahqq: Bashr Muhammad Uyn, p. 66-67; ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 8/163.
 
 3. Musannaf Ibnu Ab Shaybah, Hadth no. 37581; Ab Nuaym, Hilyatul Awliy, 1/135.
 
 4. Mull Aliyyul Qr, Sharhu Kitbil Fiqhil Akbar, p. 275-276; Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah, Beirut 2019.

For these issues related to the words of Kufr, see Mull Aliyyul Qr, Sharhu Kitbil Fiqhil Akbar, Chapter on Clear-Cut and Allegorical Kufr, p. 291; Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah, Beirut 2019.
 
 5. Al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 52; Muslim, Hadth no. 1599.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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An Explanation of Some General Issues Regarding the Principle: Showing Consent to Kufr is Kufr

Quote from: Question
Bismillah.

It is known that we live amongst people who have adopted kufr and shirk as a religion. Statements like be creative are said on TV, on the street, or in dialogues. As I intervene in this statement, I say, the creator is Allah-u Taala to which they respond saying, yes that is so; the meaning of creating is to come up with a new idea. In these cases, what would you advise me to do?

I seek refuge in Allah-u Taala from showing consent to kufr. They remark that the meaning of being creative is to come up with a new idea. If a Muslim were to stay silent in this case, would this be showing consent to kufr?

In short, what Im trying to say is: When it is said be creative, is a Muslim showing consent to kufr if he stays silent as he knows what they mean by it?
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

We receive numerous questions regarding showing consent to Kufr through e-mail, the website, and in reality. The theme of all of them is as follows: Is this action showing consent to Kufr? What is supposed to be done while on a bus? What is supposed to be done when Kufr is said on the other end of the train? What is the ruling regarding showing consent to such-and-such statement? etc. It seems that we will continue to receive questions from this same genre. This is because, due to the deception and prompting of the shaytn, people find debating and disputing on thousands of modern-day issues similar to one another to be more delectable than learning and acting upon Uslud Dn, the reality of Kufr, and what the reality of showing consent to Kufr is, in short, having the true doctrine. Whereas, if they were to attain the knowledge of Uslul mn, they will attain the key to the answers of their questions. As we have stated before, nevertheless they follow the shaytn and live their life indulged in Waswasah. Many of them meet their Lord without attaining the basic knowledge of Tawhd which will make them Muslim, thereby destroying their hereafter (God forbid). With this means, we will reiterate that a person who possesses mn will not ask questions as such, as it was clarified in the famous Hadth of Munkar, as narrated by Muslim and others,


مَنْ رَأَى مِنْكُمْ مُنْكَرًا فَلْيُغَيِّرْهُ بِيَدِهِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَبِلِسَانِهِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَبِقَلْبِهِ وَذَلِكَ أَضْعَفُ الإِيمَانِ
Whoever amongst you sees a Munkar, he must change it with his hand; if he is unable to do so, then with his tongue; and if he is unable to do so, then with his heart; and that is the weakest form of mn.[1]

Meaning, a persons enmity towards Munkar is related to his mn-and the greatest Munkar is Kufr-. As we said before,


In fact, these discussions are unnecessary for Ahlul mn (People of mn), because a Mumin does not need to learn from someone what to do in a gathering of Kufr, if his heart is alive and recognizes Marf (good) and rejects Munkar, that heart will give him the necessary instructions on what to do. However, if his heart is dead and does not recognize Marf and does not reject Munkar, it is only natural that such heart will not tell him what needs to be done, and this dead creature, who does not feel anything against Shirk in his heart, will constantly debate saying it is okay to sit in this gathering and not okay to sit in that gathering.

A man came to Abdullh bin Masd Radiyallhu Anh and said to him, Those who do not order Marf and prevent from Munkar have perished. Ibnu Masd Radiyallhu Anh answered him as follows, Rather, the one whose heart does not recognize Marf and does not deny Munkar has perished.[2]
 2. Musannaf Ibnu Ab Shaybah, Hadth no. 37581; Ab Nuaym, Hilyatul Awliy, 1/135.

Therefore, a Mumin will recognize Kufr, will differentiate between Kufr and actions beneath it, and will react in a manner suiting the act. Ponder on this: did the Sahbah quarrel over issues as such? For instance, when the Munfiqn mocked the Dn or executed similar statements and actions of Kufr, how could the young Sahb determine that this statement encompassed Nifq so that he complained to Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and at the very end, Allh revealed His revelation in Sratul Munfiqn affirming this young Sahb? All of these are issues pertaining to mn; what must be done is to try and attain that mn instead of spending a lifetime in specific matters as such.

Coming to the issue you inquired about, in actuality, if you turn to your Fitrah, if it has not been corrupted, it would give you an answer. In fact, it seems as if you do know the answer to the question, but it may be because of Waswasah or some other reason that you had the need to ask us about it.

In fact, the people you objected to, stated that they did not use the word create to mean creating something out of nothing which is specific to Allh. Besides their claim, it is known that in Arabic and in English, the word create is used in the meaning of creating something out of nothing and is sometimes used to mean inventing or making something. While it is impossible to declare Takfr upon the person who says a statement which can carry multiple meanings or to label him as a Fsiq, then how is it possible to converse regarding the Kufr or even the Harm of one who shows consent to this statement? Sometimes the expression
خلق Khalq (creation) can be used for other than Allh. As in Sratul Muminn, verse 14,

﴿فَتَبَارَكَ اللهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ.﴾
So blessed is Allh, the best of creators.

In these verses[3], it is obvious that it is not used in the sense of creating something out of nothing, but it is used in the sense of making, in other terms, shaping. Allhu Tal has names such as al-Bri and al-Bad which carry the meaning of creating something out of nothing. However, because the fruitfulness of the Arabic language is not found in English, the word create is used to denote both meanings. Because when the word create is used Allh creating comes to mind, when this word is used for humans, people get irritated, whether they like it or not. In order not to be indecent to the Creator, it is better not to use this word and it would be appropriate to warn those who use this word. However, as we have said, if one uses it or if he shows consent to the one who uses it, such person will not be a Kfir nor a sinner.

While doing Amri bil Marf (commanding the good) regarding such probable words and deeds, as we described before, instead of using polemical words that do not have a bases as this word of yours is Kufr and the likes it is better to explain that although we do understand that the intention is not Kufr with this word, this could give the feeling of partnership to Allh, and it is better to not use this word. In addition, the scholars have stipulated it a condition that a person who does Amri bil Marf wan Nahyi Anil Munkar (commanding the good and prohibiting from evil) must have knowledge regarding what he commands and prohibits. Otherwise, an ignorant person may unknowingly make what is Harm Hall, and what is Hall Harm claiming that he is doing Amri Bil Marf. This is talking about the religion of Allh without knowledge, which is also Harm. Therefore, one should never go beyond what he knows and resort to his own interpretations when prohibiting evil. Wallhu Alam.
 1. Muslim, Hadth no. 49.
 
 3. Also see Srah Sfft, verse 125.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Ruling of the One Who Performs an Act He Deems to Be Kufr

Quote from: Question
Question: A person exceeds the limits in Takfir and considers a person who commits a major sin to be Kafir. There is such an event: A Muwahhid brother commits zinaa while obeying his soul, the devil and he admits that zinaa is a major sin, therefore, he does not consider the act to be halaal. Now this person who exceeds the limits in takfir makes takfir of this Muwahhid. Is his takfir correct?

If his takfir is not correct, the same person who makes takfir himself falls into zinaa one day, according to his creed, he has fallen into kufr, however what is your opinion on this matter? Can such a person be made takfir of according to the Quran and Sunnah?

We will be glad if you reply with clear proofs. Peace be upon the believers.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Summary of the Issue

Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

According to Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah, those who commit the Kabir (Major Sins) other than Shirk such as Zin (fornication) etc. will not be Kfir unless they commit Istihll (legitimatize it). However, there is Ittifq (agreement) amongst the Ulam (pl. lim; scholars) that the ruling of a person who consents to his own Kufr is Kufr.

If a person -who believes that committing Zin is Kufr- yet does Zin and then alleges that he is still a Muslim, then such person either believes that the one who commits Kufr will not become Kfir or has a similar, deviant ideology. Or, this person has given up his belief that committing Zin is Kufr. In this case, the matter turns to an ordinary case of Zin, and is not related with Takfr anymore.

Otherwise, whoever believes that the one who commits Kufr without Ikrh (coercion) will not be Kfir, whether it is himself or other than him, then such person is a Kfir. This is because it was clarified in many Nass (textual proofs) such as an-Nahl 16/106 that the only situation for the doer of a Kufr statement or act to not be Kfir is Ikrh.

The situation we have mentioned is not peculiar to matters of the Kabir, but is also valid even for those who perform a Mubh (permitted) deed while making Tawl (forceful interpretation) in order to consider it Kufr. Even if the matter in question is not Kufr, the individual legitimizes something for himself that he believes to be Kufr -just as it is Kufr for a Muslim to prostrate to an idol. Alternatively, he tries to bring an exception for himself or someone else regarding the principle whoever performs an act of Kufr becomes Kfir without bringing any Shar reason to do so. This means belying the necessary rulings indicated by the Kitb (Book; Qurn), the Sunnah, and the Ijm (consensus), thereby, such person becomes Kfir.

What we have stated are general principles. Do not consider this as a Fatw regarding the incident you are debating about nor the individuals. When a person we originally call Muslim falls into such act, then his Takfr is surely related with whether or not the conditions and barriers of Takfr have been met. Once it becomes clear that he is content with Kufr in the above-described manner, then he is a Murtad (apostate). A person who left Islm after being a Muslim is dealt with as a Murtad; he is not considered an Asl Kfir (Kfir in origin) as some think. The implication of the Madhhab of those who consider the Murtad to be an Asl Kfir is Kufr as they play with the apparent rulings of Islm. Wallhu Alam.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Details of the Issue

Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

It seems that when someone commits an act that is not Kufr in reality, but enters Kufr is a matter that is problematic for some people. In example, Zin (fornication) is not a deed of Kufr but a sin amongst the Kabir. The individual who rules it as an act of Kufr and then commits it; in reality does an act that is a Kabir and not Kufr. When it is as such, what is the reason behind him being a Kfir? We would like to clarify this point in detail so that the matter is understood and there will be no doubt left regarding the matter.

Firstly, our Takfr upon this individual is not due to what he committed from the Kabir. Itiqd that lies behind the Amal (deed) is the reason for our Takfr upon him. His Aml is only taken in consideration as it reflects the Fsid (invalid) Aqdah he has in his heart to be evident.

This point needs to be comprehended well. Otherwise, the matter would be understood that the person who commits something from the Kabir is declared Takfr upon due to committing a sin. This is not the reality of our matter at all.

Another point that must be emphasized is that a Muslim individual who fell into such act would not be declared Takfr upon until such Itiqd becomes evident from him. Manifesting such Itiqd is possible through asking a few easy questions. Such questions are as follows:

1-   Does he continue to label the deed (in example; Zin) he committed as Kufr?

2-   If he still labels it as Kufr, then does he accept that he committed Kufr by committing the deed he himself labels to be Kufr?

3-   If it is the case that he accepts what he committed as Kufr and he did repent from it, then there is no issue. Then it is only a case of Zin. However if in the meantime he is continuing to rule Zin as Kufr and claims that he did not perform Kufr when he committed Zin, in this case he will be asked how he exempts himself from the judgment of Kufr. Since the only state, that exempts the doer of Kufr from becoming Kfir is Ikrh (coercion).

Without an excuse acceptable by the Sharah (Islmic law) if he insists that the deed is Kufr but he himself does not become a Kfir or if he presents Btil reasons that are not recognised by the Sharah then it becomes clear that he is someone who rejects the Nass regarding the doer of Kufr becoming a Kfir. Thus it is evident that this is an act of Kufr itself.

While on the topic, we would like to share some advice. Firstly, these questions are not a dispute of Kalm (theological rhetoric) or Bidah (religious innovation). Hence the people today take their Dn to be a mere play and amusement and have become such that they rule something to be Kufr today then the next day they rule it as mn (belief). Because of this fact, we frequently come across such cases.

In example, an individual ruled carrying an ID card/passport to be Kufr yesterday, next thing you know he has an ID card/passport in his hand today with the excuse that having an ID card/passport is Dharrah (necessity) meanwhile still continuing to rule it as Kufr. When we question him about his Aqdah, he puts forth many excuses which none would be considered as Ikrh, moreover he brings excuses in most cases that would not be considered as Dharrah, which causes a Harm to be Mubh, with justifications such as health, job and security etc. thus permitting Kufr. An individual as such does not enter Kufr because he carries an ID card or passport. He is Kfir due to allowing Kufr for Maslahah (benefit).

In our era; the khir Zamn (the end of time i.e., before the Day of Judgement) in which people sell their Dn for a little gain, such incidences frequently occur. Many sometimes correctly and sometimes incorrectly- rule things as Kufr then commit it themselves. Many people correctly rule seeking judgment from the Tght as Kufr, then claim the deed -they ruled as Kufr- to be permissible excusing themselves with Dharrah, let alone ruling something incorrectly as Kufr as in the case of having an ID card/passport.

For this reason, when the state of our era is as such, questioning individuals regarding their Aqdah is not encompassed by dispute and argument that is forbidden in the Dn. Only those who have the mentality of the Ghult (extremist) Murjiah who incline upon the view that everyone who utters La Ilaha Illallh (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allh) is Muslim, would be bothered and annoyed with such. Allhu Alam.

However, surely it would not be correct to declare Takfr upon individuals before it becomes clear that they carry the Kufr Itiqd regarding these issues. Truly, this is the duty of a Qadh who knows the Islmic Sharah. People who have no knowledge of the Islmic Sharah should not dive into it. As for the Awm (lay people), it is incumbent that they know the principles that we will be mentioned Inshllh.

After this introduction, we would like to remind the Nass related with the topic. Allhu Tal states,


﴿مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلٰكِنْ مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِنَ اللهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ ۞ ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا عَلَى الْآخِرَةِ وَأَنَّ اللهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ ۞ أُولٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ وَسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ وَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ ۞ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ ۞ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.﴾
Whoever disbelieves in Allh after his belief except for one who is coerced (to renounce his religion) while his heart is firm in faith. But those who (willingly) open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allh, and for them is a great punishment; that is because they loved and preferred the life of this world over that of the Hereafter. And Allh guides not the people who disbelieve. Those are the ones over whose hearts and hearing and vision Allh has sealed, and it is those who are the heedless. No doubt, in the Hereafter, they will be the losers. Then, indeed your Lord, to those who emigrated after they had been put to trials and thereafter fought (for the cause of Allh) and were patient; indeed, your Lord, after that, is Forgiving and Merciful. (an-Nahl 16/106-110)

Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh Rahmatullhi Alayh stated the following in explanation of these yt,[1]


فحكم تعالى حكماً لا يبدَّل: أن من رجع عن دينه إلى الكفر فهو كافر، سواء كان له عذر خوفًا على نفس أو مال أو أهل أم لا، وسواء كفر بباطنه أم بظاهره دون باطنه، وسواء كفر بفعاله ومقاله، أو بأحدهما دون الآخر، وسواء كان طامعًا في دنيا ينالها من المشركين أم لا، فهو كافر على كل حال إلا المكره، وهو في لغتنا: المغصوب. فإذا أكره الإنسان على الكفر وقيل له: اكفر وإلا قتلناك، أو ضربناك، أو أخذه المشركون فضربوه، ولم يمكنه التخلص إلا بموافقتهم

So Allhu Tal has ruled a verdict that is unchangeable: whosoever turns back from his Dn to Kufr, then he is a Kfir regardless of whether he had the excuse of Khawf (fear) for his life, wealth, family, or not. Whether he committed Kufr internally (with his heart) or only externally and not internally (i.e. only through actions, without the heart); and whether he committed Kufr through his actions and his speech, or with just one without the other; and whether or not he committed Kufr because of his desire to attain some worldly benefit from the Mushrikn. He becomes a Kfir in each and every situation; except for the Mukrah (coerced person). And in our language he is the Maghsb. So if a person is coerced to do Kufr and it is said to him, Commit Kufr! Or else we shall kill you or we will torture you, or the Mushrikn take him and beat him, and it is impossible for him to be rid (of this torment) except by agreeing with them (externally).

Ibnu Hazm stated the following,

من أظهر الْكفْر لَا قارياً وَلَا شَاهدا وَلَا حاكياً وَلَا مكْرها على وجوب الْكفْر لَهُ بِإِجْمَاع الْأمة على الحكم لَهُ بِحكم الْكفْر وبحكم رَسُول الله صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم بذلك وبنص الْقُرْآن على من قَالَ كلمة الْكفْر أَنه كَافِر
Regarding the one who manifests Kufr; other than the one who reads it, gives witness to it, narrates it, or the one who is under Ikrh, the Ijm (consensus) of the Ummah (Islmic nation), the ruling of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and the Nass (textual proof) of the Qurn necessitates that the one who speaks a statement of Kufr is given the ruling of Kufr.[2]

Therefore, those who allege that Kufr can be executed with any reason other than Ikrh or allege that Takfr cannot be declared upon a person who does Kufr have opposed the clear ruling denoted by the Kitb, Sunnah, and Ijm.

While elucidating on this point in his book as-Srimul Masll, Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah said,


فمن قال بلسانه كلمة الكفر من غير حاجة عامدا لها عالما بأنها كلمة كفر فإنه يكفر بذلك ظاهرا وباطنا ولا يجوز أن يقال: إنه في الباطن يجوز أن يكون مؤمنا ومن قال ذلك فقد مرق من الإسلام.
So whoever uttered a word of Kufr with his tongue without having any need for it (without the presence of Ikrh or a similar Shar necessity), deliberately saying it, knowing that it is an utterance of Kufr, then he becomes a Kfir with this both internally and externally. It is not permissible to say, This person who speaks Kufr can actually internally be a Mumin (believer). Whoever says this has renounced Islm.[3]

There is another issue at hand, which is a person showing consent to Kufr pro se. Showing consent to Kufr is Kufr. The phrase those who (willingly) open their breasts to disbelief, found in the verse in Sratun Nahl denotes this. As was stated by Ibnu Mandhr in his work Lisnul Arab, the word
الرِّضَا ar-Ridh (consent) is the opposite of the word السَّخَط as-Sakhat,[4] which means anger and discontentment. Even from a simple Arabic lexicon, it can be learned that the word الرِّضَا ar-Ridh means being content and pleased with something. On the other hand, Kufr is renowned: It is the opposite of mn (belief) and means belying and denial of the truth. Therefore, the issue we call consent to Kufr consists of being content with Kufr, liking, and approving Kufr. In light of the lexical meaning, the measure of whether a deed is included in the scope of consent to Kufr is as follows: If a deed or word does not carry a meaning other than the doer being pleased with Kufr or at the least not being uncomfortable with Kufr and that such person has opened their heart to Kufr, then this means, that person is consenting to Kufr, consequently this is not found in a person who possesses mn and it denotes this person does not have mn in their heart. If this word or deed may mean something other than being pleased with Kufr, even if the possibility is minute, such person will not be declared Takfr upon.

Aliyyul Qr stated the following in his Sharh of Fiqhul Akbar,


وفي المحيط: مَن رضي بكفر نفسه فقد كفر أي إجماعًا، وبكفر غيره، اختلف المشايخ، وذكر شيخ الإسلام أن الرضا بكفر غيره إنما يكون كفرًا إذا كان يستجيزه ويستحسنه.
The following is recorded in the book al-Muht: Whoever is pleased with his own Kufr will be Kfir, meaning with Ijm. The scholars differed regarding being pleased with the Kufr of someone else. Shaykhul Islm mentioned that being pleased with the Kufr of another will only be Kufr when the person permits it (i.e., Kufr) and regards it good.[5]

Therefore, the one who attributes Kufr to himself or the one who accounts Kufr permissible for himself is deemed a Kfir for the reason that this is within the scope of being pleased with Kufr which is Kufr by Ittifq (agreement).

Ab Bakr bin Muhammad from amongst the Shfi scholars and the author of Kifyatul Akhyr said the following,


والعزم على الْكفْر كفر فِي الْحَال وَكَذَا لَو تردد هَل يكفر كفر فِي الْحَال وَكَذَا تَعْلِيق الْكفْر بِأَمْر مُسْتَقْبل كفر فِي الْحَال.
Intending Kufr is Kufr at that moment. Likewise, if a person were to doubt regarding whether or not he becomes Kfir, becomes Kfir at that moment. Likewise suspending Kufr to a future time is also Kufr at that moment.[6]

In his Sharh to Fiqhul Akbar, Aliyyul Qr cited the following Fatw regarding the matter in question,


وفيه أيضا أن مَن عزم على الكفر ولو بعد مائة سنة يكفّر في الحال.
It is also written in Khulsatul Fatw that whoever intends to commit Kufr, even if it is after a hundred years, Takfr will be declared upon him at the moment.[7]

Examples as such can be multiplied. It is understood that the one who commits something that he believes is Kufr and deems that he does not exit the fold of the religion, has showed consent to Kufr for himself and also denies the ruling of Allhu Tal that committing Kufr takes one out of the fold of Islm except in the case of Ikrh. Both of these are undoubtedly Kufr.

The fact that the action is not Kufr in reality does not change the ruling. This is akin to the situation of the one who bows to an object with the intent of bowing to an idol. Even if it becomes clear that the object he bowed to is not an idol, he inevitably cannot escape being Kfir. Hence he intended to commit an act of Kufr at the same time he consented to it. The individual who named any act as Kufr, meaning denying Allhu Tal, and while knowing that it is an act that means denying Allhu Tal he continues to commit the act, is pleased with and has consented to Kufr pro se i.e. for himself.

In short, there are two reasons that we were able to determine for the one who becomes Kfir due to performing an act he believes to be Kufr with mistaken Tawl:

1-   This person sees Kufr suitable for himself, he prefers it, and shows consent to Kufr, i.e. he is pleased with it.

2-   This person belies the principle, the one who utters or commits an act of Kufr will become a Kfir except for the one who is coerced and although he sees his own action as Kufr he claims he does not become a Kfir.


All of these are among the things that nullify the fundamentals of Islm. However as we previously emphasized, it must be exposed that both the one who is accused of committing an act he believes is Kufr and also those who do not declare Takfr upon them, have opinions that nullify the fundamentals of Islm.

While on the topic, we should clarify that as the one who seeks an evident statement from the Kitb, the Sunnah, and the Ijm such as, The one who commits an act he believes to be Kufr, is a Kfir would not be able to find it, he would also not be able to find its opposite, meaning, a statement asserting that such person would not be Kfir. Hence -Allh knows best- such discussion amongst the Ulam of the past did not exist. These discussions are among the discussions of Kalm found in light-hearted settings of our era.

 If one tries to find Nass (textual proofs) intrinsically indicative in wording for every Btil that is discussed today, he will end up being unable to give the ruling of Kufr to evident Shirk and Kufr which nullify the fundamentals of the religion. Such issues need to be discussed through defining the Illah (reasons) they withstand on.

The Illah of this matter is apparent. For whoever opens for discussion or overlooks the above-mentioned Illah i.e. the principle showing consent to ones own Kufr is Kufr and the clear rulings such as the one who commits Kufr certainly becomes Kfir except with a Shar excuse such as Ikrh-, this demonstrates that this person does not know anything about Islm. As for constantly overlooking the Illah that rulings withstand on and arguing regarding the statements, then this is Jadal (argument) and Kalm (theological rhetoric) that is reviled and prohibited in the religion.

As for the matter of Zin which our issue is revolving around, the Zin doer says that the act of Zin is an act which means denying Allhu Tal just like worshipping the idols. Thereafter he commits the act he ruled to be denying Allh. This contains evidence that such person is not uncomfortable with Kufr, rather he is pleased with it and has opened his heart to Kufr. On top of this, he ridicules the Sharah by claiming that everyone who commits this act becomes a Kfir while exempting himself from this rule. If this is the reality of his state, then such person has fallen into the gravest Kufr. This is not only valid regarding actions, but is valid for every issue, let alone statements or creed.

According to the principle which is known and reputed in the presence of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah, a person is responsible for himself and not for the implication of his Maddhab (views/beliefs). Therefore, ruling will be given to a person according to his Aqdah (creed). For this reason, a person who -in example- sees others directing Du to Allh at a grave and assumes that this person is directing Du and Ibdah to the dead, and then does not declare Takfr upon the person who is supplicating while considering ignorance to be an excuse in ash-Shirkul Akbar, then such person will be declared Takfr of due to his belief that ignorance is an excuse with regards to Shirk; not because whether or not he declared Takfr upon the person who was directing Du to a grave.

There is a difference between a person misunderstanding an issue and giving a wrong ruling to it and adding other Kufr views to his mistaken ruling. All of these are similar matters to the above-mentioned issue of Zin etc. These should be pondered upon.

Allh knows best. And all praise is due to Allh, the Lord of the Worlds.
 1. Majmatit Tawhd, p. 309; ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 8/131-132.
 
 2. Ibnu Hazm, al-Fisal, 3/116-117.
 
 3. Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Srimul Masll, p. 523-524.
 
 4. Ibnu Mandhr, Lisnul Arab, 14/323.
 
 5. Mull Aliyyul Qr, Sharhu Kitbil Fiqhil Akbar, p. 296; Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah, Beirut 2019.
 
 6. Taqiyyud Dn Ab Bakr bin Muhammad al-Hisn, Kifyatul Akhyr, p. 495.
 
 7. Mull Aliyyul Qr, Sharhu Kitbil Fiqhil Akbar, p. 275; Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah, Beirut 2019.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Refuting Those Who Attend Gatherings of Kufr with the Excuse of Being Mustadhaf (Oppressed) and Displaying Taqiyyah (Dissimulation)

Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

Allhu Tal states,


﴿وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا.﴾
And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qurn) that when you hear the Verses of Allh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allh will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Jahannam.[1];

﴿وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ وَإِمَّا يُنْسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَلَا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَى مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ ۞ وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَلَكِنْ ذِكْرَى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ.﴾
And when you see those who engage in a false conversation about Our Verses by mocking at them, stay away from them till they turn to another topic. And if shaytn causes you to forget, then after the remembrance sit not you in the company of those people who are the Dhlimn (polytheists and wrong-doers). Those who fear Allh are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, but (their duty) is to remind them, that they may fear Allh.[2]

Ibnu Kathr Rahmatullhi Alayh stated the following in the Tafsr (exegesis) of the above-mentioned verse,


وَهَذِهِ الْآيَةُ هِيَ الْمُشَارُ إِلَيْهَا فِي قَوْلِهِ: {وَقَدْ نزلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ} الْآيَةَ [النِّسَاءِ: 140] أَيْ: إِنَّكُمْ إِذَا جَلَسْتُمْ مَعَهُمْ وَأَقْرَرْتُمُوهُمْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ، فَقَدْ سَاوَيْتُمُوهُمْ فِي الَّذِي هُمْ فِيهِ.

وَقَوْلُهُ: {وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ} أَيْ: إِذَا تَجَنَّبُوهُمْ فَلَمْ يَجْلِسُوا مَعَهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ، فَقَدْ بَرِئُوا مِنْ عُهْدَتِهِمْ، وَتَخَلَّصُوا مِنْ إِثْمِهِمْ.

قَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الأشَجّ، حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنِ السُّدِّي، عَنْ أَبِي مَالِكٍ وَسَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْر، قَوْلَهُ: {وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ} قَالَ: مَا عَلَيْكَ أَنْ يَخُوضُوا فِي آيَاتِ اللهِ إِذَا فَعَلْتَ ذَلِكَ، أَيْ: إِذَا تَجَنَّبْتَهُمْ وَأَعْرَضْتَ عَنْهُمْ.

وَقَالَ آخَرُونَ: بَلْ مَعْنَاهُ: وَإِنْ جَلَسُوا مَعَهُمْ، فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ. وَزَعَمُوا أَنَّ هَذَا مَنْسُوخٌ بِآيَةِ النِّسَاءِ الْمَدَنِيَّةِ، وَهِيَ قَوْلُهُ: {إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ} [النِّسَاءِ: 140] . قَالَهُ مُجَاهِدٌ، والسُّدِّي، وَابْنُ جُرَيْج، وَغَيْرُهُمْ.
This verse was denoted by the statement of Allh in the verse,

﴿وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ.﴾
And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qurn) that when you hear the Verses of Allh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.[3]

Meaning, when you still sit with them while agreeing to what they say (by implication), then you have been akin to them in the state they are in. The statement of Allh,


﴿وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ.﴾
Those who fear Allh are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case.

Meaning, when they (those who fear Allh) avoid them thereby not sitting with them in this case, then they will be free of their responsibility and will have saved themselves from their sin.

Ibnu Ab Htim said: Ab Sad al-Ashajj narrated to us (...) Ab Mlik and Sad bin Jubayr stated regarding the verse, Those who fear Allh are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, the following, When you do so, meaning when you avoid and turn away from them, you are not responsible for them engaging in a false conversation about the verses of Allh.

Others said: Rather its meaning is they are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, even if they sit with them. Therefore, they alleged that this verse became Manskh (abrogated) with the verse in an-Nis that was revealed in Madnah, which is the statement of Allh, (But if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.[4] This view belongs to Mujhid, as-Sudd, Ibnu Jurayj, and others[5]


As seen, some scholars of Tafsr claimed that the expression Those who fear Allh are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, within the verse revealed in Makkah in Sratul Anm, verse 68, means that They are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case even if they sit with them. and then was abrogated with the expression in the verse, then sit not with them, (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.[6] According to both scholars, those who account the verse in Sratul Anm is Muhkam (unambiguous) or those who account it is Manskh, it is not Jiz (permissible) to sit in a gathering where the Dn is rejected and ridiculed.

In fact, this is from the matters that have Ijm. However, today some people claim that in Makkah during the phase of Istadhf meaning weakness, such permit was given and then after the Muslimn became stronger in Madnah, the permit to sit in the gatherings of Kufr was lifted. Therefore, they assert that if the state of Istadhf during the Makkan era occurs today, without speaking out against them, the Muslimn can sit with them in the gatherings of the Kuffr where they attack the Dn. They take some statements of the Mufassirn as evidence for their claim.

Al-Qurtub stated the following regarding verse 69 in Sratul Anm,


قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: لَمَّا نَزَلَ لَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَهُوَ الْمُرَادُ بِقَوْلِهِ:" فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ" قَالَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ: لَا يُمْكِنُنَا دُخُولُ الْمَسْجِدِ وَالطَّوَافُ، فَنَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ." وَلكِنْ ذِكْرى " أَيْ فَإِنْ قَعَدُوا يَعْنِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلْيُذَكِّرُوهُمْ. (لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ) اللَّهَ فِي تَرْكِ مَا هُمْ فِيهِ. ثُمَّ قِيلَ: نُسِخَ هَذَا بِقَوْلِهِ:" وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتابِ أَنْ إِذا سَمِعْتُمْ آياتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِها وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِها فَلا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ". وَإِنَّمَا كَانَتِ الرُّخْصَةُ قَبْلَ الْفَتْحِ وَكَانَ الْوَقْتُ وَقْتَ تَقِيَّةٍ. وَأَشَارَ بقول:" وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتابِ" إلى قول:" وَذَرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَهُمْ لَعِباً وَلَهْواً". قَالَ الْقُشَيْرِيُّ: وَالْأَظْهَرُ أَنَّ الْآيَةَ لَيْسَتْ مَنْسُوخَةً. وَالْمَعْنَى: ما عليكم شي مِنْ حِسَابِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِتَذْكِيرِهِمْ وَزَجْرِهِمْ فَإِنْ أبوا فحسابهم على الله. و" الذِّكْرى " فِي مَوْضِعِ نَصْبٍ عَلَى الْمَصْدَرِ، وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ تَكُونَ فِي مَوْضِعِ رَفْعٍ، أَيْ وَلَكِنِ الَّذِي يَفْعَلُونَهُ ذِكْرَى، أَيْ وَلَكِنْ عَلَيْهِمْ ذِكْرَى. وَقَالَ الكسائي: المعنى ولكن هذه ذكرى.
Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anh said: When do not to sit with the Mushrikn was revealed and this was intended with His Tals statement, stay away from them, the Muslims said it is not possible to enter into the Masjid (al-Harm i.e. Kabah) and perform Tawf (circumambulation of it). So this verse was revealed.

But (their duty) is to remind them, meaning if they, meaning the Muminn sit with them, then they should remind them. That they may fear Allh regarding abandoning what they are upon.

Then it was said: This was abrogated with the statement of Allhu Tal,


﴿وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتابِ أَنْ إِذا سَمِعْتُمْ آياتِ اللهِ يُكْفَرُ بِها وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِها فَلا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ.﴾
And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qurn) that when you hear the Verses of Allh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that[7]

The Rukhsah (permit) was only valid before the Conquest of Makkah and that era was the era of Taqiyyah.

Allhu Tal denoted this with His statement:


﴿وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتابِ.﴾
And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qurn),

Until His statement:


﴿وَذَرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَهُمْ لَعِباً وَلَهْوًا.﴾
And leave alone those who take their religion as play and amusement.[8]

Al-Qushayr said: The more apparent is that the verse is not Manskh (abrogated). Its meaning is: You are not responsible for the Mushrikn in any case. It is upon you to remind them and to prevent them. So if they turn away then their account is only with Allh.


الذِّكْرى to remind is a Masdar (gerund) in the state of Nasb (genitive). It is also possible to be in the state of Raf (accusative). Meaning: However, what they should do is reminding. Meaning: However, what is incumbent upon them to do is reminding. Al-Kis said: It means: However this is a Dhikr (reminder).[9]

As seen, according to many scholars what is Sahih (sound) is the view that this verse was not abrogated. Accordingly, the expression but (their duty) is to remind them that is mentioned in the verse means if one remains sitting with the Mushrikn, then he has to dissuade them from what they were upon and has to make Dawah to (call) them. Some said that no responsibility falls upon you on the account of the Kuffr. However, according to the scholars who accept that abrogation is the case, the Rukhsah given to Muslimn in the era of Makkah was for Taqiyyah.

The reason some people of our era fall into Mushkilah (problem) at this point is due to not knowing how the term Taqiyyah is used in the Shar terminology. Likewise, they are unable to correctly assess the meaning of the Makkan Muslimn having no power to reject the Kuffr, in other terms, being Mustadhaf (weak). For, not knowing the meaning of the term Mustadhaf in the Shar terminology is also a point in the matter.

In the presence of the scholars, the terms Taqiyyah and Istidhf are both used in the meaning of Ikrh (coercion) which is the disappearance of a persons willpower. However as it is the case unfortunately- for many Shar terms, both these terms -in the course of time - have been dislocated in meaning. Especially with the effects of the Rfidhah Shiites, both these terms have been used in the meaning of hiding ideas for various political reasons -even in the absence of Ikrh.

Known by the experts of the matter; the Shiites allege that the caliphate was the right (!) of Al Radiyallhu Anh and that -Allh forbid- the first three caliphs seized his right! They explain Al Radiyallhu Anh kept silent when they seized his right (!) as he was performing Taqiyyah. Therefore, the matter of Taqiyyah is regarded as being from the bases of the Dn according to the Shia, and accordingly the Rukhsah was given to the Shia who live under the ruling of Ahlus Sunnah to hide their Itiqd and portray themselves as Sunn.

Especially after the revolution of Khomeini in 1400H, many so-called Sunn groups were affected from the views of the Shia and started implementing the Taqiyyah understanding of Shia which consists of lying to and deceiving their opponents, thereafter, they started understanding the term Taqiyyah to mean hiding ones creed for political benefits. The deviated sects of today went further in the invalid Taqiyyah understanding of the Shia wherein they manifest it towards Islmic sects that do not agree with them, and started to perform Taqiyyah against the Kuffr and confirmed their Dn in the apparent - which even the Shia of the past do not allow.

If this is done without the presence of Ikrh, then it is Kufr according to all of Ahlul Islm. Whereas, according to Ahlus Sunnah Taqiyyah i.e. hiding ones creed and seeming to be from his opponents, is a permit given only under Ikrh, which we call coercion (death, becoming handicapped/crippled, or similar danger). Let us illustrate with examples what is understood in the presence of the scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah when Taqiyyah is mentioned, Inshllh (if Allh wills):

In the chapter he opened regarding the matter of Ikrh, meaning Kitbul Ikrh (the Book of Coercion) found in his Sahh, Imm al-Bukhr Rahmatullhi Alayh mentioned verses that are related with the topic before he narrated the relevant Ahdth, as is his custom. In this chapter, he cited four verses pertaining to this subject. The first verse is the verse an-Nahl 16/106,


﴿مَن كَفَرَ بِاللهِ مِن بَعْدِ إيمَانِهِ إِلاَّ مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالإِيمَانِ وَلَـكِن مَّن شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْراً فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ.﴾
Whoever disbelieves in Allh after his belief except for one who is coerced (to renounce his religion) while his heart is firm in faith. But those who (willingly) open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allh, and for them is a great punishment.

The second verse is the verse known as The Verse of Taqiyyah from l-i Imrn 3/28, in which Allhu Tal states,


﴿لَا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاء مِن دُوْنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلاَّ أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً.﴾
Let not the believers take the disbelievers as Awliy (allies) instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allh in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them

The third set of verses which al-Bukhr cites is the verses an-Nis 4/97-99, wherein Allhu Tal states,


﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنْتُمْ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا فَأُولَئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا ۞ إِلَّا الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلًا ۞ فَأُولَئِكَ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا.﴾
Indeed, those whom the angels take (in death) while wronging themselves (the angels) will say, In what (condition) were you? They will say, We were oppressed in the land. The angels will say, Was not the earth of Allh spacious (enough) for you to emigrate therein? For those, their refuge is Jahannam (Hell) - What an evil destination! Except the oppressed ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. For those it is expected that Allh will pardon them, and Allh is Oft-Pardoning and Oft-Forgiving.

The fourth verse is the verse an-Nis 4/75,


﴿وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَلْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَلْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ نَصِيرًا.﴾
And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allh, and for those oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is, Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.

After quoting these verses, al-Bukhr Radiyallhu Anh said,


فَعَذَرَ اللهُ المُسْتَضْعَفِينَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَمْتَنِعُونَ مِنْ تَرْكِ مَا أَمَرَ اللهُ بِهِ، وَالمُكْرَهُ لاَ يَكُونُ إِلَّا مُسْتَضْعَفًا، غَيْرَ مُمْتَنِعٍ مِنْ فِعْلِ مَا أُمِرَ بِهِ
Thereby, Allh excused the Mustadhafn, those who cannot refrain from abandoning what Allh has commanded. A Mukrah (person who is under Ikrah) is only the Mustadhaf, who cannot refrain from an act which he has been commanded to perform.[10]

The Shrih (commentator; i.e. Ibnu Hajar) said the following while explaining the words of al-Bukhr,


فَعَذَرَ اللَّهُ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَمْتَنِعُونَ مِنْ تَرْكِ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ يَعْنِي إِلَّا إِذَا غُلِبُوا قَالَ وَالْمُكْرَهُ لَا يَكُونُ إِلَّا مُسْتَضْعَفًا غَيْرَ مُمْتَنِعٍ مِنْ فِعْلِ مَا أَمَرَهُ بِهِ أَيْ مَا يَأْمُرُهُ بِهِ مَنْ لَهُ قُدْرَةٌ عَلَى إِيقَاعِ الشَّرِّ بِهِ أَيْ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى الِامْتِنَاعِ مِنَ التَّرْكِ كَمَا لَا يَقْدِرُ الْمُكْرَهُ عَلَى الِامْتِنَاعِ مِنَ الْفِعْلِ فَهُوَ فِي حُكْمِ الْمُكْرَهِ
Thereby, Allh excused the Mustadhafn, those who cannot refrain from abandoning what Allh has commanded. Meaning: Only when they are defeated. Al-Bukhr said: A Mukrah (person who is under Ikrah) is only the Mustadhaf, who cannot refrain from an act which he has been commanded to perform. Meaning: An act which he was commanded to perform by the one who has power/ability to inflict harm upon him. This is because he does not have the power/ability to refrain from abandoning it, just as the Mukrah has no power/ability to refrain from an act. Therefore, the Mustadhaf is under the ruling of the Mukrah.[11]

As seen, following al-Bukhr, after Ibnu Hajar stated the Shar meaning of Mustadhaf and Mukrah is the same, he described the state of Mustadhaf, meaning being in the state of Ikrh, as being a state of total helplessness. Therefore, it is clear that in the presence of the scholars the term Mustadhaf is used in the meaning of Mukrah, a person under Ikrh. As Hamad bin Atiq Rahmatullhi Alayh said in Sablun Najt,


المستضعف هو الذي لا يستطيع حيلةً ولا يهتدي سبيلًا وهو مع ذلك يقول: {ربنا أخرجنا من هذه القرية الظالم أهلُها واجعل لنا من لدنك وليا واجعل لنا من لدنك نصيرا} وبيانُ أنَّ الذي يعتذر بوطنه أو عشيرته أو ماله ويدعي أنه يكون بذلك مستضعفًا، كاذبٌ في دعواه وعذرهُ غيرُ مقبولٍ عند الله تعالى ولا عند رسوله ولا عند أهل العلم بشريعة الله
The Mustadhaf is the one who cannot devise a plan, nor is able to direct his way. With this, he says,

﴿رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا.﴾
Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.[12]

Also, this is to clarify that those who bring their homeland, kinsfolk, and their wealth in excuse alleging they are Mustadhaf with this, are liars in their claims. Their excuse is not accepted in the presence of Allhu Tal, His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and those who know the Sharah of Allh.[13]

 
Imm al-Bukhr also mentioned the verse related with Taqiyyah under the chapter of Ikrh, thus the one who has the least share of Ilm knows, Taqiyyah is used interchangeably with Ikrh in the presence of the scholars. We would like to add a few more examples:

- The following statement found in ad-Durarus Saniyyah,


ولما نهى الله عن موالاة أعدائه من الكفار والمشركين، وأباح التقية مع الإكراه
When Allh prohibited Muwlt (friendship) with His enemies amongst the Kuffr and the Mushrikn, and permitted Taqiyyah with Ikrh[14]

- These statements of Ibnu Atiyyah in the Tafsr of the verse l-i Imrn 3/28,


وأما بأي شيء تكون التقية ويترتب حكمها فذلك بخوف القتل وبالخوف على الجوارح وبالضرب بالسوط وبسائر التعذيب، فإذا فعل بالإنسان شيء من هذا أو خافه خوفا متمكنا فهو مكره وله حكم التقية
As for what Taqiyyah occurs with and its ruling lays out, then this occurs with fearing death, fearing for limbs, being whipped, and other types of torture. When any of these are done to a person or if he fears them with the fear of its possibility (that these will take place), then he is a Mukrah and the ruling of Taqiyyah is valid for him.[15]

As seen clearly from the above-mentioned examples, in the presence of the scholars, Taqiyyah and Ikrh are used in the same meaning.

Therefore, all narrations in the Tafsr of the verse an-Nis 4/140 regarding the Muslimn in Makkah being in the state of Taqiyyah or that they were Mustadhaf so that they could not speak out against those who spoke ill of their Dn denotes that these Muslims were in the state of Ikrh, in which there is Rukhsah (permit) for the Muslimn to commit Kufr. With the permit of Allh, no one would be able to prove that the terms used here, namely Taqiyyah and Mustadhaf, mean anything other than Ikrh. How could such a thing to be proved?

Both the evident indication of the verse then sit not with them; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them[16] and also the explanations of the scholars clearly denote that sitting in the gatherings of Kufr without speaking out against them is Kufr. In the above-mentioned verse an-Nahl 16/106, the state of Ikrh being the only exception of Kufr is fixed.

It is understood from all of these that the abrogation of the state mentioned by scholars refers to the existent ruling being re-put in practice, after the state of fear in Makkah ended. Concerning this, the following was stated in the Tafsr of ar-Rz,


هَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ مَنْ رَضِيَ بِالْكُفْرِ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ، وَمَنْ رَضِيَ بِمُنْكَرٍ يَرَاهُ وَخَالَطَ أَهْلَهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يُبَاشِرْ كَانَ فِي الْإِثْمِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمُبَاشِرِ بِدَلِيلِ أَنَّهُ تعالى ذكر لفظ المثل هاهنا، هَذَا إِذَا كَانَ الْجَالِسُ رَاضِيًا بِذَلِكَ الْجُلُوسِ، فَأَمَّا إِذَا كَانَ سَاخِطًا لِقَوْلِهِمْ وَإِنَّمَا جَلَسَ عَلَى سَبِيلِ التَّقِيَّةِ وَالْخَوْفِ فَالْأَمْرُ لَيْسَ كَذَلِكَ، وَلِهَذِهِ الدَّقِيقَةِ قُلْنَا بِأَنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يُجَالِسُونَ الْيَهُودَ، وَكَانُوا يَطْعَنُونَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَالرَّسُولِ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ مِثْلَ أُولَئِكَ الْيَهُودِ، وَالْمُسْلِمُونَ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا بِالْمَدِينَةِ كَانُوا بِمَكَّةَ يُجَالِسُونَ الْكُفَّارَ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يَطْعَنُونَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فَإِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا بَاقِينَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ، وَالْفَرْقُ أَنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ كَانُوا يُجَالِسُونَ الْيَهُودَ مَعَ الِاخْتِيَارِ، وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ كَانُوا يُجَالِسُونَ الْكُفَّارَ عِنْدَ الضَّرُورَةِ.
This yah denotes that whoever shows consent to Kufr is a Kfir, and whoever shows consent to a Munkar (evil) he sees and intermingles with its performers, even if he does not perform it, he is in the status of those who perform it. The evidence is that Allhu Tal mentioned the phrase like here. This is when the person who sits is pleased with this sitting. As for the one who dislikes what they say and only sat with them due to Taqiyyah or fear, then the issue is not as such.

Because of this detail, we say that the Munfiqn who used to sit with the Jews who reviled the Qurn and the Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam were Kuffr just like these Jews. The Muslimn who were in Madnah used to sit with the Kuffr, who reviled the Qurn when they were in Makkah; they stayed upon mn.

The difference is that the Munfiqn used to sit with the Jews with their own wills, whereas the Muslimn used to sit with the Kuffr out of necessity.
[17]

These explanations quoted from the Mufassirn of the Khalaf (latter-day) are in agreement with the fundaments of the Ahlus Sunnah. As it is understood from the above-quoted explanations, the state of the Muslimn who sat in the gatherings of the Kuffr due to fear of death is not an indication of them being pleased with their Kufr. Oppositely, this became a sign of showing consent to Kufr in Madnah.

In the same manner, the state of the one who sits with the Kuffr while objecting to their statements and debating with them also does not indicate his consent to Kufr. The essence of consent to Kufr is not to sit with the Kuffr. Sitting with the Kuffr is a sign among the signs of showing consent to Kufr. However, once the above-mentioned state of Ikrh is the case, it no longer remains a sign.

In short, showing consent to Kufr being Kufr is from Aslud Dn and its abrogation is not existent, since being pleased with Kufr, not being irritated from it, cannot co-exist with mn. In the Asl of mn, Nsikh-Manskh (abrogator-abrogated) cannot exist. If Nsikh-Manskh does take place, then it is merely the Rukhsah that was granted to the Muslimn for not speaking out against the Kuffr in Makkah due to the oppressive nature of Makkah to the extent that the Muslimn were under the threat of losing their lives i.e. under Ikrh, if they were to manifest their mn.

Those who allege the Nsikh-Manskh that took place regarding this verse is related with the principle showing consent to Kufr is Kufr, do not know what mn is. This is because showing consent to Kufr is always Kufr. Nonetheless during the Makkan era, because manifesting ones mn would cause serious threat, there were Muslimn who had not spoken out against the Kuffr since the condition of Ikrh was the case. However, they were still not pleased with Kufr. Though, those who continue to sit in the gatherings of Kufr when Ikrh is not the case while claiming their Itiqd is in their hearts have no excuse for their situation. Such people carry the Aqdah of the Jahmiyyah and the Murjiah, who account mn to consist of Itiqd or knowledge.

In conclusion, showing consent to Kufr is Kufr and sitting in the gatherings of Kufr without speaking out against it with the absence of Ikrh denotes one being pleased with Kufr consequently him being Kfir. This is a matter related to the bases of mn, and just as abrogation regarding it is not in question, it would not differ whether in Drul Islm (the Abode of Islm) or Drul Kufr. This is because the bases of Tawhd and mn is the mutual Dawah of all prophets. Just as there would be no difference in the Sharah of the prophets in these principles, change did not occur regarding the bases of mn during the Dawah of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, neither in the Makkan era nor in the Madnan era. Besides, such change is impossible both intellectually and in the eyes of the Sharah.

It is unimaginable and an unperceivable thing for a person with mn in his heart to sit in a gathering of the Kuffr in which they speak ill of the Dn without objecting to it while Ikrh is not the case. As the one who has mn will certainly manifest his displeasure of Kufr when he comes face to face with Kufr. If he does not manifest this, then he has no mn in his heart. This is a notion that arises from the Fitrah (innate nature) and is related with the nature of mankind.

The person who alleges that people during the era of Makkah willingly sat in gatherings of Kufr and remained Mumin; will have rejected the Sharah meanwhile expressing that which opposes the Fitrah of mankind. If they did not do it with their own will, then it is understood that they did this under Ikrh. In this case, their state would only be an evidence for sitting in the gatherings of Kufr under Ikrh, and Rukhsah has already been granted for uttering statements of Kufr or committing Kufr when one is under Ikrh.

Therefore, just as those who continue to sit in gatherings of Kufr without opposing it while alleging that they perform Taqiyyah in their daily life and in places such as the educational establishments of the Tght become Kfir, those who sit quietly in a gathering wherein they are judged by the Tght (i.e. a court setting) with the excuse that they are Mustadhaf, thereby showing consent to this, are also Kfir.

Besides, a person who is physically taken to court to be judged by the Tght is accounted to be judged by Tght unless he openly denounces it. How can one claim that he is distant from the judgement of the Tght while he keeps silent in the gathering wherein he is judged by the Tght? There is no way to achieve this, whether in the sight of the Sharah or customs.

As previously mentioned, those who bring the excuse of being Mustadhaf and the performance of Taqiyyah and explain these two terms with something other than Ikrh are people who do not know the religion. The reason being, these people bring exceptions for committing Kufr other than Ikrh. If they mean Ikrh, then Ikrh can only be the case when the will of a person ceases to exist due to coercion and there is a serious threat against his life or against his limbs.

An individuals worries, about the possibility of danger that may afflict him such as detachment from his country and his family, are the Waswasah (delusions) of the shaytn and is irrelevant to the term Ikrh mentioned in the Sharah.

khiru Dawna Anil Hamdulillhi Rabbil lamn.
 1. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 2. Al-Anm 6/68-69.
 
 3. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 4. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 5. Ibnu Kathr, Tafsrul Qurnil Adhm, Dru Taybah, 3/278.
 
 6. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 7. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 8. Al-Anm 6/70.
 
 9. Al-Qurtub, Tafsr, 7/15.
 
 10. Al-Bukhr, Sahh, 9/19.
 
 11. Ibnu Hajar al-Asqaln, Fathul Br, 12/313-314.
 
 12. An-Nis 4/75.
 
 13. Hamad bin Atq an-Najd, Sablun Najt wal Fikk min Muwltil Murtadn wal Atrk, Tahqq: l Furayyn, p. 96.
 
 14. Ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 8/301.
 
 15. Ibnu Atiyyah, Tafsr, 1/420.
 
 16. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 17. Ar-Rz, Tafsr, 11/247.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Regarding Standing in Attention (Shirk of Itikf)

Quote
A mumayyiz child who is in a crowd that is standing in attention whilst reciting the national anthem, keeps moving whilst the national anthem is recited, thereby not standing still in qiyaam in order to do not fall in shirk. If this child gives the impression that he is not standing in attention when others see him, will he be getting rid of the shirk illah of this gathering with what he did? Is this sufficient to be saved from shirk?
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

Nowadays, conducts in schools and other places titled Standing in Attention/Silence/with reverence etc. are contemporary manifestations of the religion of Shirk. With people distancing from the Dn under the influence of laic and secularist movements in the last centuries, the attempt is to replace innate need for worship with such modern paganistic rituals. However, because those who perform these modern rituals do not label their actions as Ibdah, many people who cannot comprehend the nature of Tawhd and Shirk do not show the reaction they manifest to the rituals of Christians and Jews to these Shirk rituals, and they do not keep themselves or their children away from this shirk. Whereas, those who claim to follow Ibrhm Alayhis Salm must be careful with regards to Shirk just like our ancestor Ibrhm Alayhis Salm. For verily, his supplication is as follows,


﴿وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَنْ نَعْبُدَ الْأَصْنَامَ.﴾
And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols![1]

Likewise, the Islmic Ummah has been ordered to save themselves and their families from everything which hurls humanity into Jahannam, primarily Shirk,


﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ.﴾
O you who believe, save yourselves and your families from a fire, the fuel of which is human beings and stones.[2]

Nevertheless, many people who claim to espouse Islm show consent to their children attending such Shirk ceremonies. Whereas showing consent to Kufr is Kufr. Some individuals who attribute themselves to Tawhd claim, with some invalid forceful interpretations, that by attending these ceremonies one will not enter Kufr. Amongst these there are those who claim that the attendees of these rituals do not enter Kufr when they do not sing the Kufr anthem but recite Dus, Srahs, or remain silent; and there are others who claim they will interrupt the ceremony by standing in a manner contradicting the rituals or that by moving some of their limbs, thereby, they do not enter Kufr. All these are statements of individuals who are like the hesitant sheep, as was coined in the Hadth, wandering between mn and Kufr while they are confused about whether they should prefer the Duny or the khirah.


﴿مُذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ لَا إِلَى هَؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَى هَؤُلَاءِ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا.﴾
Wavering between (this and) that, neither here nor there. Whomsoever Allh lets go astray, you shall never find a way for him.[3]

Moreover, these people issue these Fatw without having any knowledge, and thereby, misleading both themselves and others. All of these are statements belonging completely to ignorants or semi-literates, since they cannot attribute these statement to any of the Rabbn (learned) scholars. For this reason, their claims are initially false with respect to the Usl, since these statements were uttered out of ignorance.

Coming to the details of the issue; firstly, it is necessary to define the action in question and to know its nature so that its gravity can be understood. Nowadays, rituals such as standing in silence, standing in attention whilst the national anthem is sung, saluting or pledging allegiance to the flag, oath-taking ceremonies, arranging ceremonies/rituals around statues or graves of national leaders, rituals performed in written and oral forms addressing graves etc. are all in fact, modern versions of the Itikf rituals, meaning rituals comprised of Ibdah (worship), respect, and Tadhm (glorification), performed by the pagan Mushrikn in the era of Jhiliyyah. Allh Azza wa Jalla mentions this Shirk performed by the previous Ummahs as follows,


﴿وَجَاوَزْنَا بِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتَوْا عَلَى قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَى أَصْنَامٍ لَهُمْ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى اجْعَلْ لَنَا إِلَهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ ۞ إِنَّ هَؤُلَاءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَا هُمْ فِيهِ وَبَاطِلٌ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.﴾
And We brought the Children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said, O Ms! Make a deity for us just as they have deities! He said, You are really an ignorant people! Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idols-worship). And all that they are doing is in vain.[4]

Ibnu Jarr at-Tabar Rahmatullhi Alayh interpreted the phrase in the verse,
يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَى أَصْنَامٍ لَهُمْ Devoted to some of their idols (in worship), as follows,

يقومون على مُثُل لهم
They used to do Qiym (stand with reverence) in front of their statues.[5]

Likewise, Allh Azza wa Jalla said narrating from Ibrhm Alayhis Salm,


﴿مَا هَذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنْتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ.﴾
When he said to his father and his people, What are these statues you are devoted to?[6]

In the section related to this yah in his Tafsr, Imm ash-Shfi describes Itikf as the follows,


مَا لَزِمَهُ الْمَرْءُ، فَحَبَسَ عَلَيْهِ نَفْسَهُ: مِنْ شَيْءٍ، بِرًّا كَانَ أَوْ مَأْثَمًا. فَهُوَ: عَاكِفٌ.
If a person adheres to something good or bad, and withholds himself for it, he is an kif (someone who does Itikf).[7]

The same excerpt is narrated from Imm ash-Shfi in the Tafsr of the verse al-Baqarah, 2/187, related to doing Itikf in the Masjid. From this aspect, when a person detains himself in a Masjid for a long or short-term and refraining from dealing with anything other than Ibdah it is called Itikf.

In al-Mufradt, Rghib al-Isfahn explains the word Ukf, mentioned in these verses, as follows,


العُكُوفُ: الاقبال على الشيء وملازمته على سبيل التّعظيم له
Ukf, is turning to something and adhering to it by way of Tadhm.[8]

A person who ponders about the lexical meanings of Itikf and the nature of the Itikf performed by the former-Mushrikn to their idols will bear witness that the ceremonies performed under the banner of standing in attention is no different from them. Today, only the names and functions of the worshipped-deities have changed. In these ceremonies, there are many inward and outward deeds that are performed in Islmic Ibdt such as Qiym, Qirah (recitation), Khush, Tadhm, Du, and sometimes even Ruk. Whoever participates in such a Shirk ritual is a Kfir, even if he alleges to adhere to Islm. An individual who joins an assembly that has come together for an act of Kufr is akin to them in the worldly ruling and the ruling of the hereafter, that is, he is a Kfir; so long as he does not leave that group. All evidences regarding joining the military service of the Tght are exactly valid for this issue. Some who sided with the Mushrikn on the Battle of Badr and did not use weapons against the Muslims were declared Takfr upon merely because they joined the army of the Kuffr. Allhu Tal says,


﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنْتُمْ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا فَأُولَئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا.﴾
Indeed, those whom the angels take (in death) while wronging themselves (the angels) will say, In what (condition) were you? They will say, We were oppressed in the land. The angels will say, Was not the earth of Allh spacious (enough) for you to emigrate therein? For those, their refuge is Jahannam (Hell) - what an evil destination![9]

As mentioned before, al-Bukhr narrated the following in the chapter regarding the Tafsr of this yah,


حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يَزِيدَ المُقْرِئُ، حَدَّثَنَا حَيْوَةُ، وَغَيْرُهُ، قَالاَ: حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَبُو الأَسْوَدِ، قَالَ: قُطِعَ عَلَى أَهْلِ المَدِينَةِ بَعْثٌ، فَاكْتُتِبْتُ فِيهِ، فَلَقِيتُ عِكْرِمَةَ، مَوْلَى ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ، فَنَهَانِي عَنْ ذَلِكَ أَشَدَّ النَّهْيِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: أَنَّ نَاسًا مِنَ المُسْلِمِينَ كَانُوا مَعَ المُشْرِكِينَ يُكَثِّرُونَ سَوَادَ المُشْرِكِينَ، عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، يَأْتِي السَّهْمُ فَيُرْمَى بِهِ فَيُصِيبُ أَحَدَهُمْ، فَيَقْتُلُهُ - أَوْ يُضْرَبُ فَيُقْتَلُ - فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ: {إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ المَلاَئِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ} [النساء: 97] الآيَةَ رَوَاهُ اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ أَبِي الأَسْوَدِ
... Muhammad bin Abdir Rahmn Abul Aswad narrated to us and said: (During the days of Ibnuz Zubayrs caliphate over Makkah,) it was certain that they would get an army prepared from the people of Madnah (to fight against the people of Dimashq). I was also enrolled in this army. Soon after, I met Ikrimah, the freed-slave of Ibnu Abbs. I informed him that I was enrolled in this army. Ikrimah prohibited me severely. Then he said: Ibnu Abbs informed me that:

Some Muslims in the time of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam (who did not migrate and dwelled in Makkah), were with the Mushrikn, increasing their ranks. (During the Battle of Badr), an arrow would strike one of them and would drop him dead, or one of them would be hit and he would drop dead. Thereupon, Allh revealed the yah, Indeed, those whom the angels take (in death) while wronging themselves


Narrated by Layth from Abul Aswad.[10]

On this topic, Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan lush Shaykh says the following,


فتأمل كيف ترتب عليهم هذا الوعيد وأوجب لهم النار؟ وقد ورد أنهم كانوا مكرهين على تكثير سواد المشركين فقط , فكيف بمن كثر سوادهم بغير إكراه وأعان وظاهر, وقال وفعل من غير استضعاف ولا إكراه? أترى بقي مع هذا شيء من الإيمان والحالة هذه ؟.
Contemplate, how can this threat be valid for them and an-Nr (hellfire) be obligatory for them, whereas, it is narrated that they were only coerced to increase the ranks of the Mushrikn. How about those who increase their ranks and helps and supports them without Ikrh, says and performs (these actions) without being in a state of Mustadhaf or Ikrh? Do you think that there is trace of mn left in such person in this situation?[11]

As seen, although the people of Badr did not intend to fight against the Muslimn, Takfr was declared on them merely because they joined an army gathered with this intention, meaning with an intention of Kufr. Anyone who is included in a group aiming Shirk without the state of Ikrh becomes a Kfir, even if they do not perform the acts of Shirk in that assembly.

This is the reason why scholars have stated that the one who attends rituals performed in churches of the Kuffr will fall into Kufr. Regarding the issue, al-Qdh Iydh states the following,

Likewise, we declare Takfr upon every executed action that will not appear except from a Kfir regarding which the Muslimn have made Ijm; even if the doer of the action expresses being an adherent of Islm whilst executing this act. For example, prostrating to an idol, the sun, the moon, the cross, fire, running to synagogues and churches with its people (Jews and Christians), wearing their clothes, whoever wears the Zunnr, and shaves/cuts the middle of the hair and leaving the sides (tonsure) like them. Surely the Muslimn have made Ijm that these cannot be found except in a Kfir, and that these acts are signs of Kufr, even if the doer expresses to be an adherent of Islm.[12]

As seen, even participation in the rites and ceremonies of the Kuffr in their churches is considered an act of Kufr per se. Unless a person leaves that environment freeing himself from their actions, he cannot be safe of Kufr. In this regard, Allhu Tal says,


﴿وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا.﴾
And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qurn) that when you hear the Verses of Allh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allh will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Jahannam.[13]

Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


مَنْ جَامَعَ الْمُشْرِكَ وَسَكَنَ مَعَهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِثْلُهُ
Whoever joins the Mushrik and resides with him, then he is just like him.Ab Dwd, Hadth no. 2787.
 


Hamad bin Atq Rahmatullhi Alayh narrated that when the family of Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb were asked regarding the above-mentioned yah and Hadth, their response was as follows,


الآية على ظاهرها، وهو أن الرجل إذا سمع آيات الله يكفر بها ويستهزأ بها، فجلس عند الكافرين المستهزئين بآيات الله، من غير إكراه ولا إنكار ولا قيام عنهم حتى يخوضوا في حديث غيره، فهو كافر مثلهم، وإن لم يفعل فعلهم، لأن ذلك يتضمن الرضى بالكفر، والرضى بالكفر كفر.
وبهذه الآية ونحوها، استدل العلماء على أن الراضي بالذنب كفاعله، فإن أدعى أنه يكره ذلك بقلبه لم يقبل منه، لأن الحكم بالظاهر، وهو قد أظهر الكفر، فيكون كافرا.
ولهذا لما وقعت الردة، وأدعى أناس أنهم كرهوا ذلك، لم يقبل منهم الصحابة ذلك بل جعلوهم كلهم مرتدين، إلا من أنكر بلسانه.
وكذلك قوله في الحديث: ( من جامع المشرك وسكن معه فإنه مثله ) على ظاهره: وهو أن الذي يدعي الإسلام، ويكون مع المشركين في الاجتماع والنصرة، والمنزل معهم بحيث يعده المشركون منهم، فهو كافر مثلهم وإن أدعى الإسلام، إلا إن كان يظهر دينه، ولا يتولى المشركين.
The (meaning of this) yah is upon its Dhhir, which is that when a man hears the verses of Allh being rejected and being mocked, and thereafter sits with the Kuffr who mock the verses of Allh without coercion, rejection, or getting up and leaving them until they delve in speaking about another topic, then he is a Kfir just like them -even if he did not do what they did. This is because this encompasses being pleased with Kufr, and being pleased with Kufr is Kufr.

The scholars drew conclusions from this verse and its likes that the one who is pleased with a sin is like its doer. If such person were to claim he dislikes this with his heart, then it is not accepted from him. This is because the ruling is according to the Dhhir, and such person has manifested Kufr, thereby has become a Kfir.

For this reason, when the Riddah (apostasy) took place, and some people claimed that they disliked this, the Sahbah did not accept this excuse from them. Rather, they deemed all of them to be Murtaddn; except for those who rejected it with his tongue.

Likewise, the following statement of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam is upon its Dhhir:


مَنْ جَامَعَ الْمُشْرِكَ وَسَكَنَ مَعَهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِثْلُهُ
Whoever joins the Mushrik and resides with him, then he is just like him.[14]

This is that the one who claims to adhere to Islm and is with the Mushrikn in their gatherings and help, and his status is with them so that the Mushrikn account him as one of them, then he is Kfir just as they are; even if he claims to adhere to Islm, except if he manifests his Dn and does not befriend the Mushrikn.[15]

In short, a person who attends the rituals of the Mushrikn becomes a Kfir for the sole reason of being present at that group, even if he does not do the actions they commit. In order to avoid entering Kufr, he must leave the mentioned assembly of Kufr. Moreover, such situations generally occur in schools and other institutions of the Kuffr. As the individual claiming to be a Muslim would not have anything to do with the Jhil educational institutions, such individual would not send their children to such institutions. The only malady here is not the mentioned rituals of Kufr and Shirk. In these so-called educational institutions, Kufr is propagated day-and-night. Assuming that none of these occur, how could a Muslim surrender his child to the Kuffr? Whereas, he was ordered to protect his child from the fire!


﴿أُولَئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ.﴾
They (the Mushrikn) invite to the Fire[16]

Finally, you denoted a notion called the Mumayyiz child. The Mumayyiz child is one who possesses Tamyz, meaning, the ability to distinguish between right and wrong, and generally, the age of Tamyz is seven. Depending on the situation, the age may be older or younger, but the majority of the scholars consider the Tamyz period as the period between the ages of seven until the child reaches the state of qil Bligh (rational and maturity). However, whether the child is at the age of Tamyz or not does not have much of an impact on our issue from the perspective of the guardian of the child. For, whether the child is Mumayyiz or not, the guardian who consents to the child committing Kufr will be a Kfir. According to some scholars, when a child who reaches the age of Tamyz commits an act of Kufr, the child too becomes a Kfir, but the punishment of Irtidd (apostasy) is not implemented until the child reaches Bulgh (puberty). Lately, weve been hearing about some people differentiating between the Mumayyiz child and the non-Mumayyiz child thus humming and hawing regarding this issue. We do not know what their exact intent is, and in fact, we are not even curious because all of these are theories which have no value of Ilm and are put forward by some ignorant heretics who do not know the religion and do not act upon it. No child can be sent to the schools of the Kuffr, whether the child is Mumayyiz or not. Apart from a child, even an adult Muslim is obliged to protect himself from environments where Kufr and Harm overflow like rivers.

In this end of times wherein a person leaves his home in the morning as a Mumin and returns at night as a Kfir, while unconfident of himself even on the street, sending children -who do not understand anything- to the Madrasahs of Fasd (corruption) wherein Kufr reaches its peak, thereafter, debating over its Fiqh ruling, is one of the signs of turning away from the Dn and deviating from it.

Wallhu Alam. Wal Hamdulillhi Rabbil lamn.
 1. Ibrhm 14/35.
 
 2. At-Tahrm 66/6.
 
 3. An-Nis 4/143.
 
 4. Al-Arf 7/138-139.
 
 5. At-Tabar, Tafsr, 13/80.
 
 6. Al-Anbiy 21/52.
 
 7. Ahkmul Qurn lish Shfi, compiled by al-Bayhaq, 1/110.
 
 8. Rghib al-Isfahn, al-Mufradt f Gharbil Qurn, p. 579.
 
 9. An-Nis 4/97.
 
 10. Al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 4596.
 
 11. Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan lush Shaykh, al-Mawridul Adhabudh Dhull, p. 311.
 
 12. Kitbu Shif bi Sharhi Nrid Dn al-Qr, 2/518.
 
 13. An-Nis 4/140.
 
 14. Ab Dwd, Hadth no. 2787.
 
 15. Hamad bin Atq an-Najd, Sablun Najt wal Fikk min Muwltil Murtadn wal Atrk, Tahqq: l Furayyn, p. 78-79.
 
 16. Al-Baqarah 2/221.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Monetarily Supporting and Preparing the Lunchbox of Children Who Attend the Schools of the Kuffr

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Can the lunchbox be prepared for children going to school? The children are not ours, nor are we the ones sending them to school
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

Allhu Tala said in Sratun Nis, verse 85,


﴿مَنْ يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً حَسَنَةً يَكُنْ لَهُ نَصِيبٌ مِنْهَا وَمَنْ يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَكُنْ لَهُ كِفْلٌ مِنْهَا.﴾
Whoever intercedes for a good cause will have a share (i.e., reward) therefrom; and whoever intercedes for an evil cause will have a portion (i.e., burden) therefrom.

Now, we invite every sane individual who has not completely cut off his relation with the Dn to ponder upon this yah. Is it a good thing or bad thing for a child to attend the schools established by the Tght, to infuse his little mind with Kufr, Shirk, and every type of Munkar, and display Tadhm to idols and the symbols of the Tght? There is no point in discussing this with someone who says that all of these are good and nice things. However, a person who accepts that the actions of the child in school are bad and wrong will have accepted that if he mediates for this Munkar, he also gets his Kifl, meaning share from that as mentioned in the yah. A lunchbox cannot be merely evaluated as feeding a child. Just like giving food to the soldiers of the Tght cannot be merely evaluated as an ordinary act, this is the same since it means contributing to someone who is doing something Munkar. In this regards, scholars stated that a person cannot take his Kfir mother to church, but can bring her back home from church. Such Fatw are found in al-Fatwl Hindiyyah and similar books of the books of Hanaf Fiqh. In short, it is not permissible to prepare a lunchbox or to help children who go to worship idols in the schools of Kufr. In this respect, it does not make any difference whether the child is the child of a Muslim or Kfir parent, because after all, there exists a mediation for Shirk. If such things are done with contentment and acceptance of Kufr, it will be Kufr. Wallhu Alam!
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Does giving money to a child who attends school, for him to eat and drink, mean supporting kufr? For some say that supporting a kafir with wealth is kufr, because they say that, giving money to a child to eat or drink is helping him in kufr. This is why they say it is kufr.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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In this respect, it is not permissible to help a child who attends the schools of the Tght. If the person who does this is the guardian of the child, he becomes a Kfir, since he shows consent to Kufr, as the guardian is responsible for the actions of the child who is not Mukallaf. Therefore, if the child does something from the scope of Kufr or Harm with the permission of his guardian, the guardian will receive the ruling as if he was the one who performed that act. If such person is not the guardian of the child, what he does is still impermissible. Regarding his Takfr, he is judged according to his action and intention. If the action he does not mean anything but accepting Kufr, he will become a Kfir.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Ruling of Attending University

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Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Rahim.

Ive been following your website for a long time and would like to say that I find you close to me in matters related to aqeedah. As for my question:

According to you, what is the ruling of studying at a university and being a student in these schools? I know your opinion on the ruling of studying in schools below the degree of university and those who send children to these schools, and also I agree with you about the issue of attending schools as well as the issue of joining the military, but I could not find your opinion about attending universities although I did search your website.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm,

There is no such concept as university in Islm. Therefore, there is no Aqdah based on this, that is, a separate Aqdah regarding university, a separate Aqdah regarding high school, etc. are out of question. Rulings such as declaring Takfr upon those who enroll in an institution depends on the reasons that exist in the institution in question. Otherwise, a ruling cannot be given that it is Kufr or not, just because the institution bears the name of university etc. in an issue which Nass does not exist. In the end, universities are institutions belonging to the Tght and are institutions with many Munkar in them. A Muslim person should not have anything to do with the university or any other educational institution of the Tght. What we are saying is general, but when it comes to the Takfr of those who do attend university; this depends on the actions of the people in question. It is obvious to the people of Hikmah how difficult it is for a person to keep his mn while walking down the street let alone keeping his mn in an institution such as university, which is an educational institution of the Tght. However, as is known, the rulings of Takfr in Islm are not based on probabilities and possibilities. In general, we disconnect ourselves from everybody involved in the educational institutions of the Tght, but this person entering Kufr will only exist when his actions of Kufr are apparent, such as sitting quietly in gatherings of Kufr; performing acts that mean affirming Kufr through words, writing and deeds, etc. As we denoted in the beginning, when making judgments on current issues that do not have an explicit Nass regarding it, we look at the Illah of the issues in question, not the names. People should no longer argue about names and learn the Illah of Kufr explained in the Kitb and the Sunnah and concentrate on this area.

The one who learns the basis of mn and Kufr will be able to apply this Usl in every issue he faces, because he has an Usl in his hand. Wallhu Alam.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Principle: Showing Consent to Kufr is Kufr is an Issue from Aslud Dn

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My question is, if you know quotes of the scholars about the issue of sitting silently with kuffar, whilst they mock the religion or do other kinds of disbelief. I know, this  is obliously kufr, but my question is moreover, if the scholars said something with regard to wether this judgement was labeled to be tawqeefi or wether they counted it to the Asl, so that this ruling needs to be known even by someone who has no access to the hujjah?
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm,

First of all, if you are to search for a statement regarding every action of Kufr being from Aslud Dn, you will not be able to find it. Besides, there is no need for such. For you to comprehend this, you need to know what mn and Kufr is and the difference between them, meaning, you actually have to be Muslim to understand, because the one who does not know the Kufr he needs to reject, cannot be Muslim. However, I will still try to summarize the matter for you.

Kufr is the opposite of mn. Thus, any action contradicting mn, which cannot be imagined to be performed by a Muslim, is Kufr. Since showing consent to Kufr is Kufr, this means that it is an action that will not be performed by a Muslim. Namely, an individual who has mn cannot sit in a gathering in which the Dn is being mocked and ridiculed; his mn and love of Allh will prevent this. If this individual continues to sit quietly in such gatherings, this means that such person has no mn, love for the Dn, and Bugdh (hatred) for Kufr.

If you pay attention, all of these are related with the actions of the heart, there is nothing regarding Ilm nor Hujjah here, there is nothing to necessitate them either, as they are all matters related to the Fitrah (innate nature).

In reality, regardless of how many types of Kufr crosses your mind they are all like this, in example taking the Kuffr as Awliy. If you want to comprehend this, you must comprehend the views of Ahlus Sunnah regarding mn. According to Ahlus Sunnah, the unison between the Dhhir and the Btin is a principle, meaning, if an individual shows Kufr in his Dhhir, this means that Kufr also exists in his Btin.

An individual who understands this will not presume any possibility that one could remain Mumin due to ignorance while quietly sitting and listening to the Dn being mocked and ridiculed. The necessary relation between the Dhhir and the Btin have been described in great detail by Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahmatullhi Alayh in his Majmul Fatw, volume 7 and as-Srimul Masll. These are matters of great importance. However, they are matters most people of today are unaware of.

In short, neither consent to Kufr nor any other type of Kufr similar to this cannot be Tawqf in the sense of being known only by Hujjah. mn and Kufr are not variable; they are the same in the Sharah of every Rasl. Claiming that abrogation could occur in them is in opposition to the intellect and the Naql (narrative). Wallhu Alam.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

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The Ruling of a Child Being Present at Environments of Kufr

Quote from: QUESTION
Salamun Alaykum. Ive been following your website for a long time. Because I trust your knowledge, I want to ask you about a topic Im not able to settle. First of all, sending a child to school is Kufr as a result of consenting to the child being present in an environment of Kufr. So, is this reason valid for every setting where mushriks are present? For example, I sent my child to the market to buy bread. While my child is in that environment a setting of Kufr formed, and my child continued to stay there. Now, would I be a kafir because I was unable to protect my child here? In the interpretation of the verse Tahrim 6, it is mentioned that we should protect our children in the same way we protect ourselves from shirk and kufr. Is the intention regarding protecting them in places where it is known to be a setting of kufr or is it inclusive of all settings where there is even a suspicion of kufr?  Us having to protect our children from all kinds of shirk and kufr environments, which environments is this regarding? Are there statements of scholars regarding this protection? I would appreciate it if you can help on the subject.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Wa Alaykum. Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

ANSWER:

First of all, I advise everyone like you who is interested in such issues to first learn the basis of the religion, which will help understanding these issues, before delving in issues such as attendance in schools and other current issues. Today, unfortunately many people claiming to be Dut focus their Dawah on such specific issues and neglect the basic concepts of Tawhd. As a result, masses have emerged who call the attendance to schools, the military, seeking judgement, etc. Kufr but cannot even capture the very reason of Kufr in these matters.

After all, in Islm there isnt a distinct type of Kufr labelled as attending school. Today, if the existence of Kufr is mentioned to be found in educational institutions belonging to the Tght and Kuffr, this is not solely due to the name, but the Illah (reason) that the name carries. These Illah are the likes of uttering words of Kufr, attending such assemblies, or extolling idols. If these Illah are manifested somewhere other than schools, the same ruling of Kufr is actualized there as well. If these do not exist, the ruling of Kufr will not materialize. The Illah of Kufr found in schools is not that it is a place belonging to the Kuffr and where they are the majority. On the contrary, the Illah is the actualization of actions of Kufr and Shirk -which we mentioned- in an inevitable intensity. So much so that these acts are not exceptions, but the rule itself in Madrasahs of Fasd (corruption). Therefore, it is not necessary to prove that a person who is present in such environments has committed these acts, on the contrary, one who claims to not commit these acts must prove it. This is not the case in markets etc. Therefore, comparing the two would be an invalid analogy.

Nevertheless, the ruling in the verse Tahrm 6, which means Protect yourself and your family from fire is general. This verse indicates that the head of the family should protect those under his custody not only from Kufr, but all kinds of deeds which are dispraised in the religion, such as Bidah, Harm, Makrh, suspicious, and so on.

In this context, those who are careless regarding where their spouse and children frequent are condemned and therefore liable. However, this does not mean that they will enter Kufr or Harm due to deeds their children do without the knowledge of their parents. As in the case of a parent who encourages his child to steal or overlooks him stealing, if a person explicitly consents to an act of Harm or Kufr committed by his child, he will commit Harm or enter the fold of Kufr depending on the type of act committed. This includes places such as educational institutions belonging to the Kuffr.

Apart from these, in general, children should not be left uncontrolled randomly at places such as the bazaar, market, street, or with their Kfir relatives. If they must do so, then this should only be done after the necessary prompting and education is given.

When the child commits Kufr or Harm, if he did so with the encouragement, direction, or consent of his parents, they are held responsible for the act committed by the child. As was clarified in verse an-Nahl 106, But those who (willingly) open their breasts to disbelief, a person only becomes Kfir when he opens his heart to Kufr, accepts it, and shows consent to it. If the child utters Kufr in the presence of his guardian and his guardian does not object to it, or as in the example of schools, if his guardian knows that his child will commit Kufr words and deeds and knowingly sends his child to such place, he will become a Kfir. This is because all of these denote that he shows content to Kufr. The rule consent to Kufr is Kufr, consent to Harm is Harm, which the scholars have consensus regarding, necessitates this. If the child does not have the consent and permission of the guardian for the sins or Kufr he committed, the guardian will not have any sin in this.

For, as was stated in the verse, no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.[1] If they have a negligence in the childs education, they are condemned because of this, but if they do not consent to the act that the child has committed, they do not bear the sin of this act, they only bear the sin of not disciplining the child in general.

You requested a statement from the scholars regarding the protection of children. I want to give a single example of this. Many scholars did not consider it permissible to give the child to his Kfir mother because of the concern that she may make him commit non-Islmic acts. Those who permitted it stated that it is necessary to prevent the mother from prompting her child to such acts, and if she cannot be prevented, the child will not even be given to his Kfir mother. One of the Hanaf jurists Badrud Dn al-Ayn states the following in his commentary on the work named al-Hidyah,


(والذمية أحق بولدها المسلم، ما لم يعقل الأديان) ش: فإن عقل الأديان يؤخذ منها، ويدفع إلى الأب، وبه قال مالك في المشهور وأبو القاسم وأبو ثور، وتمنع أن تغذيه بالخمر ولحم الخنزير، وإن خيف ضم إليه ناس من المسلمين. وقال الشافعي وأحمد: لا حضانة لها وهي رواية عن مالك. م: (أو يخاف أن يألف الكفر)
Text: The Dhimm (a Jew or Christian living under Islmic rule) woman has more right to take care of her Muslim child, as long as her child does not understand (the difference between) religions.

Commentary: If the child understands religions, the child is taken from the mother and delivered to the father. This was stated by Mlik in his famous view, as well as Abul Qsim and Ab Thawr. However, the woman is prevented from feeding the child with alcohol and pork. If this is feared, he is united with (put under the guardianship of) a group of Muslims. Ash-Shfi and Ahmad said that she does not have the right of guardianship. This view was also reported from Mlik.

Text: Or if it is feared that Kufr will be accustomed to him[2]

As understood from al-Ayns statements, although the Hanafs allow Dhimm women to undertake the guardianship of her own child until the child is able to realize things, if there is concern that she will make the child do Harm acts, the child is taken away from her. Besides, it is impermissible for the Kfir women to undertake the guardianship of her child according to the Shfis and Hanbals, which is the preferred view, Allhu alam. In the chapter on guardianship found in the final section of Zdul Mad, Ibnul Qayyim Rahmatullhi Alayh preferred and proved this view. However, all scholars have made Ijm that a child cannot be permitted to commit acts of Harm and Kufr.

The reason for mentioning this is to reveal the importance of the issue in the eyes of the Islmic Sharah. Otherwise, as we said above, the childs guardian entering Kufr when the child goes to church, or the childs guardian committing Harm when the child eats pork is only in question when they are careless regarding these and consent to it. Anyhow, the scholars did not mention that a person who surrenders his child to a Kfir women will fall into Kufr because of the existence of mere possibilities. The ruling of Takfr is given according to clear words and deeds, not according to probabilities. However, this quotation reveals that precautions should be taken which will hinder the child before he falls into such a situation. Wallhu alam.
 1. An-Najm 53/38.
 
 2. Al-Ayn, al-Binyah Sharhul Hidyah, 5/651.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Quote from: QUESTION
Your answers to my question were beneficial. Thank you very much for helping. I have a few more questions related to the subject. The reason why I ask about continuity is to avoid misconception about the subject. What I understand from the information you gave is, if there is no content, inducement, or prompting for a kufr setting by the father, then the father is not responsible. You mentioned that the child should be sent to places such as the bazaar and market after giving religious knowledge, but what is the situation of a young child who has not been given religious knowledge? I go to visit my mushrik family and am cautious to not leave my child alone with them. As it is human nature, I went to the bathroom to take care of my needs. While I was there, my mushrik family uttered words of kufr next to my child, who is too young to understand. I have no consent or prompting for this. I just left to take care of my need and did not know about this kufr environment. Is it possible I become a kafir here? Will I be resurrected as a kafir in the sight of Allah because I did not have knowledge of this? I mean, what I understand from your evidence is that the father does not become a kafir. You have said that the father who is irresponsible of where his wife and child go would be condemned. Please do correct me if Im mistaken. Before I asked you, I believed that the father in such situation would be a kafir. And I used to make Takfr of those who did not accept that such person is kafir.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

Answer:

Firstly, may Allh guide you and others who hold the false creed you have mentioned. If those who spread this doctrine fell into this situation out of ignorance, may Allh guide them, however, if they intentionally do this, may Allh treat them as they deserve, mn.

As I mentioned in the previous article, the fate of everyone who begins to learn Tawhd from modern-day issues and not from its basis and thinks that they will enter the fold of the religion by memorizing slogan statements as attending school is Kufr, joining the military is Kufr without even learning what Kufr and Shirk are and without comprehending the issues in question, is wavering between Ifrt (extremism) and Tafrt (negligence) in this manner. Such questions have been asked before. We do not know who exactly it is, but it seems as if there is a network designed to spread such deviance.

If you were to start discussing another Itiqd issue with this group who -by delving in Ifrt- argue that the parents of the child who utters Kufr or attends gatherings of Kufr without their information will be Kfir, it is possible to witness that this time they do not label clear-cut Kufr as Kufr! This is because today, people who put forward beliefs between Ifrt and Tafrt do so because they do not know Tawhd and are unaware of the boundaries of mn and Kufr.

If you do not draw a lesson from this and start studying knowledge, even if you were to solve the issue you are talking about today, you may deviate once again in another similar issue or you may still have false beliefs that exist. Therefore, our advice to you is to take this event as a turning point and urgently start attaining knowledge regarding the basis of Tawhd. In this respect, you may view our article entitled, Warning and Advice to Those Who Just Began to Learn Tawhd.

As we have previously explained, only a person who does not know the reality of Kufr will believe that a parent will become a Kfir merely by the act of his child. A person who does not recognise Kufr cannot reject Kufr and cannot know the opposite of Kufr, namely mn; therefore, such person cannot become Muslim. Our statements regarding parents who neglect the education and upbringing of their children are general, and the ruling of Kufr cannot be extracted from this. The ruling of Kufr will only be intact for the one who opens his breast to Kufr, likes it, or at the least is not disturbed by it. If a mother or father is careless if his/her child entered Kufr and is careless regarding which Aqdah the child espouses, then this is undoubtedly an indicative sign of consent to Kufr. However, this must be proved with clear-cut evidences; Takfr cannot be performed by interpreting deeds with assumptions and guessing. Someone who is uncomfortable with the conveyance of the news of his childs presence at a gathering of Kufr and states that he was unaware of this and that he would have intervened if he was aware of it, is obviously not content with Kufr. Such persons condition is at the least outwardly like this, and Allh Azza wa Jalla is the One who knows what is in the hearts. Now, with what evidence can this person be declared Takfr upon?

These kinds of things can sometimes be caused by Nifq (hypocrisy), but unless it is established that one opened his heart to Kufr, signs of Nifq existing in the person or negligence towards the upbringing of his child are not evidences for Takfr. If the issues were so simple, the Munfiqn (hypocrites) who lived in the era of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam would have been declared Takfr upon solely on the basis of certain signs. However, many of them were released due to insufficient evidence. Inshllh, this issue is sufficiently clarified. Wallhul Mustan.
Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim. (Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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