دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

Author Topic: A PAMPHLET REGARDING THE TWO TYPES OF HYPOCRISY - MUHAMMAD BIN ABD'IL WAHHB  (Read 259 times)

Izhr'ud Dn

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رِسَالَةٌ فيِ النِّفَاقِ بِقِسْمَيْهِ وصِفَاتِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ[1]

A PAMPHLET REGARDING THE TWO TYPES OF HYPOCRISY
& THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HYPOCRITES
[2]

Shaykh'ul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh


 1. 
اَلْجَوَاهِرُ الْمُضِيَّةُ، 12-14 (فِي: مَجْمُوعَةِ الرَّسَائِلِ وَالْمَسَائِلِ النَّجْدِيَّةِ، 12/4-14).
 
 2. Al-Jawhirul Mudhiyyah, 12-14 (inside Majmatur Rasil wal Masilin Najdiyyah, 4/12-14); also ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 1/190-193.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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رِسَالَةٌ فيِ النِّفَاقِ بِقِسْمَيْهِ وصِفَاتِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ

A PAMPHLET REGARDING
THE TWO TYPES OF NIFQ (HYPOCRISY)
AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MUNFIQN
(PL. OF MUNFIQ; HYPOCRITES)


اَلنِّفَاقُ الْأَكْبَرُ وَالْأَصْغَرُ

An-Nifqul Akbar wal Asghar
(The Major and the Minor Hypocrisy)

Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb, may Allh place him into al-Firdawsul Al (the Higher Paradise), stated,

May Allh have mercy upon you, know that since Allhu Tal sent Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam and honoured him with Hijrah (migration) and victory, the people have become three groups:

1.   A Group of Muminn (pl. of Mumin; believers): these are those who believed in Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam both in the Dhhir and the Btin (externally and internally).

2.   A Group of Kuffr (pl. of Kfir; disbelievers): these are those who openly manifest their rejection of Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

3.   A Group of Munfiqn: Those who externally (seem to) believe in Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam while they dont believe in him inwardly (in their inner world).

This is why Allhu Tal opened Sratul Baqarah with four verses regarding the descriptions of the Muminn, two verses regarding the descriptions of the Kuffr, and thirteen verses regarding the descriptions of the Munfiqn. Every single one from mn, Kufr, and Nifq have pillars and divisions, as the Qurn and the Sunnah have denoted, and just as Al bin Ab Tlib Radiyallhu Anh explained it in the Hadth narrated from him.

From the types of Nifq is an-Nifqul Akbar (Major Hypocrisy), and its perpetrators will be in the lowest depths of an-Nr (the fire i.e., Hell-fire)[1], like the Nifq of Abdullh bin Ubayy and others. To manifest belying the Rasl, rejecting some of what the Rasl came with, hating the Rasl, lacking the belief of the necessity of following the Rasl, rejoicing at the downfall of the Dn (religion) of the Rasl, or feeling sad at the victories of his Dn, and so on are traits that can only be found in an enemy of Allh and His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

These traits were present at the time of the Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and increased greatly after his time. This is because the requirements of mn were stronger in his time. If Nifq was still present (in that era) while the requirements of mn were stronger, it is more befitting for the existence of Nifq in a later era wherein mn is weaker.

This is a type of an-Nifqul Akbar (The Major Hypocrisy). We seek refuge in Allh (from this).

When it comes to an-Nifqul Asghar, it is the Nifq in al-Aml (pl. Amal i.e., deeds) and its likes, such as to lie while speaking, to prove treacherous when he makes an agreement, or to betray when entrusted. This is because of the famous Hadth narrated from him [mentioned in the Sahhayn (i.e., the two Sahh; Sahhul Bukhr and Sahh Muslim)][2], Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam stated,

آيَةُ الْمُنَافِقِ ثَلَاثٌ: إِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ، وَإِذَا وَعَدَ أَخْلَفَ، وَإِذَا ائْتُمِنَ خَانَ، وَإِنْ صَلَّى وَصَامَ، وَزَعَمَ أَنَّهُ مُسْلِمٌ.

The signs of the Munfiq are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes an agreement, he proves treacherous; and when he is entrusted, he betrays, even if he offers the Salh (daily obligatory prayers), fasts, and claims that he is a Muslim.[3]

صِفَاتُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ

The Characteristics of the Munfiqn

Turning away from Jihd (striving/fighting in the cause/path of Allh) is also from this category, since it is from the traits of the Munfiqn, because Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam stated,

Whoever dies without having fought or thought of fighting (did not aspire to fight in the path of Allh) has died upon a branch of Nifq. Narrated by Muslim.[4]

Allh revealed the Srah Barah (at-Tawbah), called al-Fdihah (the Exposer) because it exposed the Munfiqn, as Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anh said,

It is al-Fdihah (the Exposer); it continued to reveal as And from amongst them, from amongst them until the people began to think that nobody will be left (unexposed) except that he is mentioned in it.[5]

Al-Miqdd Ibnul Aswad Radiyallhu Anh said,

It is Sratul Bahth (The Chapter on Probing), since it probes into the secrets of the Munfiqn.[6]

Qatdah Rahimahullh said,

It is al-Muthrah (the revealer), since it brought forth the shame of the Munafiqn.[7]

This Srah was revealed on the final (military) campaign of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam on the day of the Tabk Expedition. Allhu Tal had honoured and enlightened Islm. He exposed in this battle the condition of the Munfiqn and described them with cowardliness and miserliness. As for cowardliness: it is abandoning Jihd, and as for miserliness: it is regarding spending in the cause/path of Allh.

Allhu Tal stated,

وَلاَ يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللّٰهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَهُمْ.

And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allh has bestowed on them of His Bounty (Wealth) think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them (l-i Imrn 3/180)

In addition, He Tal stated,

وَمَنْ يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفًا لِقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِنَ اللهِ.

And whoever turns his back to them on such a day -unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allh (al-Anfl 8/16)

As for Allhu Tal characterizing them with cowardice and being terrified in this expedition, He Tal stated,

And they take an oath by Allh that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are terrified. If they could find a refuge (at-Tawbah 9/56-57), meaning, they would take refuge in places such as fortresses and shelters.

or caves (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, they would seep away (hide) in them as water seeps away.

or any place to enter (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, these are places which are difficult to enter, even if it would be with difficulty and hardship;

they would turn to it (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, (they would escape therein) from Jihd.

while they run heedlessly (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, they would run a running that nothing can turn them back, just like a running horse which cannot be turned back once its bridled when it carries weight.[8]

Allhu Tal stated:

إنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ.

The believers are only the ones who have believed in Allh and His Rasl and then doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives in the cause of Allh; they are the ones who are truthful. (al-Hujurt 49/15)

Allhu Tal has restricted the Muminn to those have mn and those who do Jihd. Allhu Tal said,

لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ.

Those who believe in Allh and the Last Day would not ask you permission to be exempted (at-Tawbah 9/44)

This[9] (and the two yt which follow it) is a notification from Allh that a Mumin (Believer) does not seek permission (to be exempted) to abandon Jihd, for only those who do not have mn  seek permission to be exempted. If this is the case, what is the situation of those who abandon Jihd without permission?

Allhu Tal has said regarding their characteristic of stinginess,

وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَنْ تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ.

And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them (at-Tawbah 9/54) until His statement,

وَلاَ يُنْفِقُونَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ.

and that they do not contribute other than in a state of unwillingness. (at-Tawbah 9/54)[10]

If this is the criticism of Allh Tabraka wa Tal about those who contribute unwillingly; how about those who refuse to contribute from the beginning?

Allhu Tal has also informed that when the Munfiqn came close to Madnah, they sometimes say regarding the Muminn,

This has befallen us because of your misfortune. You called the people to this Dn. You fought and opposed them due to this Dn.

Sometimes, they would say,

You indicated that we stay here, however, if we had traveled with you, this would not have stricken us.

Sometimes, they would say,

You want to disperse your enemies although you are little in number and weak. Your Dn has deluded you.

Sometimes, they would say,

You are out of intellect and absent-minded. You want to destroy yourselves and those people with you.

Sometimes they would say similar words, which are evil. Allh Azza wa Jalla has informed about them with His following statement,

يَحْسَبُونَ الأَحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا وَإِنْ يَأْتِ الأَحْزَابُ يَوَدُّوا لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ بَادُونَ فِي الْأَعْرَابِ يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ أَنْبَائِكُمْ وَلَوْ كَانُوا فِيكُمْ مَا قَاتَلُوا إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً.

They think that the Confederates have not yet withdrawn, and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, seeking news about you (from a far place); and if they (happen) to be among you, they would not fight but little. (al-Ahzb 33/20)

Allh Tabraka wa Tal has characterized them with three characteristics:

The First Characteristic: Due to their fear [them being terrified of the Confederates][11], they think the Confederates have not (yet) withdrawn from the city; this is the condition of the coward who has disease in his heart, for the hearts of such people are embarked upon confirming the frightening news and belying the news of trust.

The Second Characteristic: When the Confederates come, they would wish that they were not amongst you, rather they wish that they were in the desert among the Bedouins, inquiring (from afar) about your news asking, What news is there regarding Madnah, what is the situation of the people?

The Third Characteristic: When the Confederates came while they are amongst you, they would not fight except for a little.

These three characteristics suit most of the people.

ANNOTATIONS
 1. Thus, Allhu Tal stated,

﴿إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ.﴾ [النساء: 145]
Verily, the Munfiqn (hypocrites) will be in the lowest depths of the Fire (an-Nis 4/145)

 
 2. The addition in parenthesis is found in ad-Durarus Saniyyah.
 
 3. Muslim, Hadth 59; narrated from Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh.
 
 4. With similar wording, Muslim, Hadth 1910; narrated from Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh.
 
 5. With similar wording, al-Bukhr, Hadth 4882; Muslim, Hadth 3031.
 
 6. When Miqdd Radiyallhu Anh was asked why he went out for Jihd although he was in a difficult situation, the response he gave to the questioners was recorded in many sources as,

أَتَتْ عَلَيْنَا سُورَةُ الْبَحُوثِ ﴿اِنْفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً.﴾ [التوبة: 41] .

Sratul Bahth (The Chapter on Probing), came to us. (Then recited the following yah) March forth whether it is easy or difficult for you!.. (at-Tawbah 9/41)

At-Tabar Rahimahullh and Ibnu Ab Htim Rahimahullh made Takhrj (extraction) of this narration in the exegesis of this yah.
 
 7. It is narrated that Qatdah Rahimahullh stated,

كَانَتْ هٰذِهِ السُّورَةُ تُسَمَّى:الْفَاضِحَةُ -فَاضِحَةُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ- وَكَانَ يُقَالُ لَهَا: الْمُثِيرَةُ -أَنْبَأَتْ بِمَثَالِبِهِمْ وَعَوْرَاتِهِمْ-.

This Srah was named al-Fdihah (the Exposer): it exposed the Munfiqn. It was also called al-Muthrah (the revealer): it informed their faults and their defects.

Ibnu Ab Htim Rahimahullh, related this narration in the explanation of the following yah Say: (Go ahead and) mock! But certainly Allh will bring to light all that you fear. (at-Tawbah 9/64)
 
 8. The verses in full read,

﴿وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللّٰهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ وَلٰـكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 56-57]

And they take an oath by Allh that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are terrified. If they could find a refuge or caves or any place to enter, they would turn to it while they run heedlessly. (at-Tawbah 9/56-57)
 
 9. The two verses in full read,

﴿لاَ يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَن يُجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَاللّٰهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ ۞ إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 45-44]

Those who believe in Allh and the Last Day would not ask you permission to be exempted from fighting with their wealth and their lives, and Allh is Knowing of al-Muttaqn (the pious). It is only those who believe not in Allh and the Last Day and whose hearts are in doubt that ask you permission (to be exempted from fighting). So in their doubts they waver. (at-Tawbah 9/44-45)
 
 10. The yah in full is as follows,

﴿وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللّٰهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ وَلاَ يَأْتُونَ الصَّلاَةَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كُسَالَى وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 54]

And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allh and in His Rasl (Messenger Muhammad); and they do not come to the Salh (daily prayers) other than in a state of laziness; and that they do not contribute other than in a state of unwillingness. (at-Tawbah 9/54)
 
 11. The addition in parenthesis is found in ad-Durarus Saniyyah, in place of the phrase their fear.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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