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Izhr'ud Dn

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THE GUIDANCE OF RASLULLH REGARDING CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
« on: 19.03.2020, 03:58:56 AM »



بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ
The Guidance of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam Regarding Contagious Diseases

Ibnul Qayyim, Zdul Mad

Prepared by: Muhammed Selefy






Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

﴿فَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ، فَلَا تَدْخُلُوا عَلَيْهِ، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ.﴾
So when you hear that the Tn (plague) has struck a land, do not enter that land, and if it breaks out in a land that you are residing in, do not go out of that area escaping from it. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 3473; Muslim, Hadth no. 2218)






The Guidance of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam Regarding the Tn (Plague), its Medicine, and His Precaution from it[1]

It is narrated in the Sahhayn (two Sahhs; i.e. Sahh of al-Bukhr and Sahh of Muslim) from mir bin Sad bin Ab Waqqs who heard his father asking Usmah bin Zayd Radiyallhu Anhum, What did you hear from Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam regarding Tn? Usmah Radiyallhu Anh said: Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

الطَّاعُونُ رِجْزٌ أُرْسِلَ عَلَى طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ، وَعَلَى مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ، فَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ، فَلَا تَدْخُلُوا عَلَيْهِ، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ
Tn is a punishment that was sent down from Allh on some of the Ban Isrl (Children of Israel) and upon those who were before you. So when you hear that it has struck a land, do not enter that land, and if it breaks out in a land that you are residing in, do not go out of that area escaping from it. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 3473; Muslim, Hadth no. 2218)

It is narrated in the Sahhayn from Hafsah bin Srn that she said: Anas bin Mlik Radiyallhu Anh said: Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

الطَّاعُونُ شَهَادَةٌ لِكُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ
Tn is Shhadah (martyrdom) for every Muslim. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 2830, 5732; Muslim, Hadth no. 1916)

Linguistically, Tn is a type of epidemic. This was stated by the author of as-Sihh.

According to doctors, Tn is a fatal, vicious tumor. A severe fever occurs with it, and it becomes so great that it exceeds its limits. Mostly, the area around (where the disease is found) turns into a black, green or an opaque color. Soon afterwards, the matter turns into ulcers. Generally, it occurs in three places: in the armpit, behind the ear, the tip of the nose, and in soft (flaccid) tissues of the body.

It is narrated in an Athar (narrative), that ’ishah Radiyallhu Anh said to the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam,


الطَّعْنُ قَدْ عَرَفْنَاهُ، فَمَا الطَّاعُونُ؟ قَالَ: غُدَّةٌ كَغُدَّةِ الْبَعِيرِ يَخْرُجُ فِي الْمَرَاقِّ وَالْإِبْطِ
We know Tn (injury), so what is Tn? The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, It is a gland that is similar to the camels gland; it emerges from the tender places (such as behind the ear, the tip of the nose) and in the armpits.

Doctors said: When a septic infection occurs in soft flesh, armpits, behind the ears, and the tip of the nose, and when it is of a disruptive nature, then it is called Tn. It is caused by bad blood which tends to rot and deteriorate. This turns into a poisonous substance which disrupts the organ and changes what is around it. Blood and pus may ooze from this ulcer. It reaches the heart very badly, and consequently, vomiting, palpitations and fainting occurs. Although Tn describes every tumour that reaches the heart in a bad manner which becomes fatal, this name particularity describes the infection which happens in the glands. Because of its (the bloods) evilness, no organ accepts it except for those which are weak in nature. The worst type is in the armpits and behind the ears because they are closer to the organ that originate from. Its most harmless type is red, then yellow. As for the one which turns black, then nobody can escape it.
When there is Tn, then epidemics increase; and in places where there is an epidemic, it is described as an epidemic. As al-Khall said, An epidemic is Tn. It was also said, An epidemic is every general disease. When it is actualized, there are general and specific (differences) between an epidemic and Tn.

Every Tn is an epidemic, however, every epidemic is not a Tn. Similarly, general diseases are more general than Tn because Tn is only one type of them. As for the (types) of Tn, then they are bad infections, ulcers and tumors in the areas we mentioned.

I say: These ulcers, tumors, and wounds are the symptoms of Tn, and it is not Tn itself. However, because the doctors do not recognize it except by visible symptoms, they made this Tn itself.

Tn is described with three things:

The first: These apparent symptoms which doctors mention.

The second: Death which occurs because of it. This is the intent of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam in his statement in his Sahh (authentic) Hadth,


الطَّاعُونُ شَهَادَةٌ لِكُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ
Tn is Shhadah (martyrdom) for every Muslim. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 2830, 5732; Muslim, Hadth no. 1916)

The third: The reason behind (the outbreak of) this disease, which was narrated in the Sahh Hadth,

بَقِيَّةُ رِجْزٍ أُرْسِلَ عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ
Tn is the remnants of a punishment that was sent onto Ban Isrl. (at-Tirmidh, Hadth no. 1065)

In addition, it was narrated in a Sahh Hadth that it is

وَخْزُ الْجِنِّ
The punishment of the Jinn. (al-Hkim)

It was also narrated that it is:

دَعْوَةُ نَبِيٍّ
A Nab (Prophet)s curse.

As for these reasons and causes: the doctors do not have that which will refute these, just as they do not have that which denotes to these. The Rusul (messengers) inform of matters of the Ghayb (unseen). As for these symptoms (which) doctors perceive (when they observe the human body), then the doctors do not have anything with them which negates it occurring through Arwh (pl. Rh; spirits). This is because there is a tremendous connection between the nature of the Rh, its illness, and its perishing is such an issue that none except the most ignorant people will deny the Arwh and their effects (on the body), the effects of substances and their nature. When an epidemic takes place or when the air is unhealthy, Allh Subhnahu sometimes gives these Arwh certain powers over the body of Ban dam (Children of dam), just like He gave them power when some bad matters get a bad state in the bodies. This happens especially when blood flares-up, black bile, and semen flares-up. For verily, satanic Arwh are able to do things -which they are not able to do to others- to the possessor of these malfunctions, as long as the possessor does not repel it with something stronger than these reasons, from doing Dhikr (remembering Allh), making Du (supplication), Ibtihl (praying humbly), Tadarru (beseeching), giving Sadaqah (charity), and reading Qurn. This is because with this, angelic Arwh which will overpower these evil Arwh and defeat their evil and repel their effects are lowered. We and other than us have experienced this so many times that no one except Allh knows, and due to the descent of these good Arwh and their attracting to around the sick person, we have seen their great impact in strengthening the nature (of the human) and repelling these bad substances. But this is before this disease becomes pre-dominant and it settling in the body, and comes to the point that it is almost non-pierceable. So, the person whom Allh gives success must immediately turn to the reasons that will dismiss this evil when he senses the reasons for this evil. And this is one of the most beneficial cures for him. And when Allh Azza wa Jalla wants to execute His Qadh (Will) and Qadar (Decree), He makes the servants heart unaware of its knowledge, imagination, and will; so he does not realize it and does not demand it -this is to execute a command of Allh which was ought to be done.

Inshllhu Tal, we will bring more explanations and clarifications to this meaning in the chapter of Treating with Ruqyah, Nabaw Protection, Adhkr, Du, and Good Deeds. We shall also clarify the comparison between Medical Medicine and Nabaw Medicine, and also the comparison of Witchcraft and Folk Remedies -as is known by their masters and leaders. We will also clarify that the thing which most affects the nature of the human is the Arwh, and that the strength of (Nabaw) Protection, Ruqyah, and Dus is above the strength of medicines, as far as abolishing the effect of deadly poisons.

What is intended is that the corruption of air is a part of the parts of the complete reason and the active disorder for Tn. This is because the corruption of the substance of air is the reason of the epidemic happening and it decomposing. This happens because of one of the bad qualities such as rotting, smelling and poisoning prevails, regardless of when it is in the year. Although this occurs mostly in late summer, the disease often occurs in fall. This is because sharp waste bile and other things accumulate in the body in the summer and these substances not dissolving at the end of summer. It occurs in fall due to cold weather, the vapors becoming mud, and the wastes which disengaged in the summer becomes tight, hot, smells, and thus, rotting diseases occur. Especially when the body is ready to accept and appropriate for such diseases, moving a little, and has multi-materials; then this person almost cannot escape being destroyed (by death).

The best season of the year is spring. Hippocrates said, Undoubtedly, the most severe and lethal of diseases are those that occur in the fall. As for spring, it is the healthiest of all the seasons together and the least occurrences of deaths. It has become the customs of pharmacists and those who prepare the dead to take a loan and borrow in spring and summer, and that they pay in fall. This is because, fall is their spring, and it is the thing they desire most and are most-happy with its arrival. It is narrated in Hadth:


إِذَا طَلَعَ النَّجْمُ ارْتَفَعَتِ الْعَاهَةُ عَنْ كُلِّ بَلَدٍ
When the star is born/plants appear, epidemics are removed from every land.

The birth of (the star) is interpreted as the birth of the Thurayy star, and the plants appearing is interpreted as spring. As in the following verse,

وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ
And the herbs and the trees both prostrate. (ar-Rahmn, 55/6)

Because the full appearance (greening) of trees and vegetation and its completion happens in the spring season; and it is the season wherein all epidemics are removed.
   
As for the Thurayy Star, then diseases intensify when it rises with Fajr (dawn break) and it sets.

In his book Mddatul Baq, at-Tamm said, The worst two times of the year and the most harmful for the body are two:

One of them is: The time when the Thurayy Star sets in the west at the time of the birth of Fajr.

Second: The time when the Thurayy Star is born in the east before the sun rises upon the universe, somewhere in one of the moons rising ranges. This time is the time when spring departs and ends. Yet, the harm that occurs when it is born is less than the harm caused by its setting.

Ab Muhammad bin Qutaybah said, It is said: The Thurayy Star does not rise nor set before an epidemic comes to people and camels. Its setting causes more epidemics than its birth.

There is a third opinion about the Hadth, which is perhaps the best of the views about this Hadth. It is that the intent with the word, Najm is the Thurayy Star. Epidemics are disasters which come to crops and fruits at the beginning of winter and spring seasons. Consequently, at the time mentioned, a safety occurs with the birth of the Thurayy Star. This is why Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam forbade the selling or buying of fruits before it ripens.

Our purpose is the guidance of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam when Tn occurs.
 1. Zdul Mad, 4/34-39.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Re: THE GUIDANCE OF RASLULLH REGARDING CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
« Reply #1 on: 20.03.2020, 12:08:35 AM »

Chapter on the Prohibition of Entering a Land wherein Tn is Found and Exiting From it[1]

The prohibition of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam regarding entering a land wherein Tn is found and his prohibition regarding exiting a land after Tn occurs is the complete pre-caution from Tn. For verily, entering in a land wherein Tn is found is exposing oneself to trouble, coming (surrendering) to it at the place under its influence, and is the person helping against himself. This is opposing the Sharah and the mind.

Rather, staying away from the land Tn is in is a type of prevention which Allh Subhnahu has guided people to. Again, it is protection from places and harmful weather.

As for the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibiting from leaving the land of Tn, then there are two meanings:

The first: Encouraging the souls to connect with Allh, to have Tawakkul (trust) in Him, and to be patient and pleased with His decree.

The second: It is what medical leaders say, Everybody who is cautious of the epidemic must take out the excess fluid from his body, take in less food, and incline to dry treatment from every aspect, except for doing sports and warm-up movements. This is because sports and warm-up movements should be avoided, since the body mostly does not lack the hidden excess bad (substances) that are in it. Consequently, sports and warm-up movements activate it and mix it with the new Kms (chyme), and this brings a great ailment. Rather, when Tn occurs, tranquility, rest, and the flaring-up of internal fluids must be calmed down. It is impossible to exit the land of the epidemic and traveling from there without violent movements; and this is really harmful.

These are the words of the best of the doctors of the Mutaakhkhirn (latter ones). Thus, the medical meaning of the Nabaw Hadth and what it includes of the treatment of the heart, body, and the well-being of both has been manifested.

If it is said, In the following statement of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam,


لَا تَخْرُجُوا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ
do not go out of that area escaping from it. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 3473; Muslim, Hadth no. 2218)

There is something which nullifies he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam intending the meaning which you have mentioned. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam does not prevent exiting due to a malfunction. Again, he does not stop a traveller from his travel.

It is said (in response): No one, whether it is a doctor or anyone else, said When the Tn diseases occur, people abandon their actions and become lifeless. However, what needs to be done is to reduce movement as little as possible. To escape from it does not require movement, except when it is actually escaping from the disease. Rest and tranquility are more beneficial for the sick persons heart and body, and they are closer to having Tawakkul in Allh and submitting to His Will. As for those who cannot avoid moving such as artists, employees, travelers, post-officers, and others, then they are not told, leave your movements completely. This is the case, even though they are ordered to stop acting for things they do not need to do -such as a travellers movement escaping from the Tn. And Allhu Tal knows best.

There is some wisdom in banning from entering a place wherein Tn took place:

The first: Avoiding harmful reasons and distancing from them.

The second: It is the achievement of good health which is the basis of life and the return to (Allh).

The third: It is not to inhale stinky and degraded air in order not to be sick.

The fourth: Avoiding close association with those afflicted with the disease, so as not to be afflicted with the same disease.

It is narrated in the Sunan of Ab Dwd in a Marf Hadth (that Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said),


إِنَّ مِنَ الْقَرَفِ التَّلَفَ
Verily, there is destruction (death) in diseases. (Ab Dwd, Hadth no. 3923)

Ibnu Qutaybah said: destruction is approaching the epidemic and those who are sick.

The fifth: Protecting oneself from superstitions and infections. For verily, souls are affected by them. This is because superstitions only harms those who believe in it.

In summary: In the prohibition of entering a land wherein Tn has occurred, there is an order to be pre-cautioned, protected, and to be away from the causes of destruction. In the prohibition of fleeing from Tn, there is an order to have Tawakkul, submission, and referring all matters to the Will of Allh. Therefore, there is teaching and training in the first, and the second is referring all matters to the Will of Allh and submission.

It is narrated in the Sahh that


أَنَّ عمر بن الخطاب خَرَجَ إِلَى الشَّامِ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ بِسَرْغَ لَقِيَهُ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ وَأَصْحَابُهُ فَأَخْبَرُوهُ أَنَّ الْوَبَاءَ قَدْ وَقَعَ بِالشَّامِ، فَاخْتَلَفُوا فَقَالَ لِابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: ادْعُ لِيَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ، قَالَ: فَدَعَوْتُهُمْ فَاسْتَشَارَهُمْ، وَأَخْبَرَهُمْ أَنَّ الْوَبَاءَ قَدْ وَقَعَ بِالشَّامِ فَاخْتَلَفُوا، فَقَالَ لَهُ بَعْضُهُمْ: خَرَجْتَ لِأَمْرٍ فَلَا نَرَى أَنْ تَرْجِعَ عَنْهُ. وَقَالَ آخَرُونَ مَعَكَ بَقِيَّةُ النَّاسِ وَأَصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَا نَرَى أَنْ تُقْدِمَهُمْ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَبَاءِ، فَقَالَ عمر: ارْتَفِعُوا عَنِّي، ثُمَّ قَالَ: ادْعُ لِيَ الْأَنْصَارَ فَدَعَوْتُهُمْ لَهُ فَاسْتَشَارَهُمْ فَسَلَكُوا سَبِيلَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَاخْتَلَفُوا كَاخْتِلَافِهِمْ، فَقَالَ: ارْتَفِعُوا عَنِّي، ثُمَّ قَالَ: ادْعُ لِي مَنْ هَاهُنَا مِنْ مَشْيَخَةِ قُرَيْشٍ مِنْ مُهَاجِرَةِ الْفَتْحِ فَدَعَوْتُهُمْ لَهُ فَلَمْ يَخْتَلِفْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهُمْ رَجُلَانِ، قَالُوا: نَرَى أَنْ تَرْجِعَ بِالنَّاسِ وَلَا تُقْدِمَهُمْ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَبَاءِ، فَأَذَّنَ عمر فِي النَّاسِ إِنِّي مُصْبِحٌ عَلَى ظَهْرٍ فَأَصْبِحُوا عَلَيْهِ، فَقَالَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ: يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَفِرَارًا مِنْ قَدَرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى؟ قَالَ: لَوْ غَيْرُكَ قَالَهَا يَا أبا عبيدة، نَعَمْ نَفِرُّ مِنْ قَدَرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى إِلَى قَدَرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ كَانَ لَكَ إِبِلٌ فَهَبَطَتْ وَادِيًا لَهُ عُدْوَتَانِ إِحْدَاهُمَا - خِصْبَةٌ، وَالْأُخْرَى جَدْبَةٌ، أَلَسْتَ إِنْ رَعَيْتَهَا الْخِصْبَةَ رَعَيْتَهَا بِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، وَإِنْ رَعَيْتَهَا الْجَدْبَةَ رَعَيْتَهَا بِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى؟ قَالَ: فَجَاءَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ وَكَانَ مُتَغَيِّبًا فِي بَعْضِ حَاجَاتِهِ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّ عِنْدِي فِي هَذَا عِلْمًا، سَمِعْتُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: إِذَا كَانَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا فِرَارًا مِنْهُ وَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ فَلَا تَقْدَمُوا عَلَيْهِ
Umar Ibnul Khattb Radiyallhu Anh departed for ash-Shm. As he came to Sargh (a town by the side of Hijz on the way to Syria), Ab Ubaydah Ibnul Jarrh Radiyallhu Anh and his companions met him. They informed him that an epidemic had occurred in ash-Shm. Consequently, they disputed (regarding whether or not they should go to ash-Shm). So Umar Radiyallhu Anh said to Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum Summon the early Muhjirn (emigrants) for me. Ibnu Abbs said, So I summoned them. Umar consulted them and informed them that an epidemic had occurred in ash-Shm. So they also disputed. Some of them said to him, You have come out for a purpose and we do not think that it is proper for you to return. Others said, You have along with you other people and the companions of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, so we do not advise that you should advance them to this epidemic. Umar Radiyallhu Anh said, You may leave now. He then said, Summon the Ansr for me. I summoned them and Umar consulted them, and they followed the way of the Muhjirn and differed just as they did. Umar Radiyallhu Anh said, You may leave now. Then he said, Summon the elderly of Quraysh who emigrated in (the year of the) Conquest (of Makkah). So I summoned them for him, and no two men disputed amongst them. They said, We advise that you should return with the people and do not take them to that (place of) epidemic. So Umar Radiyallhu Anh made an announcement amongst the people, saying, I will return back on my mount in the morning. Make your preparations in accordance with the morning! Thereupon, Ab Ubaydah Ibnul Jarrh Radiyallhu Anh said, O Amrul Muminn (Leader of the Believers)! Are you running away from the Qadar (Decree) of Allh Tal? Umar Radiyallhu Anh said, I wish that somebody else had uttered these words, O Ab Ubaydah! Yes, we run away from the Qadar of Allh Tal to the Qadar of Allh Tal. What do you say, if you had a camel that went down a valley having two places, one productive, and the other barren; if you were to graze it on the productive land, is it not by the Qadar of Allh Tal? And if you were to graze it on the barren land, is it not by the Qadar of Allh Tal? Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum said: All of a sudden, Abdur Rahmn bin Awf Radiyallhu Anh -who had been absent because of some of his affairs- came. Abdur Rahmn bin Awf Radiyallhu Anh said, I have knowledge regarding this issue. I heard Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam say, If it breaks out in a land while you are in it, then do not go out of that area escaping from it. And when you hear that it has struck a land, do not enter that land. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5729, 5730, 6973; Muslim, Hadth no. 2219)
 1. Zdul Mad, 4/39-42.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Re: THE GUIDANCE OF RASLULLH REGARDING CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
« Reply #2 on: 22.03.2020, 01:11:41 AM »

The Guidance of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam Regarding Being Cautious of Contagious Diseases with its Nature and His Sound Leading Regarding Staying Away from the Sick[1]

It is established in Sahh Muslim from the Hadth of Jbir bin Abdillh Radiyallhu Anh that:

كَانَ فِي وَفْدِ ثَقِيفٍ رَجُلٌ مَجْذُومٌ فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - ارْجِعْ فَقَدْ بَايَعْنَاكَ
There was a leper in the delegation of the Thaqf tribe. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam sent him news and said: Go back, for verily, we have accepted your allegiance. (Muslim, Hadth no. 2231)

Al-Bukhr narrated in his Sahh as a Talq way (narrating it while omitting the chain) from the Hadth of Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

فِرَّ مِنَ الْمَجْذُومِ كَمَا تَفِرُّ مِنَ الْأَسَدِ
Run away from the leper as you run away from the lion. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707)

It is narrated in Sunan Ibnu Mjah from the Hadth of Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

لَا تُدِيمُوا النَّظَرَ إِلَى الْمَجْذُومِينَ
Do not keep looking at those afflicted by leprosy. (Ibnu Mjah, Hadth no. 3543)

It is narrated in the Sahhayn from the Hadth of Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh that he said: Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

لَا يُورِدَنَّ مُمْرِضٌ عَلَى مُصِحٍّ
The one who has a sick camel should never bring it near a healthy camel. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5771, 5773-5775; Muslim, Hadth no. 2221)

It is also narrated from Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he said,

كَلِّمِ الْمَجْذُومَ، وَبَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ قَيْدُ رُمْحٍ أَوْ رُمْحَيْنِ
Talk to a leper while there is a distance of one or two spears between you and him. (Ab Nuaym al-Isbahn, at-Tibbun Nabaw, Hadth no. 292)

Leprosy is a bad disease that occurs due to the spreading of black bile in the entire body, altering the temperament, condition, and shape of the organs. In the final stages, leprosy might cause disintegration to the affected limbs, so-much-so that the limbs erode and fall of. It is also called the Disease of the Lion.

Doctors have three reasons in regards to why it was called Disease of the Lion:

The first: This disease usually afflicts lions.

The second: This disease causes the face of the ill to frown, making it look like a lion.

The third: He preys upon those who are close to him or those near him with his illness, just as a lion preys.

According to the doctors, this disease is a contagious disease. Those who come near the leper and those who have tuberculosis will become sick by his smell (via air). Because of his excellent affection for his Ummah (nation) and his advice to them, the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam prohibited them from the causes which will expose them to what will bring harm to their bodies and hearts.

Undoubtedly, there may be a hidden ability and potential in the body to accept this disease. The nature of the body may be quickly affected and accepting the acquiring of the disease from the carrier body whom are those who are close to it and those whom it is related to.

Sometimes, fearing the disease and delusion might actually be from the biggest reasons of it afflicting the body. This is because delusion is very active and conquers the strength and nature of the body.

Sometimes, the breath of the sick person may reach the healthy and make him sick. This situation is observed in some diseases.

Air is one of the causes of infection.

Despite all this, the readiness of the body and its acceptance of it is essential for the transmission of the disease. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam married a woman. When he wanted to enter upon her, he saw a whiteness in her waist, and said to the woman,


الْحَقِي بِأَهْلِكِ
Go join your family. (al-Hkim, al-Mustadrak, Hadth no. 6808)

Some of the people thought that these Ahdth (pl. Hadth) are in contradiction with other Ahdth which nullify and canceled them. From amongst these Ahdth is what at-Tirmidh narrated from the Hadth of Jbir Radiyallhu Anh,

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - أَخَذَ بِيَدِ رَجُلٍ مَجْذُومٍ فَأَدْخَلَهَا مَعَهُ فِي الْقَصْعَةِ، وَقَالَ: "كُلْ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ ثِقَةً بِاللَّهِ، وَتَوَكُّلًا عَلَيْهِ
Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam held the hand of a man who had leprosy, and then he entered it in a bowl. He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam then said, Eat while saying Bismillh (In the name of Allh) while relying on Allh and having Tawakkul in Him. (at-Tirmidh, Hadth no. 1817; Ibnu Mjah, Hadth no. 3542)

The Hadth was also narrated by Ibnu Mjah.

And also that which was established in the Sahh that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


لَا عَدْوَى وَلَا طِيَرَةَ
There is no contagious disease nor superstitions. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707, 5756, 5757; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, 2222-2225)

We say: Praise be to Allh, there is no contradiction between the Sahh (authentic) Ahdth of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. When there is a contradiction,

- one of the Ahdth might not be the statement of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and some of the narrators of the Ahdth might have made mistakes (in the Hadth), although it is established that they are Thiqa (trustworthy). Because the Thiqa narrators do make mistakes. Or,

- one of the two Hadths may make Naskh (abrogation) of the other -when it is of the kind that may accept Naskh.

- The conflict may also be in the understanding of the person who heard this Hadth; not in the words of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

The conflict is definitely in one of these three situations.

As for two Hadths which are both Sahh, clear, and contradictory in all respects, one of them not making Naskh of the other; then such Hadth is not originally found. Allh forbid that there be a contradiction in the words of as-Sdiq (the truthful) and al-Masdq (the confirmed) Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, whom nothing except the truth exits his lips. The mistake arises in deficiency of knowing the narrative, and distinguishing between the Sahh (authentic) and that which is Mall (flawed), or deficiency in understanding the intent of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam and interpreting his speech in a way that he did not intend, or both of them at the same time. The Ikhtilf (disagreement) and Fasd (corruption) starts occurring here. And success lies with Allh

In his book Ikhtilful Hadth, Ibnu Qutaybah Rahimahullh stated while mentioning the views of the enemies of Hadth and Ahlul Hadth regarding this,

They said, You have narrated two Hadths which contradict each other from the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. You narrated that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


لَا عَدْوَى وَلَا طِيَرَةَ
There is no contagious disease nor superstitions. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707, 5756, 5757; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, 2222-2225)

And when the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam was told,

إِنَّ النُّقْبَةَ تَقَعُ بِمِشْفَرِ الْبَعِيرِ، فَيَجْرَبُ لِذَلِكَ الْإِبِلُ. قَالَ: فَمَا أَعْدَى الْأَوَّلَ
Scabies occur on the lip of the camel, and therefore camels are infected with scabies. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, So, what transferred the ailment to the first camel? (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5717, 5770; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220)

You then narrated this,

لَا يُورَدُ ذُو عَاهَةٍ عَلَى مُصِحٍّ
The one who has a sick camel should never bring it near a healthy camel. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5771, 5773-5775; Muslim, Hadth no. 2221)

And you narrated this,

فِرَّ مِنَ الْمَجْذُومِ فِرَارَكَ مِنَ الْأَسَدِ
Run away from the leper as you run away from the lion. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707)

You also reported this,

أَتَاهُ رَجُلٌ مَجْذُومٌ لِيُبَايِعَهُ بَيْعَةَ الْإِسْلَامِ، فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ الْبَيْعَةَ، وَأَمَرَهُ بِالِانْصِرَافِ، وَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لَهُ، وَقَالَ: "الشُّؤْمُ فِي الْمَرْأَةِ وَالدَّارِ وَالدَّابَّةِ
A man with leprosy came to give his allegiance of Islm to the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Then, the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam sent him news that his pledge is accepted, ordered him to return, and did not allow him (to enter). (With different wording, Muslim, Hadth no. 2231)

He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

الشُّؤْمُ فِي الْمَرْأَةِ وَالدَّارِ وَالدَّابَّةِ
Evil omens are in three things: the woman, the house, and the animal. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5753; Muslim, Hadth no. 2225)

They said, All of these are contradictory, some are unlike others.

Ab Muhammad (Ibnu Qutaybah) Rahimahullh said, We say: There is no contradiction in these. Each has a meaning according to its own time and place. When each of them are placed in their places, the contradiction will be removed.

Infections of are two types:

The first: The contagiousness of leprosy: The lepers breath is very effective, it makes the person -who sits and speaks with him for a long time- sick. Such is the case of the wife of the leper: she is found under a single cover (lays) with the leper, thus, the illness reaches her, and the woman may become a leper. Likewise, when their children grow up, they look like their fathers. This is the case of those with tuberculosis, hectic fever, and scabies. Doctors order not to sit with the one who has tuberculosis and the leper. They do not intend that the illness is contagious, rather, they only mean that the weather will change and that the disease will make the one who inhales it for a long time ill. Doctors are the farthest people from believing in evil or good omens. The scabies found in the camels which is wet type of mange (Sarcoptic mange), is also like this. When the (infected) camel mixes, mingles, or takes shelter in the same place, then the disease will reach the other camels via the water they drink from, a wound or the like. This is the meaning that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam intended when he said,


لَا يُورَدُ ذُو عَاهَةٍ عَلَى مُصِحٍّ
The one who has a sick camel should never bring it near a healthy camel. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5771, 5773-5775; Muslim, Hadth no. 2221)

Thus, the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam disliked the mixing of the ill with the healthy in order not to catch anything from the wound.

Ibnu Qutaybah Rahimahullh said, As for the second type of contagiousness: It is the disease of Tn occurring in any region. People escape the land fearing catching the disease. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


إِذَا وَقَعَ بِبَلَدٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهِ فَلَا تَخْرُجُوا مِنْهُ وَإِذَا كَانَ بِبَلَدٍ فَلَا تَدْخُلُوهُ
If it occurs in a land while you are in it, then do not go out of that area. And when it is in a land, do not enter that land. (With similar wording in al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 3473; Muslim, Hadth no. 2218)

With his statement, If it occurs in a land while you are in it, then do not go out of that area, he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam meant, As if you think that escaping the Will of Allh will save you from Allh. With his statement, When it is in a land, do not enter that land he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam meant, Staying in the place without Tn is more tranquil for your hearts and it is better for you to living.

The bad luck of the woman or the house is known with this. When something which he dislikes or is or troubled by strikes a man, he says: This struck me because of the woman! This is the contagiousness which Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said regarding,


لَا عَدْوَى
There is no contagious (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707, 5756, 5757; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, 2222-2225)

(The quotation from Ibnu Qutaybah Rahimahullh ends here.)

Another group said: On the contrary, the order regarding staying away from the leper and running away from him is regarding that which is Mustahab (recommended), Ikhtiyr (preferred), and sound leading. As for he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam eating with him, then it is to clarify that it is permissible and that it is not Harm (forbidden).

Another group said, Rather, the address made with the two addresses are partial and not general. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam addressed everyone according to what befits their situation. Some people have strong mn (faith) and Tawakkul, and their strong Tawakkul repels the strength of this contagious illness, just as a strong nature repels and nullifies the strength of the contagious illness. Other people cannot overcome this. Thus, he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam addressed such person cautiously while taking protection in hand. Likewise, so that his Ummah (nation) may apply them both, the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam performed both situations together, so that they may take (the case of) those who were strong (in mn) from amongst his Ummah through the way of Tawakkul, strength, and relying upon Allh, and to take those who are weak (in mn) from amongst them through the way of protection and prevention. Both of these are right ways. One is for the strong Mumin, and the other is for the weak Mumin. Thus, there is a proof and example according to their situations and that which suits them for each of the two groups. This resembles the fact that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam had cauterized (yet) praised those who abandon cauterization, brought abandoning it closer to Tawakkul, and he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam abandoning superstitions. This has many other examples. This is a fine and a really good way. Many situations of conflict which a person thinks that exist in the Sahh Sunnah, are removed from the one who gives it its right and is given the understanding of its essence.

Another group chose the following opinion, The order to escape and stay away from the leper is a natural situation. This natural situation is that the illness from the sick person passes on to the healthy person through touching, being together, and inhalation; and this is done by constantly being with the ill and touching him. As for eating for a little while together with a leper because of a preferred benefit, then there is no problem with it. The contagious disease does not occur from one and in a short time. The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam forbade this to prevent evil and protect health, and he was together with him with the extent of the need and benefit. Therefore, there is no contradiction between them.

Another group said, It may be that the leper he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam ate with had a mild leprosy, and that it was not contagious. Not all lepers are the same, and the disease does not spread from all of them. On the contrary, there are from amongst the lepers whom it does not harm one to be with and the disease does not spread from. These people are have been afflicted with something little of the disease, then the disease stops and continues in this way, and it does not spread to the remainder of the body; therefore, it is more correct and appropriate that their disease will not spread to anyone else.

Another group said, The people of the Jhiliyyah (the era of ignorance before Islm) used to believe that contagious diseases are contagious directly because of the disease, without ascribing it to Allh Subhnahu. Thus the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam canceled their such beliefs and ate with the leper to clarify to them that it is Allh Subhnahu who makes sickness and heals. He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam also prohibited them from coming close to a leper to clarify to them that this is from amongst the reasons which Allh made which leads to its causes.

So, prohibition of he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam is affirming the causes, and in his actions is that the reasons are not independent, and on the contrary, if the Rabb Subhnahu will, He will take its power, so that it does not affect anything, and that if He wills, He makes its power stay with it, so it affects.

Another group said, On the contrary, these Ahdth include an abrogator Hadth and an abrogated Hadth. So, it is looked into their dates. If the latter one is known, it will be judged to be the abrogator, otherwise we will abstain from giving a ruling regarding it.

Another group said, On the contrary, some of them have been preserved, and some are not preserved. They said regarding the Hadth There is no contagious disease, Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh used to narrate this Hadth, and then he doubted regarding it and abandoned narrating it. When they consulted him regarding it and he Radiyallhu Anh said, We heard you narrate this! Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh rejected narrating it. Ab Salamah said, I do not know, did Ab Hurayrah forget this Hadth, or did one of the two Hadth abrogate the other?

As for the Hadth of Jbir Radiyallhu Anh,


أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - أَخَذَ بِيَدِ مَجْذُومٍ فَأَدْخَلَهَا مَعَهُ فِي الْقَصْعَةِ
The Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam held the hand of a leper, and then he entered it in a bowl with his hand. (at-Tirmidh, Hadth no. 1817; Ibnu Mjah, Hadth no. 3542)

Then, this Hadth is not established and it is not Sahh. The intent of what at-Tirmidh said regarding the Hadth is. Gharb (strange), and he did not say it is Sahh or Hasan (good).

Shubah and others said, Beware of these kind of Gharb Ahdth.

At-Tirmidh said, This is narrated as the action of Umar Radiyallhu Anh, and this is more constant.

So, this is the situation of the two Hadths which are contradicted with the other Ahdth of prohibition:

Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh refrained from narrating and denied the first, and the second is not Sahh from Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Allh knows best.

We have already elaborated greatly regarding this issue in the book al-Mifth, in a broader way than here. Success lies with Allh
 1. Zdul Mad, 4/134-141.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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