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Author Topic: THE IKHTILF AMONGST THE ULAM REGARDING DECLARING TAKFR UPON THE MAGICIAN  (Read 48 times)

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THE REASON AND NATURE OF THE IKHTILF AMONGST THE ULAM REGARDING DECLARING TAKFR UPON THE MAGICIAN

Prepared by: Abdulhakim Hanif







﴿وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَى مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُمْ بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ.﴾
And they followed what the shaytn (pl. shaytn; devils) had recited during the reign of Sulaymn. Sulaymn did not disbelieve but the shaytn disbelieved, teaching men magic. But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, We are only for trial, so do not disbelieve (by learning this magic from us). And (yet) they learn from them that by which they cause separation between a man and his wife. But they do not harm anyone through it except by permission of Allh. And they learn that which harms them and does not benefit them. And they certainly knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. Evil indeed is what they sold themselves for, if they only knew. (al-Baqarah 2/102)







THE REASON AND NATURE OF THE IKHTILF AMONGST THE ULAM REGARDING DECLARING TAKFR UPON THE MAGICIAN

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله، والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله، وعلى آله الأطهار وصحبه الكرام الأبرار، ومن والاه.
أما بعد:

With the permit and help of Allhu Tal, in this work we take in hand the issue which the destroyers of the Din frequently harp on; the ruling of Sihr (magic) and the nature of the Ikhtilf (disagreement) amongst the Ulam (pl. lim; scholars) regarding it.

Just as they bring to the table matters the Ulam disagreed in regards to the Takfr of its doer, these people also bring this matter of Sihr to the table in order to water down the Qidah (principle) Whoever does not Declare Takfr of a Kfir Becomes Kfir Himself. Thus, it is well-known the Ulam disagreed on the subject of whether or not those who practice Sihr (magic) and sorcery are Kfir, as explanations will be given later in this work.

The foundation of this Ikhtilf is not sourced from the Ulam disagreeing regarding Shirk, Kufr, the Asl (fundamental) of Ibdah (worship), or Tawhd which is Aslud Dn (fundamental of the Religion of Islm); nevertheless it sourced due to the disagreement they had regarding the nature of Sihr. Al-Hamdulillh (all praise is due to Allh), Ikhtilf does not exist amongst the Ulam regarding the renowned actions of Shirk which are included in the meaning of La Ilaha Illallh (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allh). However these people allege Ikhtilf is possible in the acts of open Shirk because Ikhtilf does exist regarding the ruling of acts such as Sihr and abandoning Salh (daily prayers), where neither party of Ikhtilf declare Takfr upon each other, even more they do not attribute their opponents with Dallah (misguidance) either.

These people specifically claim that in matters such as ruling with man-made laws, seeking judgment from man-made laws, -which people in our era deem to be Khaf (obscure) due to turning away from the Dn and Ilm (sacred knowledge) and a matter of Ikhtilf, although in reality, it is clear and constant with indication of the Kitb (Book; Qurn), the Sunnah, and the Ijm that these actions are Kufr- they claim that Ikhtilf is possible regarding these actions and that those who do not declare Takfr upon the doer will not be declared Takfr upon. Whereas in these and similar actions, Ibdah to other then Allh and giving another that which is specific to Him Tal such as legislating, in other words Shirk is the case and it is clear that these actions contain shirk and there is absolutely no obscurity in the nature of such actions. Consequently, only a person who does not know Tawhd, i.e. a Kfir would have Ikhtilf regarding their Hukm.

As explained later in this work, the Ulam had Ijm (consensus) regarding declaring Takfr upon the one who commits Sihr which contains Shirk and Kufr, however, they did disagree regarding the types of Sihr which Shirk and Kufr is ambiguous. Therefore, turning actions of clear Shirk into actions of Ikhtilf from this point of view has no base. It has not occurred that any Rabbn scholar ever explained all matters of Shirk by using this same Usl (methodology), all of these are among the Muhdath (innovated) matters of our era.

Our main topic Sihr, which is translated into English as magic or sorcery, is something from amongst the hidden affairs which are done by the faculty of the shaytn (pl. shaytn; devils). Al-Qurtub Rahmatullhi Alayh narrated the Ikhtilf of the Ulam regarding the issue and the evidences they rely on,


وَاخْتَلَفَ الْفُقَهَاءُ فِي حُكْمِ السَّاحِرِ الْمُسْلِمِ وَالذِّمِّيِّ، فَذَهَبَ مَالِكٌ إِلَى أَنَّ الْمُسْلِمَ إِذَا سَحَرَ بِنَفْسِهِ بِكَلَامٍ يَكُونُ كُفْرًا يُقْتَلُ وَلَا يُسْتَتَابُ وَلَا تُقْبَلُ تَوْبَتُهُ، لِأَنَّهُ أَمْرٌ يَسْتَسِرُّ بِهِ كَالزِّنْدِيقِ وَالزَّانِي، وَلِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى سَمَّى السِّحْرَ كُفْرًا بِقَوْلِهِ:" وَما يُعَلِّمانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولا إِنَّما نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلا تَكْفُرْ" وَهُوَ قَوْلُ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ وَأَبِي ثَوْرٍ وَإِسْحَاقَ والشافعي وَأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ. وَرُوِيَ قَتْلُ السَّاحِرِ عَنْ عُمَرَ وَعُثْمَانَ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ وَحَفْصَةَ وَأَبِي مُوسَى وَقَيْسِ ابن سَعْدٍ وَعَنْ سَبْعَةٍ مِنَ التَّابِعِينَ. وَرُوِيَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: (حَدُّ السَّاحِرِ ضَرْبُهُ بِالسَّيْفِ) خَرَّجَهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَلَيْسَ بِالْقَوِيِّ، انْفَرَدَ بِهِ إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ وَهُوَ ضَعِيفٌ عِنْدَهُمْ، رَوَاهُ ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ مُرْسَلًا، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ جَعَلَهُ عَنْ الحسن عَنْ جُنْدُبٌ. قَالَ ابْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ: وَقَدْ رُوِّينَا عَنْ عَائِشَةَ. أَنَّهَا بَاعَتْ سَاحِرَةً كَانَتْ سَحَرَتْهَا وَجَعَلَتْ ثَمَنَهَا فِي الرِّقَابِ. قَالَ ابْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ: وَإِذَا أَقَرَّ الرَّجُلُ أَنَّهُ سَحَرَ بِكَلَامٍ يَكُونُ كُفْرًا وَجَبَ قَتْلُهُ إِنْ لَمْ يَتُبْ، وَكَذَلِكَ لَوْ ثَبَتَتْ بِهِ عَلَيْهِ بَيِّنَةٌ وَوَصَفَتِ الْبَيِّنَةُ كَلَامًا يَكُونُ كُفْرًا. وَإِنْ كَانَ الْكَلَامُ الَّذِي ذَكَرَ أَنَّهُ سَحَرَ بِهِ لَيْسَ بِكُفْرٍ لَمْ يَجُزْ قَتْلُهُ، فَإِنْ كَانَ أَحْدَثَ فِي الْمَسْحُورِ جِنَايَةً تُوجِبُ الْقِصَاصَ اقْتُصَّ مِنْهُ إِنْ كَانَ عَمَدَ ذَلِكَ، وَإِنْ كَانَ مِمَّا لَا قِصَاصَ فِيهِ فَفِيهِ دِيَةٌ ذَلِكَ. قَالَ ابْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ: وَإِذَا اخْتَلَفَ أَصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الْمَسْأَلَةِ وَجَبَ اتِّبَاعُ أَشْبَهِهِمْ بِالْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ، وَقَدْ يَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكُونَ السِّحْرُ الَّذِي أَمَرَ مَنْ أَمَرَ مِنْهُمْ بِقَتْلِ السَّاحِرِ سِحْرًا يَكُونُ كُفْرًا فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ مُوَافِقًا لِسُنَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَيُحْتَمَلُ أَنْ تَكُونَ عَائِشَةُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا أَمَرَتْ بِبَيْعِ سَاحِرَةٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ سِحْرُهَا كُفْرًا. فَإِنِ احْتَجَّ مُحْتَجٌّ بِحَدِيثِ جُنْدُبٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: (حَدُّ السَّاحِرِ ضَرْبُهُ بِالسَّيْفِ) فَلَوْ صَحَّ لَاحْتَمَلَ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَمَرَ بِقَتْلِ السَّاحِرِ الَّذِي يَكُونُ سِحْرُهُ كُفْرًا، فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ مُوَافِقًا لِلْأَخْبَارِ الَّتِي جَاءَتْ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: (لَا يَحِلُّ دَمُ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ إِلَّا بِإِحْدَى ثَلَاثٍ ... ) قُلْتُ: وَهَذَا صَحِيحٌ، وَدِمَاءُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مَحْظُورَةٌ لَا تُسْتَبَاحُ إِلَّا بِيَقِينٍ وَلَا يَقِينَ مَعَ الِاخْتِلَافِ. وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ. وَقَالَ بَعْضُ الْعُلَمَاءِ: إِنْ قَالَ أَهْلُ الصِّنَاعَةِ إِنَّ السِّحْرَ لَا يَتِمُّ إِلَّا مع الكفر ولاستكبار، أَوْ تَعْظِيمِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَالسِّحْرُ إِذًا دَالٌّ عَلَى الْكُفْرِ عَلَى هَذَا التَّقْدِيرِ، وَاللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ. وَرُوِيَ عَنِ الشَّافِعِيِّ: لَا يُقْتَلُ السَّاحِرُ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقْتُلَ بِسِحْرِهِ وَيَقُولَ تَعَمَّدْتُ الْقَتْلَ، وَإِنْ قَالَ لَمْ أَتَعَمَّدْهُ لَمْ يُقْتَلْ، وَكَانَتْ فِيهِ الدية كقتل الخطأ، وإن أضربه أُدِّبَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الضَّرَرِ. قَالَ ابْنُ الْعَرَبِيِّ: وَهَذَا بَاطِلٌ مِنْ وَجْهَيْنِ، أَحَدُهُمَا: إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَعْلَمِ السِّحْرَ، وَحَقِيقَتُهُ أَنَّهُ كَلَامٌ مُؤَلَّفٌ يُعَظِّمُ بِهِ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، وَتُنْسَبُ إِلَيْهِ الْمَقَادِيرُ وَالْكَائِنَاتُ. الثَّانِي: إِنَّ اللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ قَدْ صَرَّحَ فِي كِتَابِهِ بِأَنَّهُ كُفْرٌ فَقَالَ:" وَما كَفَرَ سُلَيْمانُ" بِقَوْلِ السِّحْرُ" وَلكِنَّ الشَّياطِينَ كَفَرُوا" بِهِ وَبِتَعْلِيمِهِ، وَهَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ يَقُولَانِ:" إِنَّما نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلا تَكْفُرْ" وَهَذَا تَأْكِيدٌ لِلْبَيَانِ. احْتَجَّ أَصْحَابُ مَالِكٍ بِأَنَّهُ لَا تُقْبَلُ تَوْبَتُهُ، لِأَنَّ السِّحْرَ بَاطِنٌ لَا يُظْهِرُهُ صَاحِبُهُ فَلَا تُعْرَفُ تَوْبَتُهُ كَالزِّنْدِيقِ، وَإِنَّمَا يُسْتَتَابُ مَنْ أَظْهَرَ الْكُفْرَ مُرْتَدًّا، قَالَ مَالِكٌ: فَإِنْ جَاءَ السَّاحِرُ أَوِ الزِّنْدِيقُ تَائِبًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُشْهَدَ عَلَيْهِمَا قُبِلَتْ تَوْبَتُهُمَا، وَالْحُجَّةُ لِذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:" فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنْفَعُهُمْ إِيمانُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْا بَأْسَنا " فَدَلَّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَنْفَعُهُمْ إِيمَانُهُمْ قَبْلَ نُزُولِ الْعَذَابِ، فَكَذَلِكَ هَذَانَ.

The Fuqah (pl. Faqh; jurists) differed regarding the Hukm of the Muslim and Dhimm (a Jew or Christian living under Islmic rule) magician. Imm Mlik held the view that if a Muslim performs Sihr with speech, this will be Kufr, hell be killed, his Tawbah (repentance) will not be sought, and his Tawbah will not be accepted. This is because this is a matter which is done secretly -as in the case of the Zindq (heretic) and the Zn (fornicator). This is also because Allh Tal named Sihr Kufr in His statement,

وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ
But neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, We are only for trial, so do not disbelieve (by learning this magic from us). (al-Baqarah 2/102)

This is the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ab Thawr, Ishq, ash-Shfi, and Ab Hanfah Rahimahumullh.

The killing of the magician was narrated from Umar, Uthmn, Ibnu Umar, Hafsah, Ab Ms, Qays bin Sad Radiyallhu Anhum and seven others from among the Tbin. It was narrated that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


حَدُّ السَّاحِرِ ضَرْبَةٌ بِالسَّيْفِ
The Hadd (prescribed punishment) of the Shir is a strike with the sword. (at-Tirmidh, Hadth no: 1460; ad-Draqutn, Hadth no: 3204)

At-Tirmidh extracted this Hadth, however, its Sanad (chain of narration) is not Qawiyy (strong). This was only narrated by Isml bin Muslim who is Daf (weak) according to the Hadth scholars. Ibnu Uyaynah narrated it from Isml bin Muslim and he narrated it from al-Hasan as a Mursal Hadth (a Hadth which is missing the Sahbah who narrated it in the chain). Others have made this narration by the way of al-Hasan who narrated from Jundub.

Ibnul Mundhir Rahimahullh said, It was narrated to us from ishah Radiyallhu Anh that she sold a witch (her slave) who had bewitched her and that she freed a slave with the money she Radiyallhu Anh attained. Ibnul Mundhir Rahimahullh also said, If a man confirms that he did magic with speech, it becomes Kufr and it is Wjib (obligatory) to kill him as long as he does not make Tawbah (repent). Likewise, if a Bayyinah (clear evidence) is established against him and the Bayyinah describes that he uttered a statement, then it becomes Kufr.

If the mentioned speech he used to bewitch does not indicate Kufr, then killing him is not permissible. If the bewitched has performed a crime -which makes Qiss (retaliation) Wjib- then the magician will be retaliated if he had intended this on the bewitched person. And if the harm he caused is a type which does not necessitate Qiss, then he shall pay the Diyah (ransom) for this.

Ibnul Mundhir said, When the Ashb (pl. Sahbah; companions) of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam differed regarding an issue, then following the view that is closer to the Kitb and the Sunnah is Wjib. It is possible that the Sihr committed by the magician -whom the person from amongst the Ashb ordered to be killed- was Sihr which was Kufr. Consequently, this narration is in compliance with the Sunnah of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. It is possible that the Sihr of the witch ishah Radiyallhu Anh had ordered to be sold was Sihr which was not Kufr.

When a person brings as evidence the following Hadth of Jundub Radiyallhu Anh from Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam:


حَدُّ السَّاحِرِ ضَرْبَةٌ بِالسَّيْفِ
The Hadd of the Shir is a strike with the sword. (at-Tirmidh, Hadth no: 1460; ad-Draqutn, Hadth no: 3204)


If this Hadth is Sahh, then it is possible that he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam ordered to kill the magician whose Sihr is Kufr. Therefore, this narration is in compliance with the reports where Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

لَا يَحِلُّ دَمُ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ إِلَّا بِإِحْدَى ثَلَاثٍ
The blood of a Muslim is unlawful except in one of the three cases (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 6878; Muslim, Hadth no. 1676)

I (al-Qurtub) say: This is correct. The blood of a Muslim is unlawful to take. It will only be accounted as Mubh with absolute conviction, and there is no conviction in cases of Ikhtilf. Allh Tal knows best. Some of the Ulam said, If the proficient people say that the Sihr cannot be completed except by committing Kufr, Istikbr (arrogance), or by making Tadhm (glorification) of the shaytn; then when this is taken in consideration, this Sihr will be evidence for Kufr. Allh Tal knows best.

It was narrated from ash-Shfi Rahimahullh that the magician would not be killed unless he kills someone with his Sihr, and says, I intended to kill him. When the magician says, I did not intend to kill him, he would not be killed, and the Diyah will be (obligatory) on him, as in the case of mistakenly killing someone. If the magician harms the one he bewitched, then he would be disciplined in accordance to the harm he caused.

Ibnul Arab Rahimahullh said, This is Btil (false) from two points:

First of them is that he does not know Sihr. The reality of Sihr is words compiled together, where Tadhm to other than Allh is done, and the decrees and events are attributed to.

Secondly: Allh Subhnahu has clarified in His book that Sihr is Kufr, thus He Tal said,


وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ
Sulaymn did not disbelieve (al-Baqarah 2/102)

(Meaning,) with a statement of Sihr.

وَلكِنَّ الشَّياطِينَ كَفَرُوا
but the shaytn (pl. shaytn; devils) disbelieved (al-Baqarah 2/102)

They disbelieved with Sihr and by teaching it. And (the angels) Hrt and Mrt were saying,

إِنَّما نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلا تَكْفُرْ
We are only for trial, so do not disbelieve (by learning this magic from us) (al-Baqarah 2/102)

And these statements emphasize the explanation.

The Ashb (companions) of Imm Mlik argue that the repentance of the magician will not be accepted because Sihr is an internal issue; its owner does not expose it. Thus, as is in the case of the Zindq (heretic) his repentance is not recognized. Tawbah (repentance) is only required from an apostate who manifests his Kufr.

Imm Mlik said: If the magician or the Zindq came with repentance before they were witnessed against, both of their repentance will be accepted. The proof for this is the statement of Allh Tal,


فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمْ إِيمَانُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْا بَأْسَنَا
Then their Faith (in Islmic Monotheism) could not avail them when they saw Our punishment. (al-Mumin 40/85)

Thus, this denotes that their mn benefits them before the descent of the Adhb (punishment). Thus, the state of these two (the magician and the Zindq) is also the same.[1]

Al-Qurtub mentioned all this in his Tafsr of yah 102 of Srah al-Baqarah, 2/102.

Imm ash-Shfi Rahmatullhi Alayh explained his view concerning Sihr saying,


)قَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ) : وَالسِّحْرُ اسْمٌ جَامِعٌ لَمَعَانٍ مُخْتَلِفَةٍ فَيُقَالُ لِلسَّاحِرِ صِفْ السِّحْرَ الَّذِي تَسْحَرُ بِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ مَا يَسْحَرُ بِهِ كَلَامَ كُفْرٍ صَرِيحٍ اُسْتُتِيبَ مِنْهُ فَإِنْ تَابَ، وَإِلَّا قُتِلَ، وَأُخِذَ مَالُهُ فَيْئًا، وَإِنْ كَانَ مَا يَسْحَرُ بِهِ كَلَامًا لَا يَكُونُ كُفْرًا وَكَانَ غَيْرَ مَعْرُوفٍ، وَلَمْ يَضُرَّ بِهِ أَحَدًا نُهِيَ عَنْهُ فَإِنْ عَادَ عُزِّرَ

Ash-Shfi Rahimahullh said, Sihr is a comprehensive name which has different meanings. It is said to the magician, Describe the magic you bewitch with. If his Sihr includes obvious Kufr words, then he is requested to make Tawbah (repent) from it; so he either repents, otherwise, he is killed and his wealth is taken as Fay (booty obtained from the infidels without fighting). And, if that which he used to bewitch is words which are not Kufr, are indefinite, and does not harm anyone; then he is prohibited from doing it and if he returns to doing it, then he is disciplined (punished for offences at the discretion of the Qdh, i.e. judge).[2]

In the Tafsr of the same yah, Ibnu Kathr Rahmatullhi Alayh mentioned another statement by ash-Shfi regarding the issue saying,


وَقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ، رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ: إِذَا تَعَلَّمَ السِّحْرَ قُلْنَا لَهُ: صِفْ لَنَا سِحْرَكَ. فَإِنْ وَصَفَ مَا يُوجِبُ الْكُفْرَ مِثْلَ مَا اعْتَقَدَهُ أَهْلُ بَابِلَ مِنَ التَّقَرُّبِ إِلَى الْكَوَاكِبِ السَّبْعَةِ، وَأَنَّهَا تَفْعَلُ مَا يُلْتَمَسُ مِنْهَا، فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ. وَإِنْ كَانَ لَا يُوجِبُ الْكُفْرَ فَإِنِ اعْتَقَدَ إِبَاحَتَهُ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ.
Ash-Shfi Rahimahullh said: When someone learns Sihr, we say to him, Describe your Sihr to us. If he describes that which requires Kufr such as what the people of Babylon believed in from seeking Taqarrub (nearness) from the seven stars and believing that they can do whatever they are requested to do; then he is a Kfir. If it does not require Kufr, and if he believes that it is Mubh (permissible); then he is a Kfir.[3]

Ibnu Hajar al-Haytam Rahimahullh summarized the view of the Shfis saying,


مذهبنا في السحر ما بسطناه فيما مرَّ. وحاصله أنه إن اشتمل على عبادة مخلوق كشمس أو قمر أو كوكب أو غيرها أو السجود له أو تعظيمه كما يعظم الله سبحانه وتعالى، أو اعتقاد أن له تأثيراً بذاته أو تنقيص نبي أو ملك بشرطه السابق، أو اعتقد إباحة السحر بجميع أنواعه كان كفراً وردة، فيستتاب الساحر فإن تاب وإلا قتل.
Our view concerning Sihr is as we explained before. Its summary is that if this Sihr includes worshipping a created being such as the sun, moon, a star, or others; prostrating to it; making glorifying it as Allh Subhnah wa Tal is glorified; having Itiqd that it has influence by itself (on the universe); humiliating a Nab (prophet) or an angel with the given condition; or having Itiqd that all types of Sihr is Mubh; then this is Kufr (disbelief) and Riddah (apostasy). Thereafter, the magician is requested o repent; so he repents, otherwise, he is killed.

After giving a similar explanation, al-Haytam mentions that the types of Sihr which do not contain these Kufr actions would not be accounted as Kufr.[4]

As seen, the scholars whom do not account Sihr as Kufr have declared Takfr with Ittifq (agreement) upon the one who adds Kufr, Shirk, and worship to other than Allh to his Sihr. In reality even an ordinary sane Muslim would not doubt such Sihr being Kufr; let alone an lim. Regarding the issue ad-Dasq, from amongst the scholars of the Mlik Madhhab, said,


فَقَوْلُ الْإِمَامِ - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ - إنَّ تَعَلُّمَ السِّحْرِ وَتَعْلِيمَهُ كُفْرٌ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْمَلْ بِهِ ظَاهِرٌ فِي الْغَايَةِ إذْ تَعْظِيمُ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَنِسْبَةُ الْكَائِنَاتِ إلَيْهَا لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ عَاقِلٌ يُؤْمِنُ بِاَللَّهِ أَنْ يَقُولَ فِيهِ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِكُفْرٍ
The statement of the Imm Radiyallhu Anh, Learning and teaching Sihr is Kufr; even if he does not act upon it is clear to the point, since no sane person who believes in Allh would say that making Tadhm to the shaytn, and attributing the (affairs in the) universe to them is not Kufr.[5]

Therefore, the scholars who declare performing Sihr or learning it is not Kufr say this assuming all acts of Shirk mentioned above are not found in all types of Sihr. Otherwise, if they had known Sihr cannot be done without the mentioned acts of Shirk and Kufr or if they had accepted this; they would not have hesitated regarding it. The Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh Rahmatullhi Alayh stated the following regarding this,


وعند التحقيق ليس بين القولين اختلاف، فإن من لم يكفر لظنه أنه يتأتى بدون الشرك وليس كذلك بل لا يأتي السحر الذي من قبل الشياطين إلا بالشرك وعبادة الشيطان والكواكب، ولهذا سماه الله كفراً في قوله: {إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ}
In the presence of Tahqq (verification), there is no Ikhtilf between the two views (i.e. the position held regarding Sihr being Kufr and the position held regarding Sihr not being Kufr). For verily, those who did not consider magic to be Kufr deemed that it can be brought about without (performing) Shirk. However, the matter is not like this (i.e. this is incorrect). Rather, Sihr which comes from the direction of the shaytn is not brought about except with Shirk and Ibdah to the shaytn and the stars. This is why Allh has named Sihr as Kufr in His statement,

إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ
We are only for trial, so do not disbelieve (by learning this magic from us). (al-Baqarah 2/102)

وأما سحر الأدوية والتدخين ونحوه فليس بسحر، وإن سمي سحراً فعلى سبيل المجاز كتسمية القول البليغ والنميمة سحراً، ولكنه يكون حراماً لمضرته، ويعزر من يفعله تعزيراً بليغاً
() As for Sihr that is performed with medicine, incense, and its likes, then they are not Sihr. They are called Sihr as a figurative expression, just as rhetoric speech and tell carrying are called Sihr. However, due to the harm it carries, it is Harm, and the one who acts upon it will openly be disciplined.[6]

Thus, it becomes clear that the difference of opinion regarding Sihr initially originates regarding its context. Scholars that pass the ruling of Kufr regarding Sihr state that Sihr cannot be performed without Kufr, and they accuse the scholars who do not rule it as Kufr with lack of knowledge regarding the real context of Sihr -as it is understood from the statement of Ibnul Arab quoted above regarding him criticizing the Shfi scholars. Whether or not they rule Sihr as Kufr, no scholar has doubted regarding the acts of Shirk (such as worshiping the stars and the Jinn) found in Sihr being Shirk. This is because these scholars also declare Takfr upon those who do Sihr which contain such actions.

When it is said, Even though there are many evidences such as the ones al-Qurtub listed above and many more, why did a group of scholars persist upon not naming Sihr as Kufr? The following can be said in response:

To begin with, the indications of the evidences for the matter which account Sihr to be Kufr are not clear enough to attribute the opponent with Kufr and Dallah (misguidance). This is because Sihr is not openly mentioned as Kufr in any of these evidences. Their relation with Sihr is only understood because of the flow of the phrases. For example, the expression in the yah,


وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلكِنَّ الشَّياطِينَ كَفَرُوا
Sulaymn did not disbelieve but the shaytn (pl. shaytn; devils) disbelieved (al-Baqarah 2/102)

It is not clear that this expression is regarding Sihr. For this reason, al-Whid who is amongst the Shfi Ulam, mentioned a view interpreting it as ,
   
وما ستر سليمان كتب السحر، ولكن الشياطين سترته ودفنته
Sulaymn did not hide the books of Sihr (under his throne), but the shaytn hid them and buried them.[7]

This is because the term Kufr means covering and hiding in Arabic. However, the weakness of this interpretation is evident. The term Kufr used in the yah has been used with its well-known meaning in the Sharah according to the majority of the Ulam. However, even if this is accepted, those who do not consider Sihr to be Kufr claim that the types of magic which contain Kufr is intended with this yah. Ibnu Hajar al-Asqaln, who is one of the prominent Shfi scholars, stated the following in this regards,


وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ فَإِنَّ ظَاهِرَهَا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِذَلِكَ وَلَا يُكْفَرُ بِتَعْلِيمِ الشَّيْءِ إِلَّا وَذَلِكَ الشَّيْءُ كُفْرٌ وَكَذَا قَوْلُهُ فِي الْآيَةِ عَلَى لِسَانِ الْمَلَكَيْنِ إِنَّمَا نَحن فتْنَة فَلَا تكفر فَإِنَّ فِيهِ إِشَارَةً إِلَى أَنَّ تَعَلُّمَ السِّحْرِ كُفْرٌ فَيَكُونُ الْعَمَلُ بِهِ كُفْرًا وَهَذَا كُلُّهُ وَاضِحٌ عَلَى مَا قَرَّرْتُهُ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ بِبَعْضِ أَنْوَاعِهِ وَقَدْ زَعَمَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَنَّ السِّحْرَ لَا يَصِحُّ إِلَّا بِذَلِكَ وَعَلَى هَذَا فَتَسْمِيَةُ مَا عَدَا ذَلِكَ سِحْرًا مَجَازٌ كَإِطْلَاقِ السِّحْرِ عَلَى الْقَوْلِ الْبَلِيغِ

وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلكِنَّ الشَّياطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ
Sulaymn did not disbelieve but the shaytn (pl. shaytn; devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic (al-Baqarah 2/102)

Indeed, its apparent is that they have committed Kufr with it, and learning nothing makes a person commit Kufr except that this thing itself is Kufr. Likewise is His statement on the tongues of the two angels,

إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ
We are only for trial, so do not disbelieve (by learning this magic from us). (al-Baqarah 2/102)

In it, there is indication that learning Sihr is Kufr, thus acting upon it becomes Kufr. As I previously clarified, all of these are regarding acting upon some types of Sihr. Some have claimed that Sihr cannot be done without this (Kufr). According to this view, naming things other than this as Sihr which is Majz (a metaphorical expression), like the generalization of al-Qawlul Balgh (explicit statement) as Sihr.[8]

Therefore Ibnu Hajar stated that the Sihr described as Kufr in the yah only refers to the Sihr which clearly comprises Kufr and that the view the other types of Sihr which are not known to comprise Kufr are also Kufr is merely a claim. The sensitivity of the Shfi scholars regarding this issue is the Nuss (pl. Nass; textual proofs) regarding shedding the blood of a Muslim being Harm. As understood, they did not see the Nuss which denote Sihr being Kufr clear enough to shed the blood of a Muslim and they explained shedding blood to be regarding the types of Sihr which contain Kufr. Thus, Imm Shfi Rahmatullh Alayh in the continuation of the chapter where he explains Sihr not being an act of Kufr per se, he stated that it is Harm to shed the blood of Muslim unjustly and he also mentioned the Nuss regarding it. The Shfi scholars also present the Hadith stating where ishah Radiyallhu Anh sold her slave instead of killing her in evidence for their view. The passage we quoted from al-Qurtub comprises the discussion of the evidences.

The preferred view concerning the matter is that Sihr is Kufr with all of its types, as accepted by the Jumhr (majority of the scholars). On the other hand, those who hold the other view have their own evidences for it, as it is the case for every matter in Fiqh in which there is Ikhtilf.

Therefore, it becomes clear that those who rely upon the Ikhtilf regarding Sihr being disbelief and claim that it is Jiz (permissible) to have Ikhtilf in almost every type of Kufr and that one who falls into such Ikhtilf cannot be declared Takfr upon are lying and in deceit. Thus, these people used Fsid (invalid) Qiys (analogy) between a matter where the context and also evidences of it being Kufr is based upon obscurity such as in Sihr with seeking judgment from the Tght -in which both its context and its evidences are obvious.

Also, they overlook the Ijm of the Ulam regarding Sihr being Kufr if it contains Kufr and the fact that the Ulam did not disagree regarding the ruling of the acts of Shirk in Sihr (such as closeness to the stars, directing Du to the Jinni, seeking refuge in them, etc.). Moreover, they presented the Ikhtilf regarding Sihr as if it is a simple Ikhtilf which does not have any Illah (reason) for it and they introduced it as if the scholars had disagreed regarding Shirk or the description of Ibdah. So much so that we have even heard one of the Dut (pl. D; callers) of Jahannam (Hellfire) trying to introduce the matter as if there is Ikhtilf regarding declaring Takfr upon the Tght since some Ulam described the magician as Tght! Whereas these illusionist Dajjls whom them themselves are from amongst the Tght magicians- should know that if they even had a small share from Ilm (knowledge), they would have known that the Ulam did not and would not ever have disagreed regarding magicians that act as Tght or claim divinity.

Consequently, their attempt to prove that there could be Ikhtilf amongst the Ulam regarding seeking judgment from the Tght, directing Du to the graves, seeking judgment of man-made laws and systems, ruling with man-made laws and systems, just as there is Ikhtilf amongst the Ulam regarding Sihr being Kufr or not will not go any further then a Btil way of bringing evidences. This is because in all of the mentioned acts, there is giving to other than Allh what is specific to Allh Tal such as the Names, Sift (Attributes), Acts, and Ibdah, which is Shirk. In the event where clear Shirk exists, there will be no Ikhtilf between any lim.

As explained earlier, whenever ruling with the laws of the Tght or seeking judgment from these laws is the issue, directing Ibdah to the Tght is also the issue because the Tashr (law-making) right of Allh is given to the Tght. Therefore, the mention of seeking judgment from the Tght without directing Ibdah to the Tght is Btil, from both the Aql (intellectual) and the Shar (religious) point of views.

Linking between Ibdah to other than Allh being Kufr with Qasd (purpose), Niyyah (intention), and Itiqd (belief) is the Usl (methodology) of the Jahmiyyah Madhhab whom the Salaf declared Takfr upon.

Today, those who do not declare Takfr upon those who say we say seeking judgment from the Tght is Kufr, but if one doubts regarding a man whose Niyyah (intention) is not seeking judgment from the Tght but is merely getting back what is rightfully his, we would not declare Takfr upon him or we do not declare Takfr upon those who fasten the Kufr of seeking judgment from the Tght with Istihll (permitting); are just like the Jahmiyyah whom say that even if one prostrates to idols, he is not declared Takfr upon until he makes Istihll. These people doubt the Kufr of this Khlis (pure) Jahm.

Furthermore these people are even worse than the Jahmiyyah from the Usl perspective. The reason being, even the Jahmiyyah declare Takfr in the Dhhir (apparent) upon those in such state and then claim that they would be Mumin (believer) in the presence of Allh if they have a Sahh (correct) Itiqd. Whereas, these people name a person who acts upon such clear Shirk, as Muslim; both in the Dhhir and in the Btin. Moreover, they even issue Fatw (pl. Fatw; religious verdicts) for their actions. Since this is not our main topic, we do not go in detail.

We praise Allh Tal for allowing us to expose another lie fabricated against the Dn by such fraudsters. Was Salm!

Footnotes:
 1. Al-Qurtub, Tafsr, 2/47-49.
 
 2. Ash-Shfi, al-Umm, 1/293.
 
 3. Ibnu Kathr, Tafsr, Thq. Sm bin Muhammad Salmah, 1/371; Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, Fathul Majd, p. 281.
 
 4. Ibnu Hajar al-Haytam, al-Ilm bi Qawtiil Islm, 221.
 
 5. Hshiyatud Dasq alash Sharhil Kabr, 4/302.
 
 6. Sulaymn bin Abdillh, Taysrul Azzil Hamd, 326-327.
 
 7. Al-Whid, at-Tafsrul Bast, 3/191.
 
 8. Ibnu Hajar, Fathul Br, 10/255.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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