دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

Author Topic: IS THERE SUCH A THING AS CONTAGIOUSNESS IN DISEASE?  (Read 46 times)

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IS THERE SUCH A THING AS CONTAGIOUSNESS IN DISEASE?
« on: 27.05.2020, 07:53:57 PM »

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحَمْدُ للهِ وَحْدَهُ ، وَالصَّلاة وَالسَّلامُ على مَنْ لا نبيَّ بَعْدَهُ ، وَبَعْدُ

Is There Such a Thing as Contagiousness in Disease?

Quote from: Question 08.07.2015, 05:48
Can diseases be contagious? Like the plague or tuberculosis? A person reported that Muhammad bin AbdulWahhab said there is no such thing. The narration of Omar ra was mentioned about this issue. Surely, the issue is related with qadar. Of course, it is Allah Taala who makes the disease spread to the human and heals him. Merely the reason can be such. Allah knows best. I would be happy if you could give a summarized answer with this regards.

Salam alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

Wa Alaykumus Salm wa Rahmatullhi wa Barakatuhu.

In the section relating to superstitions found in his book Fathul Majd, Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan Rahimahullh made the following explanations relating to the subject:


قال: "وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قال: " لا عدوى ولا طيرة ولا هامة ولا صَفَر ". أخرجاه. زاد مسلم: " ولا نوء ولا غول "

قال أبو السعادات: "العدوى" اسم من الإعداء. كالدعوى. يقال: أعداه الداء يعديه إعداء: إذا أصابه مثل ما بصاحب الداء. وقال غيره: "لا عدوى" هو اسم من الإعداء، وهو مجاوزة العلة من صاحبها إلى غيره، والمنفي نفس سراية العلة أو إضافتها إلى العلة. والأول هو الظاهر.

وفي رواية لمسلم: أن أبا هريرة كان يحدث بحديث لا عدوى، ويحدث عن النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم أنه قال: " لا يُورد مُمرِض على مُصِح ". ثم إن أبا هريرة اقتصر على حديث: " لا يورد ممرض على مصح ". وأمسك عن حديث: " لا عدوى "، فراجعوه وقالوا: سمعناك تحدث به، فأبى أن يعترف به. قال أبو مسلمة- الراوي عن أبي هريرة-: فلا أدري أنسي أبو هريرة أو نسخ أحد القولين الآخر؟

وقد روى حديث: " لا عدوى " جماعة من الصحابة: أنس بن مالك، وجابر بن عبد الله; والسائب بن يزيد، وابن عمر وغيرهم، وفي بعض روايات هذا الحديث: " وفِرّ من المجذوم كما تفر من الأسد ".

وقد اختلف العلماء في ذلك. وأحسن ما قيل فيه: قول البيهقي، وتبعه ابن الصلاح وابن القيم وابن رجب وابن مفلح وغيرهم: أن قوله: " لا عدوى " على الوجه الذي يعتقده أهل الجاهلية من إضافة الفعل إلى غير الله تعالى، وإن هذه الأمور تعدي بطبعها. وإلا فقد يجعل الله بمشيئته مخالطة الصحيح من به شيء من الأمراض سببا لحدوث ذلك، ولهذا قال: " فر من المجذوم كما تفر من الأسد ". وقال: " لا يورد ممرض على مصح ". وقال في الطاعون: " من سمع به في أرض فلا يقدم عليه ". وكل ذلك بتقدير الله تعالى. ولأحمد والترمذي عن ابن مسعود مرفوعا: " لا يعدي شيء قالها ثلاثا، فقال أعرابي: يا رسول الله إن النُّقْبَة4 من الجَرَب تكون بمِشْفَر البعير أو بذنبه في الإبل العظيمة

فتجرب كلها؟ فقال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم: " فمن أجرب الأول؟ لا عدوى ولا طيرة ولا هامة ولا صفر، خلق الله كل نفس وكتب حياتها ومصائبها ورزقها ". فأخبر صلي الله عليه وسلم أن ذلك كله بقضاء الله وقدره، والعبد مأمور باتقاء أسباب الشر إذا كان في عافية. فكما أنه يؤمر أن لا يلقي نفسه في الماء وفي النار، مما جرت العادة أنه يهلك أو يضر، فكذلك اجتنب مقاربة المريض كالمجذوم، والقدوم على بلد الطاعون؛ فإن هذه كلها أسباب للمرض والتلف،

فالله سبحانه هو خالق الأسباب ومسبباتها، لا خالق غيره ولا مقدر غيره. وأما إذا قوي التوكل على الله والإيمان بقضاء الله وقدره، فقويت النفس على مباشرة بعض هذه الأسباب اعتمادا على الله ورجاء منه أن لا يحصل به ضرر، ففي هذه الحال تجوز مباشرة ذلك، لا سيما إذا كانت مصلحة عامة أو خاصة، وعلى هذا يحمل الحديث الذي رواه أبو داود والترمذي.

" أن النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم أخذ بيد مجذوم فأدخلها معه في القصعة، ثم قال: كل بسم الله ثقة بالله وتوكلا عليه". وقد أخذ به الإمام أحمد. وروي ذلك عن عمر وابنه وسلمان -رضي الله عنهم-. ونظير ذلك ما روي عن خالد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه أنه أكل السم. ومنه مَشي سعد ابن أبي وقاص وأبي مسلم الخولاني على متن البحر. قال ابن رجب -رحمه الله-.

He said:

It is narrated from Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh that Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


لاَ عَدْوَى وَلاَ طِيَرَةَ وَلاَ هَامَةَ وَلاَ صَفَرَ
There is no contagious disease nor superstitions, there is no bad nocturnal birds nor Safar (bad luck perceived in the pre-Islmic eras pertaining to the month of Safar). (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707, 5717, 5757, 5770; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, with similar wording 2223)

This was narrated by al-Bukhr and Muslim. Muslim added to it,

وَلاَ نَوْءَ وَلاَ غُولَ
There is no Naw (star which supposedly causes rain) nor a ghoul. (with similar wording in Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, 2222, 3913)

Abus Sadt said, Adw (contagious disease) is an Ism (name) from al-Id, just like ad-Daw. When a person is inflicted with a similar infliction with the possessor of the illness (microbe), it is said, Adhud D, Yaduhu, Id.

Others said, There is no contagious disease Adw is an Ism from al-Id, which is the transmission of the defect from its possessor to another. That which is prohibited from is either the transmission of the defect or ascribing the transmission to the defect itself. The first is apparent.

It is narrated in the narration of Muslim that Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh used to narrate the Hadth,


لاَ عَدْوَى
There is no contagious disease. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707, 5717, 5756, 5757, 5770; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, 2222-2225)

He would also narrate from the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he said,

لاَ يُورِدُ مُمرِض عَلَى مُصِحّ
The one who has a sick camel should never bring it near a healthy camel. (with similar wording in al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5771, 5773-5775; Muslim, Hadth no. 2221)

Afterwards, Ab Hurayrah restricted himself to the Hadth,

لاَ يُورِدُ مُمرِض عَلَى مُصِحّ
The one who has a sick camel should never bring it near a healthy camel. (with similar wording in al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5771, 5773-5775; Muslim, Hadth no. 2221)

And he refrained from narrating the Hadth,

لاَ عَدْوَى
There is no contagious disease. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707, 5717, 5756, 5757, 5770; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220, 2222-2225)

The people consulted him regarding it and said, We heard you narrate this.

Ab Hurayrah Radiyallhu Anh rejected admitting this. Ab Maslamah the narrator from Ab Hurayrah said, I do not know, did Ab Hurayrah forget this Hadth, or did one of the two Hadth abrogate the other?

The Hadth, there is no contagious disease was narrated by a group of the Sahbah (companions): Anas bin Mlik, Jbir bin Abdillh, as-Sib bin Yazd, Ibnu Umar, and other than them. In some narrations of this Hadth, it is


وفِرَّ مِنَ الْمَجْذُومِ كَمَا تَفِرُّ مِنَ الْأَسَدِ
And run away from the leper as you run away from the lion (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707)

The scholars disagreed on this issue. The best said about it was the view of al-Bayhaq, which was followed by Ibnus Salh, Ibnul Qayyim, Ibnu Rajab. Ibnu Muflih and others, which is that the statement of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam there is no contagious disease is regarding ascribing the act to other than Allhu Tal, which was believed in by the people of Jhiliyyah (pre-Islmic era). Undoubtedly, these things are contagious in nature, otherwise, Allh has made with His will that the reason of the disease occurring is the healthy person accompanying a person who has something from these diseases. This is why Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

فِرَّ مِنَ الْمَجْذُومِ كَمَا تَفِرُّ مِنَ الْأَسَدِ
Run away from the leper as you run away from the lion. (al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5707)

And he said,

لَا يُورِد مُمْرِضٌ عَلَى مُصِحٍّ
The one who has a sick camel should never bring it near a healthy camel. (with similar wording in al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5771, 5773-5775; Muslim, Hadth no. 2221)

He also said regarding the Tn (plague),

مَنْ سَمِعَ بِهِ فِي أَرْضٍ فَلَا يقدم عَلَيْهِ
Whoever hears that it has struck a land should not enter upon it. (with similar wording in al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 3473, 5729-5730, 6973; Muslim, Hadth no. 2218-2219)

All of this happens with the Qadar (decree) of Allh.

Ahmad and at-Tirmidh narrated from Ibnu Masd Radiyallhu Anh in a Marf Hadth (that Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,)


لا يعدي شيء
Nothing causes contagiousness. He said it thrice.

Thereupon a Bedouin said, O Raslullh! The wound because of scabies occur on the lip or tail of the big camel which consequently wounds (gives scabies) to all the camels?

Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,


فَمَنْ أَجْرَبَ الأَوَّلَ؟ لاَ عَدْوَى وَلاَ طِيَرَةَ وَلاَ هَامَةَ وَلاَ صَفَرَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ كُلَّ نَفْسٍ وَكَتَبَ حَيَاتَهَا وَمَصَائِبَهَا وَرِزْقَهَا
So, what made the first camel have wounds? There is no contagious disease nor superstitions, there is no bad nocturnal birds nor Safar. Allh created every soul and wrote its life, afflictions and subsistence. (with similar wording in at-Tirmidh, 2143; al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5717, 5770; Muslim, Hadth no. 2220)

Thus the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam informed us that all of these happen through the Qadh (decree) and Qadar (pre-destination) of Allh. The duty of the servant is to avoid the reasons leading to evil when he is healthy. Just as he is commanded to not throw himself into fire or water because of what has passed as customs that he will perish or be harmed, refraining from coming close to the ill person such as the leper and advancing towards the land of Tn is similar. This is because all of these are reasons of being sick and being harmed. Thus, Allh Subhnahu is the one who created the causes and effects; there is nothing which creates or decrees besides Him. When having at-Tawakkul (trust) in Allh and having mn (faith) in the Qadh and Qadar of Allh becomes strong, consequently he himself will be strong in undertaking some of these causes while relying upon Allh and having Raj (hope) from Him that nothing of the harm will happen to him. So in this circumstance, it is permissible to undertake such a thing, especially when there is a private or general interest. The Hadth which Ab Dwd and at-Tirmidh narrated is interpreted with this, that the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam held the hand of a man who had leprosy, and then he entered it in a bowl. He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam then said,

كُلْ بِسْمِ اللهِ ثِقَةً بِاللهِ وَتَوَكُّلًا عَلَيْهِ
Eat while saying Bismillh (In the name of Allh), relying on Allh and having Tawakkul in Him. (at-Tirmidh, Hadth no. 1817; Ab Dwd, Hadth no. 3925; Ibnu Mjah, Hadth no. 3542)

Imm Ahmad adopted this Hadh, and this was also narrated from Umar, his son (Ibnu Umar), and Salmn Radiyallhu Anhum. That which was narrated from Khlid Ibnul Wald Radiyallhu Anh that he ate poison is akin to this. Also, Sad bin Ab Waqqs and Ab Muslim al-Khawln Radiyallhu Anhum walked upon the surface of the sea. These were mentioned by Ibnu Rajab Rahimahullh. (Fathul Majd, p. 306-308)

Since the matter is quite clear, there is not much to add to the explanations of the Shaykh. If a person attributes contagiousness to the disease itself without thinking that this is by the decree of Allh, then this is Btil (false). However, there is no problem in believing that standing next to the ill person will be a means of being sick by the decree of Allh, and the correct belief regarding the issue is as such. Wallhu Alam (and Allh knows best)
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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