دار التوحيد Dâr'ul Tawhîd

Author Topic: THE WORSHIP OF RASŰLULLÂH DURING DHU'L HIJJAH | IBNU RAJAB AL-HANBALÎ  (Read 447 times)

Murabit

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The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

Murabit

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THE MERIT OF THE FIRST TEN DAYS OF DHŰ AL- HIJJAH

Ibn ‘Abbas radiyallâhu anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “There are no days in which good deeds are mere beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than in these days.” Referring to these ten days. The Companions asked, “O Messenger of Allâh! Not even Jihad in the cause of Allâh?” He replied “Not even Jihad in the cause of Allâh. Except the person who leaves with his self and his wealth and does not return with any of it [i.e. he spends all his wealth in Jihad and he himself dies a martyr].” [1]

The merit of the first ten days of Dhű al-Hjjah is discussed in two sections:
  • The merit of good deeds during these days - as in the above Hadîth.
  • The merit of the days them selves.
 1. Al-Bukhari (969).
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Murabit

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Section one: The merit of good deeds during these days

The above Hadîth shows that good deeds during these days are more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than the other days of the world without any exception. If they are the most beloved in His sight, they are the most superior according to Him. This Hadîth is also narrated with the words, “There are no days in which good deeds are more superior than in these ten days.”

The above Hadîth is related with a doubt between the words “more beloved” and “more superior”. If good deeds during these ten days are more superior and more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, than all the other days of the year, deeds which are not superior during these days will become superior over deeds of other days even if they are originally superior. It is for this reason that the Companions Radiyallahu anhuma asked, “O Messenger of Allâh Not even Jihad in the cause of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ?” He replied, “Not even Jihad.” He then excluded one type of jihad which is the most superior form of jihad. He was asked, “Which Jihad is the most superior?” He replied, “The person whose animal is hamstrung and his blood is shed [i.e. he is martyred]. Such a person is the most superior in the sight of Allâh!.”

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam heard a person making this supplication, “O Allâh! Give me the most superior of what You give to Your righteous servants.” So he said to him, “[If this is what you want], your animal will be hamstrung and you will be martyred.” So this specific type of jihad is superior to other good deeds in these ten days.

As for the other types of jihad, the good deeds which are done during these ten days are superior and more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than them. So is the case with other good deeds. This shows that a non- superior deed done during a superior time is attached to a superior deed at other times, and it surpasses it because its reward is multiplied. This additional reward is mentioned in the Hadîth of Ibn ‘Abbas Radiyallahu anh, “Good deeds during these days are multiplied by 700 times.” This Hadîth is weak.

There are several AHadîth which mention different numbers by which the deeds are multiplied. At-Tirmidhî rahimahullâh and Ibn Mâjah rahimahullâh narrate from an-Nuhâs ibn Qahm from Qatadah from Ibn al-Műsâyyib from Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “There are no days which are more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ wherein He should be worshipped than the ten days of Dhű al- Hijjah. Fasting on each of these days equals fasting for a full year. Engaging in night worship on each of these nights equals engaging in worship on the night of Power (laylatul Qadr).” An-Nuhâs ibn Qahm is considered to be a weak narrator.

At-Tirmidhî rahimahullâh states from al-Bukhârî rahimahullâh that the Hadîth narrated from Qatadah from Sa’id [ibn al-Műsâyyib] is a mursal Hadîth.

Thuwayr ibn Abî Fâkhitah - who is a weak narrator - narrates from Mujâhid from Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh who said, “There is no day which is greater in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than Friday - except for the ten days - because a deed during these ten days is equal to doing deeds for the entire year.”

Abű ‘Amr an-Naysâbűrî narrates in the book al-Hikâyât from Humayd who said: I heard Ibn Sîrîn and Qatâdah saying, “Fasting on each of the ten days equals fasting for an entire year.”

Greater numbers of multiplication of rewards are related in this regard. Hârűn ibn Műsâ an-Nahwî said: I heard al-Hasan rahimahullâh narrating from Anas ibn Mâlik Radiyallahu anh who said, “It used to be said with regard to the ten days that each day equals 1 000 days, and the day of ‘Arafah [9th Dhű al-Hijjah] equals 10 000 days.” Al-Hakîm rahimahullâh said, “The chains of these narrations do not mention the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam”

Less than a year is also mentioned in the multiplication of rewards. Humayd ibn Zanjawayh said: Yahyâ ibn ‘Abdililâh al- Harrânî related to us, Abű Bakr ibn Abî Maram related to us from Râshid ibn Sa’d that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Fasting on each of the ten days is equal to fasting an entire month.”[1] This is a mursal Hadîth with a weak chain. Abd ar-Razzâq narrates from Ja’far, from Hishâm, from al-Hasan who said, “Fasting on one day from these ten days is equal to fasting for two months.” ‘Abd al- Karîm relates from Mujâhid, “Deeds during these ten days are multiplied.”

There are other Ahâdîth in this regard, but they are fabricated. We therefore did not quote them. The Hadîth of Ibn ‘Abbas Radiyallahu anh which mentions the multiplication of all good deeds without exception in the ten days is one of the fabricated Ahâdîth.

There are Ahâdîth which mention fasting specifically on these days, engaging in night worship, and excessive remembrance during them. Some of them are worthy of mention while others are not because of their unauthentic nature.

The Hadîth of Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh was quoted previously. Similarly, the narrations of Râshid ibn Sa’d, al-Hasan, Ibn Sîrîn and Qatâdah with regard to fasting during these days were quoted above.

Hafsah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ said that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did not leave out fasting on the day of ‘Ashűrâ’ [10th of Muharram], the ten days [of Dhű al-Hijjah], and three days of every month.[2]  There are differences on the status of the chain of narrators. Some wives of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam reported that he did not leave out fasting on the 9th of Dhű al-Hijjah.[3]

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh was from among those who used to fast these ten days. The statements of al-Hasan, Ibn Sîrîn and Qatâdah with regard to the merit of fasting on these days was mentioned previously. This is the view of the majority of the ‘ulamâ’ or many of them.

‘Â’ishah radiyâllahu ‘anhâ said, “I never saw the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam fasting the ten days.” Another narration states, “in the ten days.”

Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh differs in his reply to this Hadîth. On one occasion he said that there is a Hadîth which is contrary to this, and he referred to the Hadîth of Hafsah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ. He made reference to the fact that there are differences in the chain of narrators in the Hadîth of ‘Â’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ. Al-A’mash attributed it to, and Mansűr narrated it from Ibrâhîm as a mursal Hadîth. Other ‘ulamâ’ also say that when there is a difference between ‘A’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anh and Hafsah radiyallâhu ‘anh with regard to an affirmation and negation, the statement of affirmation will be adopted. This is because the person who is affirming possesses some knowledge which the one who is negating does not possess.

On another occasion Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh says that A’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anh meant that the Messenger of Allâh . did not fast the full ten days. In other words, Hafsah radiyallâhu ‘anh meant that he used to fast most of the days [and not all the days]. It would therefore be appropriate for one to fast some of the days and not fast on others.

This reconciliation will be correct with regard to the narration with states, “I never saw him fasting the ten days.” As for the narration which states, “I never saw him fasting in the ten days.”, then this reconciliation will be far-fetched or difficult.

Ibn Sîrîn rahimahullâh disliked anyone saying, “He fasted the ten days” because it gives the impression that the day of sacrifice [10th of Dhű al-Hjjah] is included in these ten days. One should rather say, “He fasted the nine days.” However, when fasting is ascribed to the ten days, it refers to those days in which it is permitted to fast. The Hadîth was quoted previously which states that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to fast the ten days.

If a person takes a vow to fast the ten days, he will have to fast for the nine days and he does not have to make up for the one fast nor pay any atonement for it. This is because the “ten days” conventionally (‘urf) refer to the first nine days. It is possible that there may be differences of opinion with regard to keeping qada’ (making up for the missed fast) or paying atonement. This is because Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh says that if a person takes a vow to fast the month of Shawwâl, does not fast on the day of ‘id al-fitr and fasts for the rest of the month, then it is necessary for him to keep qada’ and pay the atonement.

Al-Qâdî Abű Ya’lâ says this will apply if he makes the intention of fasting on all the days of Shawwâl. But if merely says that he is going to fast the month of Shawwâl, he does not owe anything. This is because the day of ‘id al-fitr is excluded by the Sharî’ah. This is one of the principles of jurisprudence: can a general ruling be made specific by the Sharî’ah or not? The differences on this issue are well known.

As for engaging in night worship during these ten nights, this is desirable. A Hadîth in this regard was quoted previously. There are certain Ahadîth which mention engaging in night worship specifically on the two ‘id nights. These are not authentic. There are traditions which mention that supplications are accepted on these two nights. Imam ash-Shâfi’i rahimahullâh and other ‘ulamâ’ consider this to be desirable.

Sa’îd ibn Jubayr - who narrated this Hadîth from Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallahu anh - used to strive profusely when these ten days commenced. He used to say, “Do not put off your lights during these ten nights, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ loves worship in them.”

As for the desirability of abundance of dhikr during these days, this is inferred from the verse, “and they may mention the name of Allâh on the appointed days” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 28) The appointed days referred to in this verse are these ten days according to the majority of ‘ulamâ’. This will be explained later - if Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ wills.

Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “There are no days which are greater and more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ in which good deeds are done than in these ten days. So engage in Abundant tahlîl (saying lâ ilâha illallâh), takbîr (saying Allâhu akbar) and tahmîd (saying al-hamdulillâh) in them.”[4]

Someone could make the following objection: If deeds in the ten days are superior to deeds in other days - even if that deed is superior to a deed which is done in the ten days because of the essential merit of the ten days - then this means that the non- superior deed during these ten days will become superior to the extent that it will also be superior to jihad, which is the most superior of all deeds - as inferred from numerous texts. This is also the opinion of Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh and other ‘ulamâ’. This would also mean that hajj is superior to jihad because hajj is specifically performed during these ten days. It is the most superior deed which is done in these days. How, then, can jihad be superior to hajj?

Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh narrates that a man asked, “O Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam Which deeds are the most superior?” He replied, “Belief in Allâh and His Messenger.” He asked, “Then which?” He replied, “Jihad in the cause of Allâh.” He asked, “Then which?” He replied, “A blessed hajj”[5]

The reply to the above is that optional jihad is superior to optional hajj according to all the ‘ulama’. Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh clearly states this. This is also the opinion of ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As Radiyallahu anh. There are marfu‘ Ahadîth in this regard, but there is some reservation with regard to their chains. The above Hadîth of Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh is clear in this regard.

This Hadîth and the Hadîth of Ibn ‘Abbas Radiyallahu anh could be reconciled in two ways:

    (1) The Hadîth of Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallahu anh clearly states that the jihad of the person who does not return with either his wealth or his life is superior to any deed in these ten days. It is thus possible to say that hajj is superior to jihad except for the jihad in which the person does not return with his wealth or life. And this is what the Hadîth of Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh refers to. In such a case, the two Ahadîth will be reconciled.

    (2) Something can become attached to a non-superior deed and thus make it superior to a superior deed, as was explained previously. In such a case, something has become attached to hajj which is making it superior to jihad. It could also happen that it does not become attached to hajj, then in such a case, jihad will be superior. If hajj is compulsory on a person, it will be superior to optional jihad. This is based on the principle that anything which is fard-e-‘ayn is superior to anything which is fard-e-kifâyah according to all the ‘ulamâ’.

This is related specifically with regard to hajj and jihad by ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘Âs Radiyallahu anh. It is related as a marfű’ Hadîth through several chains but there is some reservation in them.

The following statement which the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam attributes to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ makes reference to this, “My servant does not gain proximity to Me with anything equal to what I made compulsory on him.” [In other words, the compulsory deeds are the best means of gaining proximity to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ].

If a pilgrim is not accountable for jihad, e.g. a woman, than his hajj is superior to his going out for jihad. ‘A’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anha said, “O Messenger of Allâh! We consider jihad to be the most superior deed. Should we [women] not go out for jihad?” He said, “The most superior jihad is a blessed hajj.”[6]
Another narration states, “The jihad of you women is hajj.”[7] Another narration states, “What an excellent jihad hajj!”

In like manner, if all the ten days are occupied in hajj, and the person fulfils it in the best manner by fulfilling the obligatory injunctions, abstaining from the unlawful, being kind to the people by greeting and feeding them, engaging in Abundant remembrance of Allâh raising the voice with the talbiyah (saying labbayk, labbayk), and herding his sacrificial animal, then his hajj performed in this manner could well be superior to jihad.

If the hajj is performed in a small portion of these ten days and the person does not perform it in a manner that could be termed as blessed, then jihad will be superior to it. There are statements of Umar Radiyallahu anh, Ibn Umar Radiyallahu anh, Abű Műsa al-Ash’ari Radiyallahu anh and Mujahid rahimahullâh which allude to the superiority of hajj over jihad and all other deeds. These statements have to be applied to a blessed hajj whose blessedness is perfect, and which is fulfilled during the ten days. And Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ knows best.

Someone could ask the following question with regard to this Hadîth, “There are no any days in which good deeds are more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than in these days.” Does this mean that every good deed which is done in any of these ten days is superior to all other good deeds which are done in other days even if they are done for a long period of time?

It seems - and Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ knows best - that this means good deeds in these ten days are superior to good deeds in other ten days. So every good deed done in these ten days is superior to a good deed in other ten days, no matter in which month they are. The superiority of the deed will be for each of these days over each of the other days of the year.

It is said that good deeds in these days are superior to jihad if those good deeds encompass all the ten days. In such a case, they will be superior to jihad in those number of days during other days of the year. If the good deed encompasses some of the ten days [and not all of them], then it is superior to jihad in a like number of days in other days of the year. The proof for this is that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam considered continuous fasting and night worship to be equal to jihad no matter when it is done. So if that continuous deed is done during the ten days, it will be superior to jihad in a like number of days because of the merit and superiority of these ten days.

Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh narrates that a man came to the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and said, “Show me a deed which equals jihad.” He said, “I do not find such a deed.” He then said, “When the mujâhid departs [for jihad], can you go to your place of worship and remain engaged in worship without stopping, and fast without stopping?” The man said, “Who can do such a thing?” This is narrated from al-Bukhari rahimahullâh. Muslim rahimahullâh quotes a similar narration but adds, “The Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam then said, "The similitude of a mujahid in the cause of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is like a person who fasts and engages in night worship - who is devoted to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ - without stopping his salah and fasting until the mujahid returns.”[8]
Another Hadîth of al-Bukhari rahimahullâh states, “The similitude of a mujahid in the cause of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ - and Allâh knows best who wages jihad in His cause - is like that of a fasting person and a person engaged in night worship.”[9] An- Nasaî rahimahullâh narrates, “He is like a fasting person, a person offering salâh with humility, who bows and prostrates Before Allâh”[10]

The following Hadîth shows that this refers to its superiority over jihad for a like number of days. Jâbir Radiyallahu anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “There are no days which are superior in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than the ten days of Dhű al-Hijah.” A man asked, “O Messenger of Allâh Are these ten days better or a like number of days in jihad are better?” He replied, “They are better than a like number of days in jihad.”[11] We thus see that he confined the superiority of these ten days only for a like number of days in jihad, and not for an indefinite number of days.

As for the previous narrations which state that each of these ten days are equal to a year, two months or 1 000 days - these are all Ahadîth stating merits and virtues, they are not strong Ahadîth. Furthermore, most of the merits are with regard to fasting, and the reward for fasting is specifically multiplied. Fasting is for Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and He personally undertakes to reward the fasting person.

Someone may make the objection that this is not peculiar to fasting but includes all deeds, because the Hadîth speaks about the superiority of every deed during these ten days over a similar deed performed during other days of the year. Therefore, it is only the superiority of the person who wages jihad during these ten days which is established over the one who wages jihad at other times of the year.

The other objection which could be made is that if every deed during these ten days is superior to every other ten days, this would mean that fasting during these ten days will be superior to fasting during ten days of Ramadân, and engaging in night worship during these ten nights will be superior to engaging in night worship during ten nights of Ramadân.

The reply to this is as follows: There is no doubt whatsoever that fasting in Ramadân is superior to fasting during these ten days. This is because a compulsory fast is undoubtedly superior to an optional fast. The Hadîth would therefore mean that the compulsory deeds which are done during these ten days are superior to the compulsory deeds which are done during other ten days of the year. Thus, the reward for the compulsory salahs during these ten days will be more than the reward for the compulsory salahs of the ten days of Ramadân. Whatever optional deeds are done during these ten days will be superior to the optional deeds done at any other time.

‘Umar Radiyallahu anh and ‘Ali Radiyallahu anh differed on the issue of keeping the missed fasts of Ramadân during the ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah. ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh considered it to be desirable because of the merit of these days. Keeping the missed fasts of Ramadân during these ten days will therefore be superior to keeping them at other times. This shows the increased reward for compulsory deeds during these ten days over optional deeds. But ‘Ali Radiyallahu anh used to prohibit this. Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh has two statements in this regard. The opinion of ‘Ali Radiyallahu anh is explained thus: if a person keeps missed fasts during these ten days, he will lose out on the virtue of optional fasts during this period. Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh and others provide the same explanation.

It is said that the person keeping missed fasts during this period will also receive the reward of optional fasts. This is based on the opinion of those who say that if a person vows to fast one month and then fasts the month of Ramadân, his vow will be fulfilled and his obligation completed. Other explanations are also given in this regard.

As for the superiority of engaging in night worship during these ten nights over night worship during the nights of Ramadân, this will be explained later on - if Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ wills.
 1. Narrated by Al-Hindi in "Al-Kanz".
 
 2. It was checked before.
 
 3. An-Nasa’ei (4/220).
 
 4. Al-Musnad (7512).
 
 5. It was checked before..
 
 6. Al-Bukhari (1520).
 
 7. Al-Bukhari (2875).
 
 8. Al-Bukhari (2785) and Muslim (1878).
 
 9. Al-Bukhari (2787).
 
 10. An-Nasa’ei in As-Sunan (6/18).
 
 11. Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (1006).
 
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Murabit

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Section two: The merit of the ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah over the ten days of other months

The Hadîth of Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh was quoted previously, “There are no days which are greater and more beloved to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ in which good deeds are done than in these ten days.”

The Sahih of Ibn Hibbân rahimahullâh states: Jâbir Radiyallâhu anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “There are no days which are more superior in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than the ten days of Dhű al-Hijah.” It is narrated through another chain with this addition, “Nor are any nights superior to these nights.” A man asked, “O Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam Are these ten days better or a like number of days in jihad are better?” He replied, “They are better than a like number of days in jihad, except a person who completely soils his face. And there is no day which is superior to the day of ‘Arafah.” Hâfiz Abű Műsâ al-Madînî narrated this Hadîth from Abű Nu’aym with the same chain as that of Ibn Hibbân.

Al-Bazzâr and others also narrate from Jâbir Radiyallahu anh that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The most superior days of the world are the ten days [of Dhű al-Hijjah].” The Companions Radiyallahu anhumâ asked, “O Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam Not even a like number of days in the cause of Allâh?” He replied, “Not even a like number of days in the cause of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ except the person who soils his face with dust.”

The statement of Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh was quoted previously, “There is no day which is greater in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than Friday, except for the ten days.” This shows that the ten days are superior to Friday which is the most superior day of the week.

Suhayl ibn Abî Sâlih narrates from his father who narrates from Ka’b Radiyallahu anh who said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ selected time and the most beloved time in His sight is the sanctified month. The most beloved of the sanctified months in His sight is Dhű al-Hijjah. The most beloved days of Dhű al-Hijjah in His sight are the first ten days.” Some scholars narrate this from Suhayl, from his father, from Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh as a marfű Hadîth. But this is not authentic.

Masrűq rahimahullâh says with regard to the verse, “By the ten nights.” (Sűrah al-Fajr, 89: 2) they are the most superior days of the year. Narrated by ‘Abd ar-Razzaq and others.[1]

Moreover, these ten days contain the day of ‘Arafah. It is related that it is the most superior day of the world, as mentioned in the previously quoted Hadîth of Jâbir Radiyallahu anh. The day of sacrifice (yaum an- nahr) is also in these ten days. ‘Abdullâh ibn Qurt narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The greatest day in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is the day of sacrifice, then the day of qarr.” (the day of qarr is the day of Arafah). Narrated by Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh,[2] Abű Dâ’űd rahimahullâh and others.

All the above demonstrate that the ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah are superior to all other days without any exception. This is with regard to the days themselves.

As for the nights, there are some latter day scholars who say that the nights of the ten nights of Ramadân are superior to these ten nights because they contain the night of Power (laylatul Qadr). But this is very far-fetched.

If the Hadîth of Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh “Night worship on each of these nights is equal to night worship on the night of Power” is authentic, it clearly shows the superiority of these ten nights over the ten nights of Ramadân. This is because the ten nights of Ramadân enjoy merit only because of one night among them. As for these ten nights, night worship in all of them is equal, as per this Hadîth. But the Hadîth of Jâbir Radiyallahu anh which Abű Műsâ narrated clearly mentions the superiority of its nights just as the superiority of its days.

When days are mentioned in a general sense, the nights are included with them. The opposite also applies. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ took an oath on these ten nights, “By the oath of the daybreak. By the ten nights.” (Sűrah al-Fajr, 89: 1-2) This shows the merit of the nights as well. However, it is not proven that these ten nights or any one of them is equal to the night of Power.

Some of our [Hanbalî] scholars claim that the night of Friday is superior to the night of Power. But this is not proven from Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh. Based on the opinion of these scholars, it will not be far-fetched to claim the superiority of these ten nights over the night of Power.

The correct view is what some latter day ‘ulamâ’ said: These ten nights collectively are superior to the ten nights of Ramadân collectively, even though the ten nights of Ramadân have a night which is not surpassed by any other night. And Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ knows best.

The previously quoted statement of Ka’b Radiyallahu anh shows that Dhű al- Hijjah is the most superior of the four sanctified months. Sa’îd ibn Jubayr who narrates this Hadîth from Ibn ‘Abbas Radiyallahu anh is also of the same opinion. He says, “There is no month which is more sanctified than Dhű al-Hijjah.”

Abű Said al-Khudrîyy Radiyallahu anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Ramadân is the chief of the months, and Dhű al-Hijjah is the most sanctified of all.”[3] The chain of this Hadîth is weak.

Abű Said al-Khudrîyy Radiyallahu anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said in his sermon on the day of sacrifice during the Farewell Pilgrimage, “Listen! The most sanctified day is this day, the most sanctified month is this month, and the most sanctified city is this city of yours”[4] This is also narrated by Jâbir, Wâbisah ibn Ma’bad, Nabît ibn Sharit and others from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam all this proves that Dhű al-Hijjah is the most superior of the sanctified months. Al-Hasan rahimahullâh is of the opinion that Muharram is the most sanctified. We will explain this under the chapter on Muharram - if Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ wills. As for the person who says that Rajab is the most sanctified, his opinion is rejected.

Dhű al-Hijjah enjoys other merits apart from those mentioned above. Among them is the fact that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ took an oath in the name of this month in general and specifically on some of its days. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says, “By the oath of the daybreak. By the ten nights.” (Sűrah al- Fajr, 89: 1-2) As for the “daybreak”, this could mean the morning, the break of dawn, the fajr salâh or the entire day. The commentators differ in this regard.

Some say that it refers to a specific daybreak. As to which daybreak it is, these are the different opinions: the daybreak of the 1st of the ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah, the last of its ten days - i.e. the 10th of Dhű al-Hijjah - which is the day of sacrifice. No matter which opinion is considered, the ten days contain the daybreak on which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ took an oath.

As for the “ten nights”, these refer to the ten nights of Dhű al-Hijjah. This is the authentic view of the majority of the past commentators and others. It is also the authentic view of Ibn Abbas Radiyallahu anh. This is narrated from him through several chains. There is one statement of his which says that these refer to the ten nights of Ramadân,[5] but this chain is weak.

There is a Hadîth narrated by Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh and an-Nasa’î Rahimahullâh from Zayd ibn al-Habbâb who said, ‘Ayash ibn ‘Uqbah narrated to us, Khayr ibn Nu’aym narrated to us from Abű az-Zubayr, from Jâbir that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The ten nights refer to the ten of al-ad-hâ, the odd day (al-watr) refers to the day of ‘Arafah, and the even day (ash-shaf’) refers to the day of sacrifice.”[6] It has a sound chain of narrators.

Ibn Abbas Radiyallahu anh also explained the words al-shaf and al-watr as above, as per the narration of ‘Ikramah and others. ‘Ikramah, ad-Dahhâk and others also provide the same explanation. There are numerous opinions with regard to the meaning of these two words. The majority of these opinions state that the ten days or some of them comprise of al-shafa‘ and al-watr, or one of them.

Some say that it refers to the salâhs - some of them contain an even number of rakahs while others contain an odd number of rakahs. Imam Ahmad[7] rahimahullâh and at-Tirmidhî[8] rahimahullâh narrate this from ‘Imrân ibn Husayn Radiyallahu anh from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

Some say that it refers to the creations of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ - some are an odd number while others are an even number, and the ten days [of Dhű al-Hijjah] are included in this. Others say: the even number refers to the entire creation, while the odd number refers to Allâh and that the ten days are included in the creation.

Included in the merits of these ten days is that they are part of the forty days which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ had promised to Műsâ ‘alayhisSalâm Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says, “We promised Műsâ thirty nights and We completed it with another ten. Thus, the set time of his Lord was fulfilled in forty nights.” (Sűrah al-A‘râf, 7: 142)

Are the ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah the last ten days of those forty days in the sense that these ten days completed the period of forty days, or it is the first of the forty days, in which case it will be part of the thirty days which were completed with another ten? There is difference of opinion among the commentators in this regard.

‘Abd ar-Razzâq narrates from Ma’mar, from Yazîd ibn Abî Ziyâd from Mujâhid who said, “There is no deed of the year which is superior to the deed which is done in the ten days of Dhű al- Hijjah, and in the ten days which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ completed for Műsâ ‘alayhissalâm.”[9]

Among the merits of these ten days is that they form the end of the known months - the months of hajj regarding which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says, “The months of hajj are well known.” (Sűrah al-Baqarah, 2: 197) The months of hajj are Shawwâl, Dhű al-Qa’dah and ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah. This is related from ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh.

Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh ,’Ali Radiyallahu anh, Ibn Mas’ud Radiyallahu anh, Ibn ‘Abbas Radiyallahu anh, Ibn az-Zubayr Radiyallahu anh and others. It is also the opinion of the majority of the Tabi’űn, and the madh-hab of Imam ash-Shâfi’î rahimahullâh, Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh, Imam Abű Hanifah rahimahullâh, Imam Abű Yűsuf rahimahullâh, Abű Thaur rahimahullâh and others. However, Imam ash-Ash-Shâfi’î  rahimahullâh and a group of scholars removed the day of sacrifice [10th Dhű al- Hjjah] from these while the others include it because it is the day of the major hajj, and it is on this day that most of the rites of hajj are carried out.

Some scholars state that the entire month of Dhű al-Hijjah is included in the months of hajj. This is the opinion of Imam Mâlik rahimahullâh, and the former opinion of Imam Ash-Shâfi’î  rahimahullâh. This opinion is also attributed to Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh and a group of past scholars. There is a Hadîth in this regard narrated by at-Tabarani but it is not authentic. This is a lengthy issue and it is not the subject of this book.

Among the merits of these ten days is that they form part of the appointed days in which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prescribed His remembrance over the animals which He provided to them. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says, “Proclaim to mankind the hajj. They will come to you on foot and riding upon lean camels - coming from every distant place. So that they may reach [and experience] the places of their benefit and they may mention the name of Allâh on the appointed days over whatever sacrificial animals He may have given them.” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 27-28)

The majority of the ‘ulamâ’ state that these appointed days are the ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah. Ibn Umar Radiyallahu anh, Ibn Abbas Radiyallahu anh, al-Hasan rahimahullâh, ‘Ata’ rahimahullâh, Mujahid rahimahullâh, Ikramah rahimahullâh Qatadah rahimahullâh and an-Nakha’î rahimahullâh are included among these ‘ulamâ’. It is also the opinion of Imam Abű Hanifah rahimahullâh, Imam Ash-Shâfi’î  rahimahullâh and popularly held opinion of Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh.

Abű Műsâ al-Ash’ari Radiyallahu anh was of the opinion that the appointed days are the nine days of Dhű al-Hijjah and not the day of sacrifice [10th]. He said, “Supplication is not rejected during these days.” Narrated by Ja’far al-Faryâbî and others.

Some scholars say that these appointed days refer to the days of sacrifice (10th, 11th. 12th and 13th of Dhű al-Hijjah). This is the opinion of Imam Malik rahimahullâh and Imam Abű Yűsuf rahimahullâh. They say that the “remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ” refers to taking His name at the time of slaughtering the sacrificial animal. It is also the opinion of Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh. Al-Marwazî rahimahullâh says that Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh liked this view, but his previous view is more well-known.

Remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ over the animal is not confined to the time when the animal is being slaughtered. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “In this way have We subjugated them for you so that you may recite the greatness of Allâh for His having shown you the way.” (Sűrah al- Hajj, 22: 27) “For every nation have We appointed a sacrifice so that they may remember the name of Allâh over the slaughter of the cattle which He gave them.” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 34) “Eat, then, of them and feed the poor who is in a bad condition. They should then put to an end their state of dirtiness, fulfil their vows, and circuit this ancient House.” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 28-29) Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prescribes all this after His remembrance during the appointed days and after putting an end to their “state of dirtiness.” This refers to the dirtiness, dustiness and fatigue in the course of the hajj. The circuiting of the Ka’bah takes place on the day of sacrifice and the days following it, and not before it. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ stipulates this after His remembrance during the appointed days with the word “then”. This shows that the appointed days refer to the days before the day of sacrifice, which is the 10th of Dhű al-Hjjah.

As for the verse: “and they may mention the name of Allâh on the appointed days over whatever sacrificial animals He may have given them.” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 28), it is said that this refers to remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ at the time of slaughtering the animal. This is accomplished by remembering Him on the day of sacrifice [10th], which is the best of the days of sacrifice. The more correct opinion is that it refers to remembering Him in gratitude over the bounty of subjugating the animals for His servants. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ showered numerous bounties on His servants through these animals. He enumerates some of these bounties in the Qur’an. The pilgrims enjoy special bounties over other people because they travel on these animals to the Sanctified Musjid to fulfil their rites. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “and riding upon lean camels - coming from every distant place.” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 27) Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “They bear your loads to cities which you would not have reached except with great difficulty.” (Sűrah an-Nahl, 16: 7) They eat their meat, drink their milk, and derive benefit from their wool, fur and hair.

The ten days of Dhű al-Hijjah have a special affinity with the pilgrim because it is the time when he herds his sacrificial animal with which the merit of hajj is completed. He then eats its meat on the last of these ten days, the 10th of Dhű al-Hijjah. The most superior herding of this animal is from the miqat (the boundary of the Haram). A slight injury is made on the surface of the right side of the hump of the animal [to show that it is for hajj], and something is suspended from its neck [also to show that it is for hajj] at the time of donning the ihram, and this is accompanied by the talbiyah (labbayk) which entails the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ during these appointed days.

A Hadîth states, “The most superior hajj is al-‘ajj and ath- thajj.”[10] Another Hadîth states, “Raise the voices with takbir and shed the blood of the camels.”[11]

The Abundant remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ during the ten days is thus in gratitude over this special bounty of the sacrificial animals - which are connected to both the religious life of the pilgrim and his worldly life. The most superior deeds are those in which there is Abundant remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ - this is especially so with regard to hajj. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ ordered His Abundant remembrance during the days of hajj, “Then when you return from ‘Arafât for the tawâf, remember Allâh at the Mash‘arul Harâm. And remember Him as He has taught you, and surely you were ignorant before this. Then return for the tawâf from where all the people return, and ask forgiveness of Allâh, surely Allâh is forgiving, merciful.” (Sűrah al-Baqarah, 2: 198-199) This remembrance takes place on the 10th of Dhű al-Hijjah.

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ then says: “Once you have completed your rites of hajj, remember Allâh as you used to remember your forefathers. In fact, remember [Him] more than that.” (Sűrah al-Baqarah, 2: 200) This is on the day of sacrifice which is also the end of the ten days. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ then orders His remembrance after the tenth, on the appointed days - and these are the days of tashrîq (11th, 12th, and 13th).

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The circuiting of the House, running between Safâ and Marwah, and pelting the stones have all been prescribed to establish the remembrance of Allâh.”[12]

Mu’adh ibn Anas Radiyallahu anh narrates that a man asked, “O Messenger of Allâh! Which jihad entails the greatest reward?” He said, “The one in which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is remembered the most.” The man then asked about salâh, zakâh, hajj and charity. And for each one the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The one in which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is remembered the most.” [On hearing this], Abű Bakr Radiyallahu anh said, “O Abű Hafs! Those who engage in the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ have taken away all good!” The Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Indeed.”[13]

The above is also narrated by Ibn al-Mubârak rahimahullâh and Ibn Abî ad-Dunyâ rahimahullâh through other chains of narrations. Some of them state, “Which pilgrim is the best?” He said, “The one who engages in the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ the most.” Others state, “Which pilgrim shall receive the greatest reward?” He said, “The one who engages in the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ the most.” The remaining actions are also mentioned as in the previous Hadîth. All this is in relation to the pilgrim.

Those who do not go for the hajj also join the pilgrim in these ten days in the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and in preparing the sacrificial animal. The sacrificial animal is prepared just as the pilgrim herds his animal for hajj. They also join the pilgrim in some aspects of his ihrâm in the sense that when the ten days commence and a person intends sacrificing an animal, he abstains from removing unwanted hair and clipping his nails. Umm Salamah radiyallâhű ‘anhâ mentions this with regard to the Messenger of Allâh. This Hadîth is narrated by Muslim rahimahullâh.[14] Imam ash-Shaf’î rahimahullâh, Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh and the jurists in general adopt this Hadîth. Some scholars lay down the condition that the person must have purchased his animal before the ten days commence. But the majority do not lay down this prerequisite.

Imam mâlik rahimahullâh, Imam Abű Hanifah Radiyallahu anh and many other jurists say that none of these things [removing hair and clipping nails] are reprehensible. They provide the following Hadîth of ‘A’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ as proof, “I used to twine the ropes for the sacrificial animal of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and he did not prohibit upon himself anything which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ permitted to him.”[15]

Many scholars provide an answer to this by saying that the two Ahâdîth can be reconciled as follows: The Hadîth of Umm Salamah radiyallâhű ‘anha will apply to the person who wants to sacrifice his animal in his city, while the Hadîth of ‘A’ishah radiyallâhu ‘anhâ will apply to the person who sends his animal with others and remains in his country.

It was the practice of Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh to shave his head after slaughtering his animal on the day of sacrifice. Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh stipulates this as well.

The ‘ulamâ’ differ with regard to announcing in the cities on the night of ‘Arafah. Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh did not do this nor did he stop anyone who did it because it is reported to be a practice of Ibn ‘Abbas Radiyallahu anh and other Companions Radiyallahu anhumâ. As for joining them in remembrance (dhikr) during the appointed days, all people are commanded to engage in Abundant remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ especially in these ten days. The Hadîth of Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh was quoted previously, “Engage in Abundant tahlil, takbir and tahmid during these days.” The ‘ulamâ’ differ with regard to loud takbîr in the market places during these days. One group disapproves of this. But Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh and Imam ash-Ash-Shâfi’î  rahimahullâh consider it desirable. The difference is that Imam ash-Ash-Shâfi’î  rahimahullâh considers it desirable at the time when a person sees the sacrificial animals, while Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh considers it desirable without any restriction.

Al-Bukhârî rahimahullâh narrates that Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh and Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh used to go out to the market place during the ten days and say the takbir, and people used to join them. ‘Affân narrates: Salâm Abű al-Mundhir related to us from Humayd al-A’raj, from Mujâhid who said, “Abű Hurayrah Radiyallahu anh and Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu anh used to come into the market during the ten days and say the takbir, and people used to join them. They used to come to the market solely for this purpose.”

Ja’far al-Faryâbî relates in Kitâb al-‘Îdayn: Is-hâq ibn Râhwayh related to us, Jarîr informed us from Yazîd ibn Abî az-Ziyâd who said: I saw Sa’îd ibn Jubayr, Mujâhid, ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Laylâ - or two of these three persons - and some jurists whom we met, saying during the ten days: Allâhű akbar, Allâhű akbar, Allâhű akbar, Lâ ilâha illallâhu wallâhu akbar, Allâhű akbar Wa liliahil hamd.

Since Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ placed this yearning to see the Ka’bah in the heart of all the believers - and every single person cannot go to see it every year - He made hajj compulsory once in a lifetime for the person who is able to, and He made this period of ten days collective between those who go and those who do not. So the person who cannot go for hajj in a particular year is able to do certain actions while still at home. These actions are superior to jihad which is superior to hajj.

ليالي العشر أوقات الإجابة…  فبادر رغبة تلحق ثوابه
ألا لا وقت للعمال فيه … ثواب الخير أقرب للإصابة
من أوقات الليالي العشر حقا … فشمر وأطلبن فيها الإنابة

“The ten nights are times of acceptance. So hasten with yearning and you will acquire its reward. Listen, there is no better time for those who do good deeds than the ten nights. It is the quickest way of acquiring the rewards for good. So strive and seek repentance therein.”

Beware of sins because they deprive one of forgiveness during the seasons of mercy. Al-Marwazî narrates in Kitab al-Wara’ from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Umayr from a man who was either a Companion Radiyallahu anh or a Tâbi’î who said: A person came to him in his dream in one of the ten nights of Dhű al-Hijjah and said, “Every Muslim is forgiven five times a day during these days except those who play chess.” If playing chess is an obstacle from forgiveness, what can be said about the person who persists in committing sins which are unanimously considered to be major sins?!


طاعة الله خير ما لزم العبد…  فكن طائعا ولا تعصينه
ما هلاك النفوس إلا المعاصي…  فاجتنب ما نهاك لا تقربنه
إن شيئا هلاك نفسك فيه…  ينبغي أن تصون نفسك عنه

“The obedience of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is the best thing which a person can earn. You should therefore be obedient to Allâh and never disobey Him. It is only sins which destroy people. So abstain from whatever you have been prohibited from, and never approach it. If anything entails your destruction, it is your duty to safeguard yourself against it.”

Sins cause one to be repulsed and distanced, just as acts of obedience are causes of proximity and love.


أيضمن لي فتى ترك المعاصي…  وأرهنه الكفالة بالخلاص
أطاع الله قوم فاستراحوا…  ولم يتجرعوا غصص المعاصي

“If a youngster can guarantee me that he will abstain from sins, I can guarantee him salvation. The people who obeyed Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ enjoyed comfort and they did not have to get choked by sins.”

Your brothers have tied the ihrâm during these days, headed towards the Sanctified Musjid, and filled the air with the talbiyah, singing the greatness and oneness of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, praising Him and expressing His grandeur. They have travelled while we are sitting here. They are close while we are far away. If we can get a share with them, we will be fortunate.


أتراكم في النقا والمنحنى … أهل سلع تذكرونا ذكرنا
انقطعنا ووصلتم فاعلموا … واشكروا المنعم يا أهل منى
قد خسرنا وربحتم فصلوا…  بفضول الربح من قد غبنا
سار قلبي خلف أحمالكم…  غير أن العذر عاق البدنا
ما قطعتم وادبا إلا وقد … جئته أسعى بأقدام الثنى
 انا مذ غبتم على تذكاركم … أترى عندكم ما عندنا

“O people who have profited! Your purity and humility have rekindled our memories. We have been left behind and you have reached. You should realize this and thank the Benefactor, O people of Minâ! We have lost and you have profited. So convey your additional profit to those of us who are absent. My heart travelled behind your luggage, but my excuse is disobeying my body. I came to every valley you crossed, running with the feet of my dreams. I am thinking of you ever since you left us. Do you think you can also think of us just as we are thinking of you?”

The one who remains behind because of a valid excuse shares the reward with the one who goes ahead. In fact, a person who goes with his heart may well surpass those who go with their bodies. While in ‘Arafah, a righteous person saw a person saying in his dream on the night of ‘Arafah, “Can you see this crowd at ‘Arafah?” He said, “Yes.” He said, “Not a single one of them performed hajj with the exception of one person who remained behind but performed hajj with his courage. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ rewarded him with the reward of those who were present.”


يا سائرين إلى البيت العتيق لقد…  سرتم جسوما وسرنا نحن أرواحا
إنا أقمنا على عذر وقد رحلوا…  ومن أقام على عذر كمن راح

“O you travellers to the Ancient House! You travelled bodily while we travelled with our souls. We remained behind because of a valid excuse, while they journeyed. The person who remains behind because of a valid excuse is like the one who journeyed.”

Collect your booty, collect your booty by making the best of this opportunity during these great days. There is no alternative to this and it is priceless. Hasten, hasten with good deeds. Hasten, hasten before your time expires, before the person who exceeded the bounds regrets his actions, before he asks to return to this world so that he may do good deeds but his request is not accepted, before death comes between your hopes and the fulfilment of your hopes, before a person becomes mortgaged in his grave for whatever deeds he sent forward.


ليس للميت في قبره…  فطر ولا أضحى ولا عشر
ناء عن الأهل على قربه…  كذاك من مسكنه القبر

“The deceased has no ‘id al-fitr, ‘id al-ad-hâ and the ten days [of Dhű al-Hijjah] in his grave. He is aloof from his family despite being close to them. Similar is the case of the one whose abode is the grave.”

O you whose grey hairs have started to appear after reaching forty years of his life! o you on whom ten years have passed since that time and is now fifty years old! o you who are on the battlefield of death between sixty and seventy years! What is there apart from the certainty of death that can come to you? o you whose sins are in odd and even numbers! Are you not ashamed of the angels who are recording your deeds? Or are you among those who reject the day of Judgement? o you whose heart is as dark as the pitch dark night! Has the time not come for your heart to obtain some illumination or to soften? Present yourself for the fragrances of your Master during these ten days. Surely Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ sends out fragrances to whomever He wills. The one who receives them enjoys good fortune for ever and ever.


جنحت شمس حياتي … وتدلت للغروب
وتولى ليل رأسي … وبدا فجر المشيب
رب خلصني فقد لحجت … في بحر الذنوب
وأنلني العفو يا أقرب … من كل قريب

“The sun of my life has inclined and is on the verge of setting. The night of my head has turned away, and the dawn of grey hairs has appeared. O my Lord! Rescue me because I am drowning in the ocean of sins. Bestow me with pardon, O You who are closer than the closest!”
 1. Abdul-Razzak checked it in his Musannaf (8210).
 
 2. Ahmad checked it (4/350), Al-Hakem (4/221) and Ibn khuzaymah (866).
 
 3. Al-Bazzar checked it in his Musnad (663).
 
 4. Ahmad checked it (3/80).
 
 5. See Tafsir Ibn Kathir (4/505).
 
 6. Ahmad checked it (3/327).
 
 7. In Al-Musnad (4/437).
 
 8. In As-Sunan (3353).
 
 9. Abdul-Razzak checked it in his Musannaf (8119).
 
 10. At-Tirmidhi (827).
 
 11. The word al-‘ajj refers to raising the voice with takbîr and talbiyah. The word ath-thajj refers to shedding the blood of the sacrificial animals.
 
 12. Abu-Dawoud (1888) and At-Tirmidhi (903).
 
 13. Ahmad checked it (3/438).
 
 14.   Muslim checked it (1977).
 
 15. Al-Bukhari checked it (1696).
 
The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

Murabit

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THE MERIT OF THE DAY OF ‘ARAFAH AND THE DAY OF SACRIFICE

A Jew said to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh, “O Leader of the Believers! There is a verse in your Book which, had it been revealed to us Jews, we would have celebrated that day as a day of ‘îd.” He asked him, “Which verse are you referring to?” He said, “Today I have perfected for you your religion, and completed upon you My favour, and I have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (Sűrah al-Mâ’idah, 5: 3) ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anh said to him, “I know fully well the day on which it was revealed and the place at which it was revealed. It was revealed on a Friday when the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was standing at ‘Arafah.”[1]

At-Tirmidhî rahimahullâh narrated the above with similar words and said therein, “It was revealed on a day of ‘id: a Friday and the day of ‘Arafah.” [2]

‘Îd is an occasion of joy and happiness. The joy and happiness of the Muslims is with their Master because they were able to complete their obedience to Him, and received the reward of their deeds by virtue of their full confidence in His promise of His favour and forgiveness of them. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says, “Say: By the grace of Allâh and His beneficence - in this, then, they should rejoice. This is better than all that they amass.” (Sűrah Yűnus, 10: 58)

An ‘ârif (one who truly recognizes Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ) said, “Anyone who expresses joy without Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ does so through heedlessness of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. A heedless person is thus overjoyed by his amusement and desires. As for an intelligent person, he experiences joy with his Master.” Samnűn said the following poem containing the same theme:


وكان فؤادي خاليا قبل حبكم … وكان بذكر الخلق يلهو ويمرح
فلما دعا قلبي هواك اجابه … فلست أراه عن فنائك يبرح
رميت ببعيد منك إن كنت كاذبا … وإن كنت في الدنيا بغيرك أفرح
وإن كان شيء في البلاد بأسرها … إذا غبت عن عيني لعيني يملح
فإن شئت واصلني وإن شئت لا تصل … فلست أرى قلبي لغيرك يصلح

“My heart was empty before it fell in love with You. It used to take amusement and joy from the remembrance of the creation. When Your love summoned my heart, it responded to it. Now I cannot see it leaving Your courtyard. May I be cast far away from You if I am lying, and if I experience joy in this world without You. If You wish, You may connect me to Yourself. If not, do not connect me. I cannot see my heart worthy of anyone apart from You.”

When the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam came to Madînah, the residents had two days of play. He said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ has changed them for two better days: the day of fitr and the day of ad-hâ.”[3] Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ thus changed these two days of play and amusement with two days of remembrance, gratitude, forgiveness and pardon.

The believers have three days of ‘îd in this world: one ‘îd which comes repeatedly every week, and two days of ‘îd which come separately in the year, and do not come repeatedly in the same year.

As for the ‘îd which comes repeatedly every week, it is Friday and the ‘îd of the week. It is based on the completion of the compulsory salâhs. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ made compulsory on the believers five salâhs in every twenty four hours. The days of this world revolve around seven days. When seven days come to an end and the Muslims complete their salâh in it, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ promulgated the Friday salâh on the day they complete this round.

It is the day on which the creation was completed, the day on which Âdam Alayh’is Salâm was created, the day on which he was admitted and removed from Paradise, the day on which this world will come to an end and the Resurrection will take place, and the day on which people gather to listen to the remembrance, the admonition, and the Jumu‘ah salâh. This day is appointed as an ‘îd for them. It is for this reason that it is prohibited to reserve this day for fasting.

Attending the Jumu‘ah prayer has a semblance with hajj. It is said that it is the hajj of the poor. Sa‘îd ibn al-Musayyib said, “Attending the Jumu‘ah prayer is more beloved to me than an optional hajj. Going early for the Jumu‘ah prayer stands in place of herding one’s sacrificial animal, depending on how early a person goes. The one who goes first is as though he herded a camel, then a cow, then a sheep, then a fowl and then an egg.[4] Attending the Jumu‘ah prayer ensures the atonement of sins till the next Jumu‘ah prayer provided major sins are not committed in the intervening period. This is just as a blessed hajj atones for the sins of that year until the next hajj.”
It is said, “If Friday is free of sins, the rest of the day will be free of sins.” It is said, “Allâh Suhânahu wa Taâlâ forgives every Muslim on a Friday.”

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “The sun has neither risen nor set on a day superior to Friday.”[5] He said with regard to Friday, “It is more superior in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than the day of fitr and al-ad-hâ.”[6] Friday is the ‘îd of the week and is related to the fulfilment of the compulsory salâhs. Salâh is from among the greatest pillars of Islam and its fundamentals after the shahâdatayn (testifying the oneness of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and messenger-ship of Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam).

As for the two ‘îds, they do not recur in the course of the year. Each one comes just once in the year. The ‘îd al-fitr comes after fasting in Ramadân. It follows the completion of the fast of Ramadân. Fasting is the third pillar of Islam. When the Muslims complete the compulsory month of fasting, and earn forgiveness from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and emancipation from the Hell-fire, the person who was eligible for the Hell-fire because of his sins is freed from it. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prescribed a day of ‘îd upon the completion of the fast so that the Muslims may assemble to give thanks to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, engage in His remembrance, and extol His greatness for His having guided them. He prescribed the ‘îd, salâh and charity for them. It is a day of prize-giving in which those who kept fast receive the reward for it, and return from their ‘îd with forgiveness.

The second ‘îd is the greater and more superior of the two. It follows the completion of the hajj which is the fourth pillar of Islam. When the Muslims complete their hajj, they are forgiven. The hajj is completed with the day of ‘Arafah and standing on the plains of ‘Arafah. This is the greatest pillar of hajj. The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “The hajj is ‘Arafah.”[7] The day of ‘Arafah is the day of emancipation from the Hell-fire. It is on this day that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ frees from the Hell-fire all those who were at ‘Arafah and also the Muslims in the different lands. It is for this reason that the day which follows it is appointed as an ‘îd for all the Muslims throughout the world - those who were present for the hajj and those who were not. This, so that they may share the emancipation and forgiveness of the day of ‘Arafah.

All the Muslims of the world do not perform the hajj every year. This is a mercy and an alleviation from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ made it a compulsory duty of one’s life and not every year. It is fard-e-kifâyah every year, as opposed to fasting which is compulsory every year on every Muslim. Once the day of ‘Arafah is completed and Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ frees His servants from the Hell-fire, all the Muslims join in the ‘îd thereafter. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prescribed on all the Muslims to gain proximity to Him through the sacrificial animals and shedding their blood.

Those who go for hajj pelt the jamarât and then commence coming out of their ihram. They wash off their dust and grime, fulfil their vows, slaughter their sacrificial animals and circuit the Ka‘bah. As for the people in the rest of the lands, they assemble for the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, extolling His greatness and offering salâh for Him. Mukhannaf ibn Sulaym who is considered to be from among the Companions Radiyallâhu Anhum said, “Going out for the salâh on the day of fitr is equal to an ‘umrah. Going out for the salâh on the day of ad-hâ is equal to a hajj.” Upon the completion of the salâh, the people return and start offering their sacrificial animals by slaughtering them. This is out of gratitude for these bounties. The salâh and the sacrifice which are collectively found on ‘îd al-ad-hâ are superior to the salâh and charity on ‘îd al-fitr. It is for this reason that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam is ordered to show his thanks for al-Kauthar which he received by offering salâh for his Lord and slaughtering an animal. “Say: My salâh and my sacrifice, my living and my dying, are all for Allâh alone, who is the Lord of the worlds.” (Sűrah al-An‘âm, 6: 162)

It is for this reason that we are ordered to recite this verse at the time of slaughtering the sacrificial animals. This slaughtering is the Sunnah of Ibrâhîm Alayh’is Salâm and Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prescribed this to Ibrâhîm Alayh’is Salâm when he was prepared to sacrifice his son. He was provided with a huge animal [from Paradise] which he sacrificed. The Hadîth of Zayd ibn Arqam Radiyallâhu Anh states: The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was asked, “What are these sacrificial animals for?” He said, “This is the Sunnah of your father Ibrâhîm.” He was asked, “What is there in it for us?” He said, “One reward for every hair [on the animal’s body].” He was asked, “What about wool?” He said, “One reward for every fibre of wool.”[8] Narrated by Ibn Mâjah and others. These are the ‘îd days of the Muslims in this world. All of these days come after the completion of an act of obedience to their Master, and upon their receiving the reward which He promised them.

Some people passed by a monk in a monastery and asked him, “When do the people in this monastery celebrate ‘îd?” He said, “The day when its people are forgiven.”


لبس العيد لمن لبس الجديد  …إنما العيد لمن طاعته تزيد

“‘Îd is not for the person who wears new clothes, ‘îd is for the person whose obedience [to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ] increases.”

Another poet said:


ليس العيد لمن جمله اللباس والمركوب… إنما العيد لمن غفرت له الذنوب

“‘Îd is not for the person who is adorned with clothes and a conveyance. ‘Îd is for the person whose sins are forgiven.”

On the night of ‘îd, garments of emancipation and forgiveness are distributed to the servants, ‘îd is for the person who gets any of these garments, if not, he is repulsed and far from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.

An ‘ârif (a person who truly recognizes Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ) was mourning on the night of ‘îd with these lines:


بحرمة غربتي كم ذا الصدود…  ألا تعطف علي ألا تجود
سرور العيد قد عم النواحي…  وحزني في ازدياد لا يبيد
فإن كنث اقترفت خلال سوء…  فعذري في الهوى أن لا أعود

“By the inviolability of my banishment, how much longer do I have to bear Your turning away from me? Will You not show Your kindness to me? Will You not be generous to me? The joy of ‘îd has spread everywhere, but my grief is increasing without relenting. If I have committed evils, I offer this excuse that I will not go back to following my desires.”

Another poet said:


للناس عشر وعيد…  وأنا فقيروحيد
ياغايتي ومناي…  قد لذ لي ما تريد

“The people have these ten days and ‘îd while I am poor and alone. O my object and hope! Whatever You will for me is enjoyable to me.”

Ash-Shiblî said:


ليس عيد المحب قصد المصلى… وانتظار الأمير والسلطان
إنما العيد أن تكون لدى الله…  كريما مقربا في أمان

“The ‘îd of the lover [of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ] does not entail going to the musallâ (place where the ‘îd salâh is performed) and waiting for the leader and king. The ‘îd for him is that he must be honoured by, and in peace with Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.”

He said:


إذا ما كنت لي عيدا … فما أصنع بالعيد
جري حبك في قلبي … كجري الماء في العود

“If You are my ‘îd, what need do I have for this ‘îd? Love for You is flowing in my heart as water flows through wood.”

قالوا غدا العيد ماذا أنت لابسه…  قلت خلعة ساق حبه جرعا
فقر وصبر هما ثوبان تحتهما…  قلب يرى إلفه الأعياد والجمعا
أحرى الملابس أن تلقى الحبيب به…  يوم التزاور في الثوب الذي خلعا
الدهر لي مأثم إن غبت يا أملي … والعيد كنت لي مرأى ومستمعا

“They said, ‘Tomorrow is ‘îd. What are you going to wear?’ I replied, ‘These same old garments which his beloved gave him. Poverty and patience are two garments between which is a heart which sees its Master on the day of ‘îd and Fridays. The best clothes with which you should meet your beloved on the day when you visit him are the clothes which you discard. My entire life would have been spent in sin if I do not achieve my objective. The days of ‘îd are days of seeing and listening [days of reflection] for me.”

As for the days of ‘îd for the believers in Paradise, these will be when they visit their Lord. They will visit Him and He will honour them in a unique manner. He will appear before them and they will see Him. He would not have given them anything more beloved to them than this. This is the additional reward which He refers to, “Those who have done good, for them is goodness [itself] and [something] additional.” (Sűrah Yűnus, 10: 26) A lover does not have an ‘îd apart from being close to his beloved.

إن يوما جامعا شملي بهم..  ذاك عيدي ليس لي عيد سواه

“The day of reunion with them, that is the day of my ‘îd. I have no other day of ‘îd.”

Each day which was an ‘îd for the Muslims in this world shall be a day of ‘îd for them in Paradise. They will assemble to visit their Lord and He will appear before them.

Friday is known as yaum al-mazîd (the day of more) in Paradise. As for the days of fitr and ad-hâ, the people of Paradise will assemble on these days to visit each other. It is said that the women will also join the men just as they used to attend the two ‘îd salâhs with the men, but not the Friday prayer. This is for the general people of Paradise. As for the elite, every day will be an ‘îd for them. They will visit their Lord twice daily - in the morning and evening. Every day of the world was a day of ‘îd for the elite. Therefore, all their days in the Hereafter are also days of ‘îd.

Al-Hasan Rahimahullâh said, “Each day in which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is not disobeyed is a day of ‘îd. Each day which a believer spends in the obedience of his Master, His remembrance, and His gratitude is a day of ‘îd."

Islam is based on five pillars: the shahâdatayn, salâh, zakâh, fasting in Ramadân, and hajj. The ‘îd days of the general Muslims in this world is at the time of completing the round of salâh, fasting, and hajj. They assemble at the completion of each of these acts of worship in a general assembly.

As for zakâh, there is no specific time for it whereby a day of ‘îd could be set aside for it. Rather, each person who owns zakâtable wealth will have to pay the zakâh at the end of his own financial year.

As for the shahâdatayn, their completion is realized when they are fully embedded in a person and he fulfils the rights of this testimony. The special servants strive for this all the time. It is for this reason that all their times are days of ‘îd for them in this world and in the Hereafter. Ash-Shiblî Rahimahullâh said:


عيدي مقيم وعيد الناس منصرف…  والقلب مني عن اللذات منحرف
ولي قرينان ما لي منهما خلف…  طول الحنين وعين دمعها يكف

“My ‘îd remains all the time while the ‘îd of people departs. My heart turns away from enjoyments. I have two friends whom I can never replace: a long yearning, and an eye whose tears do not stop flowing.”

Since the ‘îd of sacrifice (‘îd al-ad-hâ) is the bigger and more superior of the two ‘îds, and in which the sanctity of the place and time is combined for those who are on hajj, they have other days of ‘îd before it and after it. Before it is the day of ‘Arafah, and after it are the days of tashrîq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah). All these days are days of ‘îd for those on hajj. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Âmir Radiyallâhu Anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “The day of ‘Arafah, the day of sacrifice, and the days of tashrîq are the days of our [Muslims’] ‘îd and they are days of eating and drinking."
[9]

It is for this reason that fasting on the day of ‘Arafah is not promulgated for those on hajj. This is the first of their days of ‘îd and the greatest of their gatherings. The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam did not fast on this day when he was at ‘Arafah and the people saw him thus.[10] It is related that he prohibited fasting on the day of ‘Arafah while at ‘Arafah. Sufyân ibn ‘Uyaynah was asked about the prohibition of fasting on the day of ‘Arafah while at ‘Arafah. He said, “This is because they are the visitors and guests of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. It is not appropriate for a generous person to keep his guests hungry.” This reason is found in the two ‘îds and the days of tashrîq as well. All people are the guests of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ on these days, especially the day of sacrifice because the people eat the meat of their sacrificial animals - those who are on hajj and those who are not.

The three days of tashrîq are also from among the days of ‘îd. It is for this reason that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam sent a person to Makkah to announce that these are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, so no one should fast.

At times, two ‘îds could take place on a single day. For example, the day of ‘Arafah or the day of sacrifice falls on a Friday. Such a day will thus increase in sanctity and merit. This happened for the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam during his hajj on the day of ‘Arafah which was on a Friday. This verse was revealed with regard to this day, “Today I have perfected for you your religion, and completed upon you My favour, and I have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (Sűrah al-Mâ’idah, 5: 3)

The perfection of Islam on that day was through several ways:

1.   The Muslims had not performed the hajj after the compulsion of hajj before that year. This is the opinion of the majority of the ‘ulamâ’ or many of them. Thus, by the completion of this deed, the pillars of Islam were completed.

2.   Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ returned the hajj to the foundations laid down by Ibrâhîm Alayh’is Salâm, and expelled polytheism and the polytheists. None of the polytheists were permitted to join the Muslims on that occasion. Ash-Sha‘bî said, “This verse was revealed to the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam while he was standing at ‘Arafah at the spot of Ibrâhîm Alayh’is Salâm. Polytheism was subdued, the minaret of jâhiliyyah was destroyed, and no one circuited the Ka‘bah naked.” Qatâdah and others also said this. Abű Bakr ibn ‘Ayâsh said, “No injunction of permission or prohibition was revealed after this verse.”

As for the completion of the favour, this was acquired through forgiveness. No favour can be complete without this. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says to His Prophet Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, “So that Allâh may forgive you for whatever of your sins have passed and whatever are yet to come. And that He completes His favour upon you and guides you to a straight path.” (Sűrah al-Fath, 48: 2) Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says in the verse concerning ablution, “but wants to purify you and to complete His favour upon you.” (Sűrah al-Mâ’idah, 5: 6) It is from here that Muhammad ibn Ka‘b al-Qurazî Rahimahullâh says that ablution atones for sins, as clearly mentioned in the Sunnah.

This is also testified by the incident in which the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam heard a person making this supplication, “O Allâh! I ask You for a perfect bounty.” So he said to him, “The perfect bounty is salvation from the Hell-fire and admission into Paradise.”[11] This verse testifies in favour of the narration which states that the day of ‘Arafah is a day of forgiveness and salvation from the Hell-fire.
 1. Al-Bukhari (45) and Muslim (3017).
 
 2. At-Tirmidhi (3044).
 
 3. An-Nasa‘ei checked it (3/179).
 
 4. It was checked before.
 
 5. At-Tirmidhi (3339).
 
 6. Ahmad checked it in his Musnad (15120).
 
 7. At-Tirmidhi (890) and An-Nasa‘ei (5/256).
 
 8. Ibn Majah checked it (3127).
 
 9. At-Tirmidhi checked it (773) and An-Nasa‘ei (5/252).
 
 10. As in Hadith of Maymounah Radiyallâhu Anhâ in Al-Bukhari (1989)
 
 11. At-Tirmidhi (3527).
 
The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

Murabit

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The merits of the day of ‘Arafah

1.   It is the day when Islam was perfected and the favour of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ was completed, as explained previously.

2.   It is a day of ‘îd for the Muslims as stated by Umar ibn al-Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh and Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ. Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ said, “It was revealed on a day of two ‘îds, a Friday and the day of ‘Arafah."

It is related that ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anh said, “All praise is due to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ that both days are days of ‘îd for us.” Narrated by Ibn Jarîr at-Tabarî in his Tafsir. The previously quoted Hadîth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Âmir Radiyallâhu Anh affirms this. However, it is a day of ‘îd specifically for those who are present at ‘Arafah. Fasting on this day is prescribed for the rest of the people [those not performing hajj] according to the majority of the ‘ulamâ’, although some scholars differ on this issue.

3.   It is said that it is the odd day on which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ took an oath in the Qur’ân, and that the even day is the day of sacrifice. This is related from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam in a Hadîth narrated by Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh and quoted by Imam Ahmad Rahimahullâh and an-Nasa’î Rahimahullâh in his Tafsîr.

It is said that it is the shâhid on which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ took an oath in the Qur’an, “By the attending day and by the attended day.” (Sűrah al-Burűj, 85: 3) Abî Hurayrah Radiyallâhu Anh relates a marfű‘ and mauqűf Hadîth, “The attending day is the day of ‘Arafah, and the attended day is Friday.” Narrated by at-Tirmidhî Rahimahullâh. It is also related as a statement of ‘Alî Radiyallâhu Anh. At-Tabarânî narrates a marfű‘ Hadîth from Abű Mâlik al-Ash‘arî, “The attending day is Friday, and the attended day is the day of ‘Arafah.” Based on this, if the day of ‘Arafah falls on a Friday, it will be both an attending day and an attended day.

4.   It is related that it is the most superior of all days. Ibn Hibbân narrates in his Sahîh from Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “The most superior of days is the day of ‘Arafah.” Some ‘ulamâ’ are also of the same opinion. Some of them say that the day of sacrifice is more superior because of the Hadîth of ‘Abdullâh ibn Qurt in which the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “The greatest day in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is the day of sacrifice, and then the day of qarr.” (the day of qarr is the day of ‘Arafah) Narrated by Imam Ahmad Rahimahullâh, Abu Dâ’űd Rahimahullâh, an-Nasa’î Rahimahullâh and Ibn Hibbân Rahimahullâh. But the latter’s words are, “The most superior day...”

5.   Anas ibn Mâlik said that people used to say, “The day of ‘Arafah is 10000 times more superior.” We explained this when discussing the merits of the ten days. ‘Atâ’ Rahimahullâh said, “The person who fasts on the day of ‘Arafah shall receive the reward of fasting for 2 000 days.”

6.   It is the day of the major hajj according to a group of past scholars including Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anhumâ. But others differ and say that the day of the major hajj is the day of sacrifice. This is narrated from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

7. Fasting on this day is an atonement for sins of two years. We will quote a Hadîth in this regard later on - if Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ wills.

8. It is the day of forgiveness of sins, pardon, salvation from the Hell-fire, and the day when Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ boasts about the people who are present at ‘Arafât. ‘Â’ishah Radiyallâhu ‘Anhâ narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “There is no day in which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ frees more slaves from the Hell-fire than the day of ‘Arafah. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ descends and boasts about them to the angels saying, ‘What do these people want?’”[1]

‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr Radiyallâhu Anhumâ narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ boasts before the angels on the night of ‘Arafah about the people of ‘Arafah. He says, ‘Look at My servants, they have come to me dishevelled and dusty.’” Abű Hurayrah Radiyallâhu Anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ boasts about the people of ‘Arafât saying, ‘Look at My servants who are in a dishevelled and dusty condition.’” Narrated by Ibn Hibbân in his Sahîh.[2]

Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “There is no day which is superior in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than the day of ‘Arafah. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ descends to the lowest heaven and boasts about the people of earth to the inhabitants of the heavens. He says, ‘Look at My servants who are dishevelled, dusty and sunburnt. They have come from every distant land. They hope for My mercy despite not seeing My punishment.’ Such a large number of people freed from the Hell-fire are not seen on any day as on the day of ‘Arafah.”[3]

Ibn Mandah narrates the above in Kitâb at-Tauhîd[4] as follows, “When it is the day of ‘Arafah, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ descends to the lowest heaven and boasts to the angels. He says, ‘Look at My servants who have come to Me dishevelled and dusty from every distant land. I make you bear witness to the fact that I have forgiven them.’ The angels say, ‘O Lord! There is a certain person who is oppressive.’ He says, ‘I have forgiven all of them.’ There is no day in which so many people are freed from the Hell-fire as on the day of ‘Arafah.”

We narrated the above through another chain with certain additions, “O My servants! I make you bear witness that I have forgiven the good doer among you and pardoned the sinner among you.” We narrated it from Ismâ‘îl ibn Râfi‘ - there is reservation with regard to this narration - from Anas Radiyallâhu Anh that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ descends to the lowest heaven on the night of ‘Arafah and then boasts about you to the angels. He says, ‘These are My servants who came to Me dishevelled and dusty from every distant land. They are hoping for My mercy and forgiveness. If there sins were equal to the number of sand grains, I would forgive them. O My servants! You may proceed - you and those in whose favour you intercede are all forgiven.’”

Al-Bazzâr narrated it in his Musnad with a similar theme from ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Âs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Al-Bazzâr said with regard to this narration, “We do not know of a better chain than this.”

At-Tabarânî and others narrated a shorter version from ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Âs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam. We narrated it from al-Walîd ibn Muslim who said, “Abű Bakr ibn Abî Maryam informed me from his teachers that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ comes close to the lowest heaven on the night of ‘Arafah, He turns towards His angels and says, ‘Listen! There is a prize for every delegation. This is My delegation which has come in a dishevelled and dusty state. Give them whatever they ask for, and compensate them for whatever they spent.’ When it is the time of sunset, He turns to them and says, ‘Listen! I have given to the sinner among you what I gave to the good doer among you. And I gave the good doer whatever he asked. You may proceed in the name of Allâh.’”

Ibrâhîm ibn al-Hakam ibn Abân said: My father narrated to me, Farqad narrated to us saying, “The doors of the heavens are opened three times every night, seven times on Friday night, and nine times on the night of ‘Arafah.” We narrated from Nufay‘ Abî Dâ‘űd from Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anhumâ, “When it is the evening of the day of ‘Arafah, every single person who has even an atom’s weight of îmân is forgiven.” He was asked, “Is this specifically for the person who does good or for people in general?” He said, “For the people in general.”

Imam Mâlik Rahimahullâh narrates in his Muwattâ’ from the marâsîl of Talhah ibn ‘Ubaydillâh ibn Kurayz that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “Satan is never seen smaller, more defeated, more humiliated and more angry than on the day of ‘Arafah. The only reason for this is because he sees the descent of mercy, and Allâh’s pardoning major sins. Yes, he was shown something worse [in his sight] on the day of the battle of Badr.” He was asked, “What was he shown on the day of Badr?” He said, “He saw Jibra’îl Alayh’is Salâm restraining the angels.”

Abu ‘Uthmân as-Sâbűnî narrates from a man who was imprisoned in the Roman lands and escaped from one of its forts. He said, “[When I escaped], I would travel by night and hide during the day. One night I was walking in a mountainous place among trees. Suddenly I heard some movement which terrified me. When I looked, I saw a person on a camel. I became even more terrified because there are no camels in the Roman lands. I said to my self, ‘Glory be to Allâh! A person riding a camel in the Roman lands!? This is most strange.’ When he reached me, I said, ‘O servant of Allâh! Who are you?’ He replied, ‘Do not ask.’ I said, ‘I see something strange, so tell me.’ He replied, ‘Do not ask.’ I insisted, so he said, ‘I am Satan and I am coming from ‘Arafât. I happened to be there when their Lord appeared before them, when mercy and forgiveness descended upon them, and it was given to them. I was overcome by worry, grief and affliction. I am now moving towards Constantinople where I can gain solace from hearing their polytheism and ascribing of a son to Allâh.’ I said, ‘I seek refuge in Allâh from you.’ When I said these words, I did not see anyone.”

This incident is ratified by the Hadîth of ‘Abbâs ibn Mirdâs which is narrated by Imam Ahmad Rahimahullâh and Ibn Mâjah Rahimahullâh with regard to the supplication of the Messenger Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam for his ummah on the night of ‘Arafah and then at Muzdalifah. His supplication was accepted and he began laughing. He said, “When Satan learnt that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ forgave my ummah and accepted my supplication, he began pouring soil on his head, and calling out for destruction. I laughed at the terror of this wicked creation.”[5]

‘Alî ibn al-Muwaffaq narrates that on one of the occasions when he went for hajj, he was standing at ‘Arafât and saw the large multitude of people. So he said, “O Allâh! If You do not accept any one person from here, I give him my hajj.” He saw Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ in his dream saying to him, “O Ibn al-Muwaffaq! Do you think you can be more generous than Me? I forgave all those who were present and a like number of people. I gave each one of them the permission to intercede on behalf of his immediate family, progeny and broader family. I am worthy of piety and I am the one who forgives.”

Similar incidents have been narrated from other scholars. The one who desires salvation from the Hell-fire and forgiveness of his sins on the day of ‘Arafah should adhere to the causes through which salvation and forgiveness are hoped for.
 1. Muslim (1348).
 
 2. Ibn Hibban (1007).
 
 3. Ibn Hibban (1006).
 
 4. (1/147) and checked by Al-Baghawy in Sharh As-sunnah (7/159).
 
 5. Checked by Ahmad (4/14) and Ibn Majah (3013).
 
The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

Murabit

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The causes of salvation and forgiveness on the day of ‘Arafah


1.   Fasting on that day. Abű Qatâdah Radiyallâhu Anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “With regard to fasting on the day of ‘Arafah, I have the hope that it will atone for the sins of the past year and the following year.” [1]

2.   Safeguarding one’s limbs from the unlawful on that day. Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “The day of ‘Arafah: the one who restrains his ears, eyes and tongue on this day is forgiven.” [2]

3.   Excessive repetition of the shahâdah (testifying that none is worthy of worship except Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam) with sincerity and devotion. This is the basis and foundation of Islam which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ completed on that day. ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Amr Radiyallâhu Anhumâ said, “The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam made the following supplication the most on the day of ‘Arafah:


لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك، وله الحمد، بيده الخير، وهو علي كل شئء قدير.

“There is none worthy of worship except Allâh. He is one and He has no partner. His is the kingdom, and to Him belongs all praise. All good is in His control, and He has power ever everything.” [3]

At-Tirmidhî Rahimahullâh narrates the above as follows, “The best supplication is the one which is made on the day of ‘Arafah. The best which I and the Prophets before me said was:


لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك، وله الحمد، وهو علي كل شئء قدير.

“There is none worthy of worship except Allâh. He is one and He has no partner. His is the kingdom, and to Him belongs all praise. He has power over everything.” [4]

The above is also narrated by at-Tabarânî from ‘Alî Radiyallâhu Anh and Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anhumâ.

Imam Ahmad Rahimahullâh narrates from az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awâm Radiyallâhu Anh who said: I heard the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam reciting this verse at ‘Arafah, “Allâh bears witness that there is no worship for anyone other than Him - and the angels and people of knowledge [bear witness] as well.” (Sűrah Âl ‘Imrân, 3: 18) And he [the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was saying], “And I also bear witness, O Lord of the worlds!” [5]

‘Ubâdah ibn as-Sâmit Radiyallâhu Anh narrates: I saw the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam on the day of ‘Arafah and he was reciting this verse the most, “Allâh bears witness that there is no worship for anyone other than Him - and the angels and people of knowledge [bear witness] as well.” (Sűrah Âl ‘Imrân, 3: 18) He then said, “O My Lord! I also bear witness.”

Conviction in the oneness of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ assures salvation from the Hell-fire because it is equivalent to freeing slaves, and freeing slaves assures salvation from the Hell-fire. This is established in a Hadîth which states that the person who says the shahâdah 100 times, it is equivalent to freeing ten slaves.[6] It is also established that the person who says it ten times is as if he freed four slaves from the progeny of Ismâ‘il Alayh’is Salâm.

Anas Radiyallâhu Anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “He who says the following in the morning or in the evening, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ shall free one quarter of him from the Hell-fire. He who says it two times, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ shall free half of him from the Hell-fire. He who says it three times, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ shall free three quarters of him from the Hell-fire. He who says it four times, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ shall free him [totally] from the Hell-fire.” [The dhikr is]:


أللهم إني أصبحت أشهدك  وأشهد حملة عرشك وملائكتك وجميع حلقك أنك أنت الله لا إله إلا أنث، وأن محمدا عبدك ورسولك

“O Allâh! I have woken up. I make You witness, and I make the bearers of Your Throne, Your angels and all Your creation witnesses that You are Allâh. There is none worthy of worship except You. Muhammad is Your servant and Your Messenger.”

The marâsil of az-Zuhrî Rahimahullâh states, “The one who says 10000 times in a day, ‘There is none worthy of worship except Allâh. He is one and He has no partner’, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ shall free him from the Hell-fire.” It is similar to if he killed someone and pays the blood money of 10000, it will be accepted from him.

4.   He must free a slave if possible. If he frees a believing slave, Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ shall free each part of his body from the Hell-fire for each part of the slave’s body. Hakîm ibn Hizâm Radiyallâhu Anh used to stand at ‘Arafât with 100 marked camels and 100 slaves. He would then free the slaves. People would fall down crying and supplicating, saying, “O our Lord! Here is Your servant who freed his slaves. We are Your slaves, so free us.” A similar incident occurred with [Hârűn] ar-Rashîd. Abu Qilâbah used to free a slave woman on the day of ‘îd al-fitr with the hope that he would be freed from the Hell-fire in reward for this.

5.   Excessive supplication for forgiveness and emancipation from the Hell-fire because there is hope that the supplication will be accepted on this day. Ibn Abî ad-Dunyâ narrates from ‘Alî Radiyallâhu Anh who said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ most certainly frees people from the Hell-fire on every single day. But there is no day in which He frees as many as He does on the day of ‘Arafah. You should therefore make this supplication in abundance, ‘O Allâh! Free me from the Hell-fire. Give me lawful sustenance in abundance. Divert the wicked jinn and humans away from me.’ This is the supplication which I generally make on this day.”
 1. Checked by Muslim (1162).
 
 2. Checked by Ahmad (1/329).
 
 3. Checked by Ahmad (2/210).
 
 4. Checked by At-Tirmidhi (3585).
 
 5. Checked by Ahmad (1/166).
 
 6. Al-Bukhari (6403).
 
The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

Murabit

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Sins which prevent forgiveness and salvation

A person should also be wary of committing sins which prevent forgiveness and salvation. Some of them are:

1.   Conceitedness, Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “There is no day in which more males and females are freed than on the day of ‘Arafah. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ does not forgive the conceited person on this day.” Narrated by al-Bazzâr, at-Tabarânî and others. A conceited person is one who considers himself to be great, and is proud of himself. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says, “Allâh does not like any haughty boastful person.” (Sűrah al-Hadîd, 57: 23) The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ does not look [with mercy] at the person who drags his garment out of pride.”

2.   Persistence in committing major sins. Ja‘far as-Sirâj narrates from Yűnus ibn ‘Abd al-A‘lâ who said that he went on hajj one year. The amîr (leader) of hajj saw in his dream that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ forgave all those who came for hajj except for a person who committed an act of homosexuality with a young boy. The amîr was ordered to announce this to the people.

Ibn Abî ad-Dunya and others narrate that a man saw in his dream that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ forgave all those who came for hajj except a man from Balkh. He went out in search for this man until he found him and asked him about his life. He said that he was a habitual alcoholic. He came home one night while he was intoxicated. His mother who was lighting the oven scolded him. So he carried her and cast her into the oven until she burnt to death.

O you who desires salvation from the Hell-fire but prevents himself from mercy by persisting in committing major sins and crimes! By Allâh! You have not admonished yourself, and no one except you is standing in your way. You are ruining yourself with sins. When you are deprived of forgiveness, you ask: How is it that this has happened? Say: This is from your own self.


فنفسك لم ولا تلم المطايا…  ومت كمدا فليس لك اعتذار

“Blame your self and not the animals [which are conveying you]. Die in your grief because you have no excuse.”

If you desire salvation, purchase your self from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, “Allâh has purchased from the Muslims their lives and their wealth for the price that for them is Paradise.” (Sűrah at-Taubah, 9: 111) The person who is high-minded considers it insignificant to spend whatever would enable his salvation from the Hell-fire.

A person of the past purchased his self three or four times from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. On each occasion he gave silver in charity equal to his weight. ‘Âmir ibn ‘Abdillâh ibn az-Zubayr purchased his self six times from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ to the value of his blood money and gave it in charity. Habîb al-‘Ajamî purchased his self from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ for 40 000 dirhams which he gave in charity. Abű Hurayrah Radiyallâhu Anh used to glorify Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ 12 000 times every day equivalent to the value of his blood money, and free himself through this.

بدم المحب يبزع وصلهم…  فمن الذي يبتاع في الثمن

“Connection with them is sold with the blood of the lover. Who is the one who is going to pay this price?”

The person who truly recognizes [the value of] what he is seeking, everything which he spends for it will be insignificant in his eyes. Woe to you! We are ready to free your soul through remorse. And We are prepared to accept your repentance and grief as the price. It is in this season that difficulties are made easy. The one who restrains his ears, eyes and tongue is forgiven. Extend your hand of apology to Him and stand at His door in submission and humility. Raise the story of your remorse embedded on the surface of your cheek with the ink of overflowing tears, and say, “O our Lord! We wronged ourselves. If You do not forgive us and show mercy to us, we shall certainly be among the losers.” (Sűrah al-A‘râf, 7: 23)

Yahyâ ibn Mu‘âdh said, “The slave is terrified by differences with his master. He does not leave his door under any condition because he knows that his honour lies in the shade of his master.” He said this poem:

قرة عيني لا بد لي منك وإن…  أوحش بيني وبينك الزلل
قرة عيني أنا الغريق فخذ…  كف غريق عليك يتكل

“O the delight of my eyes! I am dependent on you even if a mistake has caused us to become distant from each other. O the delight of my eyes! I am drowning. So grab the hand of the drowning person who is relying on you.”

The truthful experienced different conditions while at ‘Arafah. Some of them used to be overcome by fear or modesty. Mutarrif ibn ‘Abdillâh ibn ash-Shakhîr and Bakr al-Muzanî were standing at ‘Arafah, and one of them said, “O Allâh! Do not reject all those who are present here because of me.” The other said, “What a wonderful and hopeful place this would have been for these people had I not been present among them!” Al-Fudayl Rahimahullâh stood at ‘Arafah while the people were supplicating and he was crying like a bereft person. He was crying so profusely that it prevented him from supplicating to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. When the sun was about to set, he raised his head towards the heavens and said, “O, is there anyone worse than you [he was addressing himself], even if you are pardoned?”

Al-Fudayl Rahimahullâh said to Shu‘ayb ibn Harb while they were on hajj, “If you think that there is anyone worse than you and me from among those who are present here at ‘Arafah, then you have thought something very evil.”

An ‘ârif (one who truly recognizes Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ) made this supplication at Arafah, “O Allâh! If You do not accept my hajj, my fatigue and tiredness, then do not deprive me of the reward for the calamity which afflicts me for Your not accepting Me.”

A person who was very fearful of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ stood at ‘Arafah until the sun was about to set. He then called out, “Give me immunity, give me immunity. The time to depart has approached. If only I knew what was done to fulfil the needs of the poor.”


وإن من خوفكم والرجا…  أرى الموت والعيش فيكم عيانا
فمنوا على تائب خائف…  أتاكم ينادي الأمان الأمان

“In my fear of and hope in You, I see life and death in Your hands, right before my eyes. So bestow Your favour on this repentant and fearing person who has come calling out to you, ‘Give me immunity, give me immunity.’”

When a prisoner seeks immunity from the generous King, He gives it to him.


الأمان الأمان وزري ثقيل…  وذنوبي إذا عددن تطول
أوبقتني وأوثقتني ذنوبي…  فترى لي إلى الخلاص سبيل؟

“Give me immunity, give me immunity! My burden is heavy and my sins - if they were to be enumerated - will prolong. My sins destroyed and shackled me. Do you see any way of escape for me?”

An ‘ârif who feared Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ a lot was standing at ‘Arafah and his bashfulness prevented him from supplicating. Someone asked him, “Why are you not supplicating?” He said, “I am terrified.” The person said to him, “Today is a day of pardon from sins.” He extended his hands and fell down dead.

حدا بها الحادي إلى نعمان…  فاستذكرت عهدا لها بالبان
فسالت الروح من الأجفان…  توقا إلى الزمان الفاني

“The camel driver urged her [my camel] towards Na‘mân[1]. I then recalled the promise which I made to her when I was in the valley. The soul flowed from the eyelids, yearning for the fleeting time.”

قد لج بي الغرام حتى قالوا … قد جن بهم، وهكذا البلبال
الموت إذا رضيته سلسال … في مثل هواك ترخص الآجال

“I was overcome by love to the extent that people said that he is gone mad. This is what anxiety is all about. If you are pleased with death, it is refreshing. Love for someone like you causes life to be cheap.”

A person who was fearful of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ stood at ‘Arafât and said, “O my Allâh! People are gaining proximity to You with their sacrificial animals while I am seeking Your proximity through my soul!” He then fell down dead.


للناس حج ولي حج إلى سكنى…  تهدى الأضاحي واهدي مهجتي ودمي

“People are making pilgrimage while I am making pilgrimage to my abode. People are offering their sacrificial animals while I am offering my life and blood.”

The true lovers are not satisfied with the mere flowing of blood from their sacrificial animals. They offer their souls to Him.

ارى موسم الأعياد أنس الأجانب…  وما العيد عندي غير قرب الحبائب
إذا قربوا بدنا نقرباني الهوى … فإن قبلوا قلبي وٳلا فقالبي
وما بدم الأنعام أقضي حقوقهم … ولكن بما بين الحشا والترائب

“I see the season of ‘îd bringing strangers together. But to me, ‘îd is a means of getting close to the beloved. If they offer sacrificial animals, I offer my love. If they accept my heart, well and good. If not, then at least my body. I do not fulfil their rights with the blood of animals, but with what lies between the bowels and chest [i.e. the heart].”

Abű ‘Ubaydah al-Khawwâs used to be so overtaken by yearning and anxiety that he used to strike his chest while walking on the road. He would say, “O my yearning for the one who sees me but whom I cannot see.” When he became old, he would hold his beard and say, “O my Lord! I am gone old, so free me.” He was seen on the day of ‘Arafah completely overtaken by love, and saying:

سبحان من لو سجدنا بالعيون له…  على حمى الشوك والمحمي من الإبر
لم نبلغ العشر من معشار نعمته… ولا العشير ولا عشرا من العشر
هو الرفيع فلا الأبصار تدركه…  سبحانه من مليك نافذ القدر
سبحان من هو أنسي إذ خلوت به…  في جوف ليلي وفي الظلماء والسحر
أنت الحبيب وأنت الحب يا أملي … من لي سواك ومن أرجوه يا ذخري

“Glory be to that Being whom, if we were to prostrate to on a sanctuary of thorns and needles, we will not even reach one tenth of a tenth of His bounties, not even a tenth of that, nor a tenth of another tenth. He is the lofty Being whom the eyes cannot fathom. Glory be to the King whose power is all-pervading. Glory to the Being who is my close friend when I am in solitude with Him in the middle of the night, in the darkness, and at the time of pre-dawn. You are my beloved. You are my love. You are my hope. Whom do I have apart from You? Whom can I have hope in, O my treasure?”

There were those of the ‘ârifin at ‘Arafât who used to hold on firmly to hope. Ibn al-Mubârak Rahimahullâh said, “I went to Sufyân ath-Thaurî on the night of ‘Arafah. He was sitting on his knees and his eyes were tearing. He turned towards me and I asked him, ‘Whose condition is the worst today?’ He said, ‘The person who thinks that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ will not forgive him.’”

Al-Fudayl Rahimahullâh was looking at the sighing and crying of the people on the night of ‘Arafah, so he said, “If these people went to a person and asked him for a dâniq (one sixth of a dirham), will he refuse them?” The people said, “No.” He said, “I take an oath by Allâh, that it is easier for Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ to forgive than for this person to give that one dâniq.”


وإني لأدعو الله أسأل عفوه…  وأعلم أن الله يعفو ويغفر
لئن أعظم الناس الذنوب فإنها…  وإن عظمت في رحمة الله تصغر

“I supplicate to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ asking Him for His pardon. I know that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ pardons and forgives. People may consider their sins to be great and they may be great, but they are small in the face of Allâh’s mercy.”

Soon will your brothers be standing at ‘Arafât. Congratulations to the person who is blessed with this opportunity. They sigh before Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ with burning hearts and flowing tears. Many a fearful person is overcome by fear and anxiety. Many a lover is burnt by yearning. Many a hopeful person hopes in the promise of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. Many a repentant person repented sincerely to Him. Many a fleeing person sought refuge at the door of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and knocked on that door. Many a person who was destined to the Hell-fire is rescued and freed by Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. Many a prisoner is freed. After all this, the most Merciful of those who show mercy appears before them, and boasts to the inhabitants of the heavens about them. He comes closer and asks, “What do they want?” Now that they have reached here, all deprivation has been severed from them. The Merciful gave them whatever they asked for. He alone is the Being who can give and refuse, who can join and sever.


ما أصنع؟ هكذا جرى المقدور…  الجبر لغيري وأنا المكسور
أسير ذنب مقيد مهجور…  هل يمكن أن يغير المقدور

“What can I do? This is how destiny operates. Others have the power while I am broken. I am the prisoner of my sins, I am confined, and I am kept in isolation. Is it possible to change destiny?”

The person who missed the opportunity of standing at ‘Arafât this year must stand up to fulfil the rights of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ which He taught him. The person who was unable to spend the night at Muzdalifah must devote his night to the obedience of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and gain proximity to Him. The one who was unable to stand in the precincts of Masjid al-Khayf should stand up to fulfil the rights of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ with fear and hope. The one who was unable to slaughter his animal at Mina must slaughter his desires here and he would have reached Mina by doing this. The person who did not reach the Ka‘bah because it is far from him should seek the Lord of the Ka‘bah. He is closer than the jugular vein to the person who calls unto Him and has hopes in Him.

The fragrances of amiability have blown from the gardens of sanctity on every heart which responded to whatever it was summoned, o the courage of the ‘ârifîn! Do not be satisfied with anything apart from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. O the resolve of the ascetics for all the devotions of those treading the path! Assemble solely for the love of your Master, combine hope and fear for Him, and take delight from His remembrance.

O the secrets of the lovers! Circuit (make tawâf) and bow to the Ka‘bah of love. Rush and hasten between the purity of Safâ and the valour of Marwah. Stop and submit yourself at the ‘Arafât of cognition. Then proceed to the proximity of Muzdalifah. Then return to Mina to realize your hopes. Then when you offer your sacrificial animal, offer your soul and do not hold back. The path has been cleared today. Those who are seeking confirmation are few, but those who are supplicating are many.

لئن لم احج البيت إذ شط ربعه … حججت إلى من لا يغيب عن الذكر
فأحرمت من وقتي بخلع شمائلي … أطوف وأسعى في اللطائف والبر
صفاي صفائي عن صفاتي ومروتي…  مروءة قلب عن سوى حبه قفر
وفي عرفات الأنس بالله موقفي…  ومزدلفي الزلفى لديه إلى الحشر
وبت المنى منى مبيتيي في منى…  ورمي جماري جمر شوقي في صدري
وإشعار هديي ذبح نفسي بقهرها … وحلقي بمحق الكائنات عن السر
ومن رام نفرا بعد نسك فإنني … مقيم على نسكي حياتي بلا نفر

“If I did not go for hajj and the time has now passed, I made hajj to the one who is never absent from my remembrance. I immediately wore my ihrâm by wearing by good qualities. I circuited and hastened (made tawâf and sa‘î) in acts of goodness and obedience. My Safâ is purifying myself from evil qualities, and my Marwah entails the honour of my heart to be devoid of everything but His love. The ‘Arafât of amiability with Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is the place where I stand. My Muzdalifah entails gaining proximity to Him towards the Resurrection. My night at Mina entails spending the night in fulfilment of my hopes. My pelting the jamarât entails my burning yearning in my chest. Marking my animal entails slaughtering my soul by force, and cutting my throat by destroying all the secrets of the world. There may be a person who wants to flee [and return home] after completing the rites of hajj, but I am going to remain steadfast on my rites throughout my life and I am not going to flee.”
 1. Name of a valley beyond ‘Arafah
 
The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

Murabit

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THE DAYS OF TASHRÎQ

Nabîshah al-Hudhalî narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “The days of Mina are the days of eating, drinking and remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.”[1] This Hadîth is narrated by the different Hadîth scholars through several chains. Some of them state that during the days of Mina, the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam sent out a person to announce: “Do not fast on these days because they are the days of eating, drinking and remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.” A narration of an-Nasa’î rahimahullâh states: “they are the days of eating, drinking and salâh.”[2] A weak narration of ad-Dâraqutnî rahimahullâh states: “they are the days of eating, drinking and conjugal relations.”[3] A narration of Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh states: “The one who is fasting must break his fast because these are days of eating and drinking.”[4] Another narration states: “These are not the days of fasting.”

The days of Mina are the few numbered days regarding which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ said: “Remember Allâh in the few days numbered.” (Sűrah al-Baqarah, 2: 203) These are the three days after the day of sacrifice. They are known as the days of tashrîq. This is the view of Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anhumâ and the majority of ‘ulamâ’. Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ and ‘Atâ’ rahimahullâh were of the view that they are four days: the day of sacrifice and three days thereafter. ‘Atâ’ rahimahullâh refers to all four as the days of tashrîq. But the first view is more correct.

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “The days of Mina are three, ‘whoever hurries away in two days, there is no sin on him. And whoever stays on, there is no sin on him as well...’”[5] (Sűrah al- Baqarah, 2: 203) This is narrated by at-Tirmidhî rahimahullâh an-Nasa’î rahimahullâh, Abu Dâ’űd rahimahullâh and Ibn Mâjah rahimahullâh from ‘Abd ar-Rahmân ibn Ya‘mar from the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam. This clearly shows that these are the days of tashrîq.

The most superior of these is the first day which is known as the day of qarr because the people have to remain in Mina and they cannot leave it.

‘Abdullah ibn Qurt narrates that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “The greatest day in the sight of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is the day of sacrifice, and then the day of qarr.” According to Sa‘îd ibn al-Musayyib, the day of the major hajj [i.e. the day of ‘Arafah] is the day of qarr. This is a rare opinion.

The next day in superiority is the first day of departure, which is actually the middle of the three days. Then it is the second day of departure which is actually the last of the three days. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “Remember Allâh in the few days numbered. But whoever hurries away in two days, there is no sin on him. And whoever stays on, there is no sin on him as well.” (Sűrah al-Baqarah, 2: 203)

Many of the past scholars say: this means that both, the person who hastens and the person who delays [by staying one more day] are forgiven and the sins which were on them before the hajj are wiped out. If a person performs the hajj without committing any obscenity and immorality, he shall come out of his sins like the day his mother gave birth to him. It is for this reason that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says thereafter: “for him who fears.” Fear and piety of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ are thus prerequisites for the wiping off of sins. This verse will thus be making a reference to the clear statement of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam when he said: “The one who performs hajj without committing any obscenity and immorality shall come out of his sins like the day his mother gave birth to him.”

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ ordered His remembrance in these few days, as stated by the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam: “These are the days of eating, drinking and remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.” The remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ during these days takes several forms:

1. Remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ after the compulsory salâhs by saying the takbîr (Allâhu akbar) - Allâh is the greatest. This is prescribed until the last of the days of tashrîq according to all the ‘ulamâ’. This is also the view of ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anh, ‘Alî Radiyallâhu Anh and Ibn ‘Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ. There is a weak Hadîth in this regard as well.

2.   Remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ by saying Bismillâh Allâhu akbar at the time of slaughtering the sacrificial animal. The time of slaughtering the sacrificial animal continues until the last of the days of tashrîq according to some ‘ulamâ’. It is the view of Imam ash-Shâfi‘î rahimahullâh and one view of Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh. There is a Hadîth in this regard: “All the days of Mina are the days of sacrifice.”[6] There is some reservation with regard to the chain of narrators of this Hadîth.

The majority of the Companions Radiyallâhu Anhum are of the view that the slaughtering of animals is confined to two days of the days of tashrîq with the day of sacrifice. This is the popular view of Imam Ahmad rahimahullâh, and the view of Imam Mâlik rahimahullâh, Imam Abű Hanîfah rahimahullâh and the majority of ‘ulamâ’.

3.   Remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ at the time of eating and drinking. We are ordered to commence eating and drinking in the name of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and end with the praise of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is most pleased with a person who eats a morsel of food and praises Him for it, who has a sip to drink and praises Him for it.”

It is related that the person who commences eating with the name of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and ends by praising Him has paid Him the price for this eating and will not be asked to thank Him later on.

4.   Remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ by saying Allâhu akbar when pelting the jamarât during the days of tashrîq. This is confined to those who are performing hajj.

5.   Remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ at all times. It is desirable to increase His remembrance during the days of tashrîq. ‘Umar Radiyallâhu Anh used to say the takbîr while he was in his tent in Mina. When the people used to hear him, they would emulate him and the whole of Mina would reverberate with the takbîr.

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “Once you have completed your rites of hajj, remember Allâh as you used to remember your forefathers. In fact, remember (Him) more than that. Then there is one person who says: ‘O our Sustainer! Give us in the world.’ For him, in the Hereafter, there is no share. And one from among them says: ‘O our Sustainer! Give us good in the world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the Hell-fire.” (Sűrah al-Baqarah, 2: 200-201)

Based on the above verses, many scholars of the past consider excessive supplication to be desirable during the days of tashrîq. ‘Ikramah rahimahullâh said: “It is considered desirable to say the following during the days of tashrîq: ‘o Allâh! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the Hell-fire.’”

‘Atâ’ rahimahullâh said: “Every person who proceeds to his family [after performing hajj] ought to say: ‘O Allâh! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the Hell-fire.’” Narrated by ‘Abd ibn Humayd in his Tafsîr. This supplication is one of the most comprehensive supplications for goodness. The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam used to make this supplication in abundance. It is related that this was the supplication which he made the most. When the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam made any other supplication, he used to add this supplication as well because it combines the good of this world and of the Hereafter.

Al-Hasan rahimahullâh said: “The good of this world refers to knowledge and worship. The good of the Hereafter refers to Paradise.” Sufyân rahimahullâh said: “The good of this world refers to knowledge, sustenance and perfume. The good of the Hereafter refers to Paradise.”

Supplication is one of the most superior forms of remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. Ziyâd al-Jassâs narrates from Abu Kinânah al-Qurashî that he heard Abű Műsâ al-Ash‘arî saying in his sermon on the day of sacrifice: “After the day of sacrifice are three days which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ referred to as few numbered days. Supplication is not rejected in these days. So present your needs to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.”

There is a reason for the order to remember Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ at the end of the rites of hajj, viz. all acts of worship can come to an end and a person may complete them, but the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ never comes to an end and a person can never complete it. It continues in favour of the believers in this world and in the Hereafter.

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ ordered His remembrance after completing salâh. He says: “Once you have completed your salâh, remember Allâh standing, sitting and lying down.” (Sűrah an-Nisâ’, 4: 103) Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says with regard to the Jumu‘ah salâh: “Then when the salâh is ended, disperse into the land and seek the bounty of Allâh. And remember Allâh abundantly.” (Sűrah al-Jumu‘ah, 62: 10) Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “So when you have finished, devote yourself for Allâh’s worship. And it is to your Lord that you should attach your heart.” (Sűrah ash-Sharh/Inshirâh, 94: 7-8) Ibn Mas‘űd Radiyallâhu Anh said: “When you have completed your compulsory duties, devote yourself to Allâh’s worship." With regard to the words: “And it is to your Lord that you should attach your heart”, he said: “Attach yourself to begging from Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ while you are sitting [i.e. not engaged in battle].” Al-Hasan rahimahullâh said: “Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ orders him to occupy himself in supplication and worship after returning from battle.”

All deeds come to an end, but there is no end to the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. Deeds come to an end with the end of the world, and nothing of them remains in the Hereafter. But remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is something which does not end. A believer lives on the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ, dies on it, and is resurrected on it.

أحسبتم أن الليالي غيرت…  عقد الهوى لا كان من يتغير
يفنى الزمان وليس ننسى عهدكم … وعلى محبتكم أموت وأحشر

“Do you think that the nights changed the pact of love? May the person who changes pacts be destroyed. Time can pass away but we will not forget your covenant. It is with your love that I will die and be resurrected.”

Dhű an-Nűn rahimahullâh said: “This world is only enjoyable through His remembrance, the Hereafter is only enjoyable through His pardon, and Paradise is only enjoyable by seeing Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.”


بذكر الله ترتاح القلوب … ودنيانا بذكراه تطيب
إذا ذكر المحبوب عند حبيبه … ترنح نشوان وحن طروب

“It is through the remembrance of Allâh that the hearts gain comfort, and our world becomes wholesome through His remembrance. When the beloved is mentioned in the presence of the lover, he goes into a frenzy and yearns with Joy.”

During the days of tashrîq the believers experience a combination of physical comfort from eating and drinking, and a spiritual comfort with the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and showing gratitude to Him. In this way, Allâh’s favour is complete on them. Each time they express gratitude over a favour, this gratitude in itself is another favour. They therefore need to express gratitude again. In this way, there is no end to expressing gratitude.

إذا كان شكري نعمة الله نعمة…  علي له في مثلها يجب الشكر
فكيف بلوغ الشكر إلا بفضله…  وإن طالت الأيام واتصل العمر

“If my gratitude to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ for a bounty which He bestowed to me is a bounty in itself, it is obligatory on me to express similar gratitude to Him again. None can truly thank Him except through His grace, even if many days pass and life is continuous.”

The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said: “They are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.” In this there is reference to the fact that the eating and drinking are used as aids for the remembrance and obedience of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. The perfection of showing thanks for a bounty is to use that bounty in the obedience of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ.

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ orders in the Qur’ân that we should eat the pure things which He provided and express our gratitude to Him. The person who seeks help through the bounties of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ for committing sins has actually rejected the bounties of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and changed them into ungratefulness. Those bounties are therefore worthy of being snatched away. A poet says:

إذا كنت في نعمة فارعها…  فإن المعاصي تزيل النعم
وداوم عليها بشكر الإله…  فشكر الإله يزيل النقم

“If you are enjoying a bounty, guard it because sins remove bounties. Remain constant in expressing gratitude to Allâh because showing gratitude to Him removes hardships.”


In this context, this is especially so with regard to the meat of the sacrificial animals during these days of tashrîq. These animals are obedient to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and do not disobey Him. They glorify Him and are devoted to Him. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “There is not a single thing which does not proclaim His praises.” (Sűrah al-Isrâ’, 17: 44) They also prostrate to Him as mentioned in Sűrah an-Nahl and Sűrah al- Hajj. It may well be that they engage in more remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than some humans.

A Hadith states: “Many an animal is better than its rider, and engages in mere remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ than him.”[7] Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ states in the Qur’an that many among man and jinn are like animals, in fact, worse than them.

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ permitted the slaughtering of these obedient animals which are engaged in His remembrance to His believing servants so that they may gain physical strength from eating them, and complete their enjoyment from eating meat. Meat is the best and tastiest of all foods. This, notwithstanding the fact that the bodies can survive without meat by eating vegetables and other things. However, their strength, intelligence and enjoyment are only perfected when they eat meat. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ thus permitted the believers to kill these animals and eat of their meat. In so doing, the strength and intellect of His servants will be completed. This will help them to gain beneficial knowledge and do good deeds by which man is distinguished over the animals. Moreover, it will help him in the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ so that he may surpass the animals in this regard. After enjoying all this, it is the bounden duty of man to give thanks for all these bounties and to use them for the obedience of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and His remembrance. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ gave man superiority over many of His creations and subjugated these animals for him. He says: “eat of them and feed the one who is content and the one who is not content. In this way have We subjugated these animals for you so that you may give thanks.” (Sűrah al-Hajj, 22: 36)

As for the person who kills these obedient animals which engage in the remembrance of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and then gets strength from eating them in order to disobey Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and forgets to remember Him, he has actually turned the matter upside down, and rejected the bounty of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. When animals are better and more obedient than a person, may he be destroyed.

نهارك يا مغرور سهو وغفلة…  وليلك نوم والردى لك لازم
وتتعب فيما سوف تكره غبه…  كذلك في الدنيا تعيش البهائم


“O you who are deceived! Your day is spent is futility and heedlessness. Your night is spent in sleep and you are bound to destruction. You are tiring yourself over something whose end you will dislike. This is how animals live in this world.”

We have been prohibited from fasting on the days of tashrîq because they are the days of ‘îd for the Muslims together with the day of sacrifice. One would therefore abstain from fasting at Mina and at other places according to the majority of ‘ulamâ’. ‘Atâ’ rahimahullâh is of the opinion that the prohibition is confined to those who are at Mina alone, and that the prohibition is with regard to optional fasting irrespective of whether it coincides with one’s habit or not.

As for fasting on these days in order to keep a missed fast or a vowed fast, or to fast at Mina for the person who does not have a sacrificial animal, then there is difference of opinion among the ‘ulamâ’. The majority of them say that there is no difference in ruling with regard to any of these days. However, Imam Mâlik rahimahullâh says that a vowed fast is permissible on the third day.

There is a good reason for the prohibition of fasting on these days and the order to eat and drink. Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ knows of the difficulties of travelling, fatigue of being in a state of ihrâm, and striving of the souls for the completion of the rites which all have to be endured by those who come for hajj. He therefore prescribed resting for them after all this by ordering them to remain in Mina on the day of sacrifice and three days thereafter. He ordered them to eat the meat of their sacrificial animals during these days because they are the guests of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. This is Allâh’s kindness, affection and mercy to them. The people of the rest of the world were also included in this order because they joined them in acquiring forgiveness, getting tired for the sake of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ and striving during the ten days of Dhű al- Hijjah by fasting, engaging in His remembrance, and striving in different acts of worship. They also joined them in acquiring forgiveness by shedding the blood of their sacrificial animals. They therefore joined them in their days of ‘îd as well. So the entire population got together in resting by eating and drinking during these days, just as they had got together in striving in acts of worship during these ten days. So all the Muslims became the guests of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ during these days, eating of His sustenance and thanking Him for His bounties.

They were prohibited from fasting during these days because it is not becoming of a generous Being to starve His guests. It is as though the Muslims were told during these days: “You have completed the work which you were doing. Now there is nothing but rest for you. This is the rest which I am providing you from that fatigue which you experienced.” This is just as how Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ provided a rest for those who were fasting in Ramadân by ordering them to eat on the day of ‘îd al-fitr.

From this we can gauge the condition of a believer in this world. The entire stay in this world contains days of travelling like the days of hajj. It is a period of ihrâm (i.e. abstention) from all which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prohibited. The person who exercises patience during the course of his journey while in his ihrâm and abstains from unlawful desires, then when the journey of his life ends and he reaches the end [as when he reaches Mina], he would have fulfilled his promises and covenants. All his days will become like the days of Mina - days of eating, drinking and remembering Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ. He will be the guest of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ in close proximity to Him for ever and ever. It is for this reason that the people of Paradise will be told: “Eat and drink with relish in recompense for what you used to do.” (Sűrah at-Tűr, 52: 19) “Eat and drink to your heart.s content as a reward for what you sent ahead in days gone by.” (Sűrah al-Hâqqah, 69; 24) It is said that this verse was revealed with regard to those who used to fast in this world.

وقد صمت عن لذات دهري كلها … ويوم لقاكم ذاك فطر صيامي

“I abstained from desires throughout my life. The day when I meet You [O Allâh] shall be the day when I meet You.”

A pious predecessor said: “Fast in this world and let death be your day of eating.”

A poet said:

فصم يومك الأدنى لعلك في غد…  تفوز بعيد الفطر والناس صوم

“Fast at present [in this world] so that tomorrow you will be blessed with ‘îd al-fitr while people will be fasting [i.e. starving on account of the terrors of the Hereafter].”

The person who fasts [abstains] from his desires today will partake of them tomorrow after his death. The person who hastens to enjoy the pleasures which are prohibited to him will be punished by being deprived from his share of Paradise. The proof of this is that the person who drinks alcohol in this world will not drink it in the Hereafter, and the one who wears silk in this world will not wear it in the Hereafter.


أنت في دار شتات … فتأهب لشتاتك
واجعل الدنيا كيوم…  صمته عن شهواتك
وليكن فطرك عند الل … ه في يوم وفاتك

“You are living in a world that is going to be dispersed. So prepare for your own dispersal. Make this world like a day in which you abstain [keep fest] from pleasures. Make the opening of your fast before Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ on the day when you pass away.”

Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “Allâh calls to the abode of peace and He shows to whomever He wills the straight path.” (Sűrah Yűnus, 10: 25)

Paradise is the accommodation which Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ prepared for the believers. In it are bounties which no eye beheld, no ear heard of, and which never crossed the imagination of any human. The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was commissioned to call towards it by embracing îmân, Islam and goodness. The one who accepted him shall enter Paradise and partake of that accommodation. As for the one who did not accept him, he shall be deprived.

At-Tirmidhî rahimahullâh narrates that Jâbir Radiyallâhu Anh said: “The Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam came to us one day and said: I saw a dream in which Jibra’îl was standing at my head side and Mîkâ’îl at my feet. One said to the ether: ‘Strike a parable for him.’ He said: ‘Listen, may your ears hear this. Understand, may your heart understand this. Your similitude and that of your ummah is like a person who bought a property and built a house on it. He then prepared a meal and sent a person to invite the people to the meal. There were those who accepted the invitation of the messenger while others did not. Allâh is the owner, the property is Islam, the house is Paradise, and you, O Muhammad, are the messenger. The one who accepts you enters Islam, and the one who enters Islam shall enter Paradise. The one who enters Paradise shall eat of what is there.”

Al-Bukhârî rahimahullâh narrated the above with the words: “His similitude is like that of a person who built a house and prepared a feast there. He then sent a person to invite the people. The one who accepted the call of this person entered the house and ate of the meal. The one who did not accept him did not enter the house nor did he eat of the meal. The house is Paradise and the caller is Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.”

It is stated in an Isrâ’îlî narration that Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ says: “O man! You have not been fair to Me. I remember you but you forget Me. I call you towards Me but you flee and go to someone else. I remove calamities from you but you remain devoted to sins. O man! What excuse are you going to offer tomorrow when you come to Me? Glad tidings to the one who accepted the call of his Master: ‘O our people! Accept the caller towards Allâh...” (Sűrah al-Ahqâf, 46: 31)

يا نفس ويحك قد أتاك هداك … أجيبي فداعي الحق قد ناداك
كم قد دعيت إلى الرشاد فتعرضي…  وأجبت داعي الغي حين دعاك

“O my soul! Woe to you, your guidance has come to you. Respond because the caller towards truth is summoning you. You have been called towards rectitude so much but you are turning away. Yet when the caller towards deviation summons you, you respond to his call.”

Everything in this world reminds one of the Hereafter. The seasons, festivities and joys of this world remind us of the seasons, festivities and joys of the Hereafter. ‘Abd al-Wâhid ibn Zayd prepared a meal for his friends. ‘Utbah, a youngster, was standing at the service of these guests while he himself was fasting. ‘Abd al-Wâhid began stealing glances at him while tears were flowing from ‘Utbah. Later on he asked him the reason for his crying. He replied: “I was thinking of the dining tables of Paradise and the youngsters who will be standing at the beck and call of those eating there.” On hearing this, ‘Abd al-Wâhid fell unconscious.

The ‘ârifin may be in this world physically, but their hearts are in the Hereafter.

جسمي معي غير أن الروح عندكم … فالجسم في غربة والروح في وطن

“My body is with me but my soul is with you. My body is in a strange place, but my soul is in its homeland.”

The days of ‘îd of the people come to an end, but the days of ‘îd of the ‘ârifîn are eternal. Al-Hasan rahimahullâh said: “Every day in which you do not disobey Allâh is a day of ‘îd for you.” A person went to an ‘ârif and greeted him. He then said: “I want to talk to you.” He said: “It is my day of ‘îd today.” So the person left him and went away. He came to him another day and he said the same thing to him. He came to him another day and he said the same thing to him. So the person said: “How many days of ‘îd do you have?!” He said: “O you idle person! Don’t you know that each day in which we do not disobey Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ is a day of ‘îd for us?” All the hours of the ‘ârifin are times of joy and happiness because of private conversation with their Master and being engaged in His remembrance. They are thus days of ‘îd for them. Ash-Shiblî rahimahullâh used to say:

إذا ما كنت لي عيدا…  فما أصنع بالعيد
جرى حبك في قلبي…  كجري الماء في العود

“If You are my ‘îd, what need do I have for this ‘îd? Love for You is flowing in my heart as water flows through wood.”

He also said:


عيدي مقيم وعيد الناس منصرف…  والقلب مني عن اللذات منحرف
ولي قرينان ما لي منهما خلف…  طول الحنين وعين دمعها يكف

“My ‘îd remains all the time while the ‘îd of people departs. My heart turns away from enjoyments. I have two friends whom I can never replace: a long yearning, and an eye whose tears do not stop flowing.”
 1. Checked by Muslim (1141).
 
 2. Checked by An-Nasa‘ei (5/252).
 
 3. Checked by Ad-Darakotny in As-Sunan (2/187).
 
 4. In Al-Musnad (5/224).
 
 5. Checked by At-Tirmidhi (980) and An-Nasa‘ei (5/256).
 
 6. Checked by Ahmad (4/82).
 
 7. Al-Musnad (3/439).
 
The reviver of Tawhid will always be successful.

 

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