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"The first thing that Allah created was reason."
« on: 13.12.2015, 03:31:33 AM »
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
"The first thing that Allah created was reason."

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, as-Safadiyyah, 1/238-240

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said*:

"We have discussed this Hadith before; "The first thing that Allah created was reason" and the issues connected to it, and I have commentated elsewhere on what Ibn Sina1 mentioned in his book ash-Shifa about "the Necessary Being" and what was mentioned by lbn Sab'in,2 lbn'ul Arabi3 and others about this topic, and I stated that this Hadith is fabricated.

This Hadith is fabricated, according to the scholars of Hadith, as was stated by Abu Haatim al-Basti4, Abu'l Faraj ibn'ul Jawzi5 and others. Moreover, the wording of the Hadith is: "First Allah created reason, He said to it: Come!, and it came. Then He said to it: Go back!, and it went back. Then He said: By My Glory and Majesty, I have not created anything more beloved to Me than you. On the basis of you I gave and I take, I reward and I punish." This Hadith, which they quote as evidence to support their argument, points to the opposite of what they are trying to prove on many counts. For example, the words "First Allah created reason, He said to it..." imply that He addressed it as soon as He created it, not that it was the first thing that He created. This is like when you say: First Zayd came, I greeted him.

Furthermore, this Hadith implies that He created other things before reason, as in it He says: "I have not created anything more beloved to Me than you." But according to them, reason was the first thing to be created. Moreover, it implies that reason is a created thing, but according to them, prime reason was not subject to creation and indeed the entire universe was not subject to creation.

We may also note that in this Hadith, it says: "On the basis of you; I gave and I take, I reward and I punish." So here He is saying that He will do these four things on the basis of reason. This is applicable to human reason, which is created (and is not eternal). Therefore, according to them, "prime reason" is the Lord of the entire universe so how can you compare this prime reason with that by means of which Allah does these four things? We have discussed this idea in more detail and refuted it elsewhere."



Footnotes:



Quote
* Slightly modified.

1- Ibn Sina: al-Husayn ibn Abdillah ibn'ul Hasan ibn Sina al-Balkhi, Abu Ali, the chief philosopher. He was born in 370 AH and wrote several books on Ilm'ul Kalaam (theological rhetoric) and philosophy, such as ash-Shifa, al-Ishaaraat, and others.

Ibn Taymiyyah said concerning him: "Ibn Sina spoke about matters of divinity, Prophethood, the Day of Resurrection, and laws and regulations using an unprecedented approach. However his approach was influenced by heretics who claim to be Muslims, such as the Isma'ilis. In fact his family were members of this sect, followers of al-Haakim al-Ubaydi [ruler of Egypt] who, along with his family and followers, were known to the Muslims to be heretics."

Imam adh-Dhahabi said: "I do not know that he narrated anything of knowledge; if he had narrated anything, it would not be permissible to narrate from him, because he followed the way of misguided philosophy. May Allah not be pleased with him." And he said in as-Siyar: 

"He is the chief of the Muslim philosophers; after al-Faraabi there was no one like him. Praise be to Allah for Islam and the Sunnah. He wrote Kitaab'ush Shifa and other books that could not be tolerated. He was deemed to be a Kafir by al-Ghazali in al-Munqidh min'ad Dalaal, and he also deemed al-Faraabi to be a Kafir." 

He died in 428 AH.

See: Ibn Taymiyyah, ar-Radd ala'l Mantiqiyyin, 141-142; Ibn Khallikan, Wafiyyat'ul A'yaan, 2/157; Dhahabi, Siyar'ul A'lam'un Nubala, 17 /531-536;  Kashf'uz Zunun li Haaji Khalifah, 1/94-95; Mizaan'ul I'tidaal, 1/539; Ibn Hajar, Lisaan'ul Mizaan,  2/291; Tarikh Hukama al-Islam, 52-772

2- Ibn Sab'in: Abd'ul Haqq ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Nasr ibn Sab'in al-Ishbili al-Mursi ar-Raqquti, Qutb'ad Din Abu Muhammad, one of the ascetic philosophers and proponents of Wahdat'ul Wujud (pantheism). He studied Arabic and literature in Andalus, then he moved to Sabtah (Ceuta), and performed Hajj, and became well known. He authored a number of works; including  al-Huruf'ul Wad'iyyah fi'l Suwar'ul Falakiyyah, al-Badw, l-Lahw, Asraar'ul Hikmat'ul Mashriqiyyah, and others. Many people regard him as a Kafir. He had followers who are known as as-Sab'iniyyah.

Ibn Daqiq al-Id said: "I sat with Ibn Sab'in from mid-morning until almost noon and he kept on talking, saying words that could be understood individually, but when put together they did not make sense."

Imam adh-Dhahabi said: "Ibn Sab'in is well known for having said: The son of Aaminah (i.e., the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) limited something that is broad in scope by saying there is no Prophet after me."

And he used to say concerning Allah Ta'ala that He is the essence of all that exists. He was treated with cupping in Makkah, and he let the blood flow until he bled to death.

See: Ibn Hajar, Lisaan'ul Mizaan, 3/392; Dhahabi, al-Ibar, 5/291; az-Zarkali, al-A'laam, 3/280

3- lbn'ul Arabi: this is how the name appears in the original manuscript, but the correct form is Ibn Arabi (without the definite article  al-). 

His full name was Muhiy'id Din Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abdillah al-Haatimi at-Taa'i al-Andalusi ad-Dimashqi, who was known as lbn Arabi (without the definite article  al-),  to distinguish him from al-Qadi Abu Bakr ibn'ul Arabi.

Ibn Arabi was descended from Abdullah ibn Haatim, the brother of Adiyy ibn Haatim at-Taa'i. lbn Arabi was born in Ramadan 560 AH in Marsiyyah in Andalusia, then he moved to Seville after reaching the age of eight. There he memorized the Qur'an and learned the different recitations, and he focused on studying Hadith with the Hadith  scholars in his country. Then he took an interest in literature and writing poetry; he wrote a great deal of poetry and he became a scribe, writing letters for one of the governors in the Maghreb. After all of that, he adopted the path of Sufism  and became an ascetic and a devoted worshiper; he began to spend time in seclusion and devoted himself to worship until he became a leader in philosophical Sufism. Because he had grown up in Andalusia, which was regarded as a Muslim gateway to Europe, Ibn Arabi had learned about other contemporary cultures and the prevalent philosophies of the era. After that, Ibn Arabi left Andalusia to seek knowledge and meet Sufis in other lands.

He visited most of the cities of the Maghreb, such as Ceuta, Fes, Tunis, Tlemcen and others. Then he headed towards the Mashriq (eastern part of the Arabic world), wanting to perform Hajj. After his Hajj, he headed towards Iraq where he visited Baghdad and Mosul. Then he traveled to Egypt in 603 AH, where he met some of his fellow Sufis and he started to write essays and books. There he began to say things that made criticism and denunciation inevitable; he was denounced by the scholars of Egypt for what he said, and they ruled that he was a Kafir and was to be executed, just as a similar verdict had been passed on al-Hallaaj and his ilk. He was almost executed, but he was saved by Shaykh Abu'l Hasan Ali ibn Fath ibn Abdillah al-Bajaa'i, who interceded for him and defended him, and found acceptable interpretations for his words, until he managed to get him pardoned.

Then he traveled to Makkah and stayed near the Haraam until 607 AH. It was there that he began to write his book al-Futuhaat'ul Makkiyyah, which is regarded as the greatest Sufi encyclopaedia; it discusses a great deal of Sufi ideas and practices, but it is mixed with the views of Wahdat'ul Wujud (pantheism). After that, Ibn Arabi went to Anatolia, where he reached Konya which at that time was the capital of Islamic territory in the land of Byzantium. Whilst there, he wrote some of his books and he also married the mother of Sadr'ad Din al-Qawnawi. Thus al-Qawnawi became his stepson and one of his closest students later on. After that, Ibn Arabi traveled to Baghdad where he met Shihaab'ad Din as-Sahrawardi, the author of Awaarif'ul Ma'aarif. From Baghdad he went to Makkah, and thence to Konya a second time. Then he went back to ash-Shaam (greater Syria; Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon) and traveled around greater Syria and its cities. In the end he settled in Damascus, where he completed his book al-Futuhaat'ul Makkiyyah and wrote Fusus'al Hikam, at-Tafsil ji Ma'aani'at Tanzil, and other books. He also began to spread his teachings and ideas.

He remained in Damascus until he died in 638 AH. Ibn Arabi is regarded as one of the most prolific Sufi writers, as he wrote more than eighty books. The most famous of his works are al-Futuhaat'ul Makkiyyah, Fusus'al Hikam, Anqa Maghrib fi Khatm'ul Awliya wa Shams'al Maghrib, Insha'ad Dawaa'ir, al-Fana fi'l Mushaahadah, al-Isra ila Maqaam'al Isra, Muhaadirat'ul Abraar wa Musaamarat'ul Akhyaar, and others.

Ibn Arabi is regarded as the leading proponent of pantheism in Sufism, as the Sufis who believe in that are the most misguided and heretical, and the furthest removed from Islam. But he did not speak openly of his views and heretical beliefs except to his closest inner circle of companions and students, for fear of being sentenced to death. Among ordinary scholars he made a show of devotion, worship and asceticism. When he died and his books became widely circulated, people came to know the reality of his opinions, and most of the scholars ruled that he was a Kafir and a Zindiq (heretic) who fabricated things about Allah and His Messenger. Many of them took on the mission of refuting his ideas, highlighting his disbelief and warning people about him.

In al-Aqd'uth Thamin, Taqiy'id Din al-Faasi compiled a number of refutations by the scholars and their Fatawa (pli, Fatwa; religious verdicts) deeming him to be a Kafir and Zindiq (heretic). Something similar was done by Burhaan'ad Din al-Biqaa'i in Tanbih'ul Ghabiy ila Takfir Ibn Arabi, and by al-Sakhkhaawi in al-Qawl'ul Mabni fi Tarjamat Ibn Arabi.

Some of the scholars praised Ibn Arabi for what they saw of his asceticism, selflessness and striving in worship. So they praised him in this regard, but they were not aware of the Kufr (disbelief) in his writings. Some of those who praised him were aware of the Kufr in his opinions, and some of those who praised him were aware of the falsehood in his opinions, but they claimed that what he said may be interpreted in an acceptable manner, and the reason why they praised him was beeause they had the same beliefs as him. So their praise of him is to be rejected, because they praised his beliefs. With regard to the Sufis, most of them -except those few on whom Allah has mercy- regard him as the greatest Shaykh and the "Red Sulphur" (a title signifying a person of rare worth). Many of them today follow his path, whether they are aware of its true nature or not.

See: Dhahabi, Siyar A'laam'un Nubala, 23/48ff; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa'n Nihaayah, 13/156; Ibn Hajar, Lisaan'ul Mizaan, 5/311ff; Taqiy'id Din al-Faasi, al-Aqd'uth Thamin; ibn'ul Imaad, Shadharaat'udh Dhahab, 5/190ff; al-Muqqari, Nafh'ut Tib, 2/161ff.

4- Muhammad ibn Hibbaan ibn Ahmad ibn Hibbaan ibn Mu'adh ibn Ma'bad at-Tamimi, Abu Haatim al-Basti, the Imam and great scholar of Hadith.

He said of himself: I wrote down Hadith from more than two thousand Shaykhs.

al-Haakim said: Ibn Hibbaan was one of the vessels of knowledge in Fiqh, language, Hadith and preaching; he was a man of great wisdom.

al-Khatib said: He was trustworthy, a man of dignity, and intelligent. He died in 354 AH at the age of approximately eighty.

See: Tadhkirat'ul Huffaaz, 3/920; Ibn Hajar, Lisaan'ul Mizaan, 5/112

5- Abd'ur Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi, Abu'l Faraj ibn'ul Jawzi. The name al-Jawzi refers to a branch of a river in Basra. He was born in  508  AH and is one of the most prominent scholars. He wrote approximately three hundred books on Tafsir, preaching and Hadith. He died in  579 AH.

See: Dhahabi, Siyar A'laam'un Nubala, 21/365; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa'n Nihayah, 13/27; az-Zarkali, al-A'laam, 3/316
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La Ilaha Illallh (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allh) so that you are successful."

 

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