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29 Safar 1444, 22:31
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The Terms Kufr and Shirk

Ibnu Hazm Rahimahullâh said,

"People disputed about Kufr and Shirk.

A group said: These are two names that are used for two different meanings, and although every Shirk is Kufr, not every Kufr is Shirk. Those who said this also said: There is no Shirk other than the view of those who associate partners unto Allâh. They also said: These Jews and Christians are Kuffâr (disbelievers), but not Mushrikûn (polytheists), while other nations (religions) are both Kuffâr and Mushrikûn. This is the opinion of Abû Hanîfah and others.

Others have said: Kufr and Shirk are the same; every Kâfir is a Mushrik, and every Mushrik is a Kâfir. This is the view of ash-Shâfi'î and others."1

An-Nawawî Rahimahullâh said,

"Undoubtedly, Shirk and Kufr, can be used for a single meaning which is denying Allâhu Taâlâ or they could be differentiated. Shirk is specific to worshipping idols and other created beings while affirming Allâhu Taâlâ, such as the Kuffâr of Quraysh. Thus, the term Kufr is more general in meaning than Shirk. And Allâh knows best."2

Abû Hilâl al-Askarî Rahimahullâh said,

"As we have mentioned, the difference between Kufr and Shirk is that, Kufr has many traits. Every trait of Kufr is an opposite to a trait of Îmân. This is because when a servant commits a trait of Kufr, he loses a trait of Îmân. Shirk, on the other hand, is one single trait, which is producing deities alongside or other than Allâh. The derivation of Shirk informs this. Then, the word began to be used frequently until every Kufr was called Shirk from the aspect of magnifying it and exaggerating its quality. The essence of Kufr is being ungrateful for blessings and gratitude violates it. The violator of Kufr in Allâh is Îmân. However, he who has lost his faith was called Kâfir, since he has wasted away the rights of Allâh and the obligation of giving thanks to Him for His blessings. Therefore, he is in the status of one who is ungrateful towards the blessings. In reality, what violates Shirk is Ikhlâs. Then, when it was used for all kinds of Kufr, Îmân became what violates it. It is not permissible for someone who is not in the status of denying the blessings of Allâh to be called a Kâfir, because of the magnificence of what it bears of disobedience. Kufr is a noun related to the Sharî'ah, just as Îmân is a noun related to the Sharî'ah."3

1- Ibnu Hazm, al-Fisal fi'l Milal wa'l Ahwâ wa'n Nihal, 3/124.

2- an-Nawawî, Sharhu Muslim, 2/71.

3- Abû Hilâl al-Askarî, Furûq'ul Lughawiyyah, p. 230.

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh (728H) said,

"Ibâdah is a comprehensive name for everything which Allâh loves and is pleased with from statements and actions, internal and external.

So the Salâh (prayer); Zakâh (obligatory charity); Siyâm (fasting); Hajj (pilgrimage); speaking the truth; fulfilling the trust; being kind to parents; tying the relationship with relatives; loyalty to contracts; commanding the good; forbidding from bad; waging Jihâd against the Kuffâr (pl., Kâfir; disbelievers) and Munâfiqûn (pl., Munâfiq; hypocrites); being kind to neighbours, orphans, needy ones, the wayfarer, slaves from the humans, and animals, Du'â, Dhikr (remembrance of Allâh), reciting the Qur'ân, and the likes of these are from Ibâdah.

Also loving Allâh and His Rasûl Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, having Khashyah (awe) of Allâh, having Inâbah (penitence) from Allâh, Ikhlâs in the Dîn for Him, having patience towards His judgement, being thankful to Allâh for His blessings, being pleased with the Qadhâ (jurisdiction) of Allâh, having Tawakkul (reliance) in Allâh, having Rajâ (hope) for the Mercy of Allâh, having Khawf (fear) from His punishment and acts like such are from Ibâdah to Allâh.

This is because doing Ibâdah to Allâh is the beloved and pleasing purpose by Allâh, for which He Taâlâ created the creation, as Allâhu Taâlâ stated,

"I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me." (adh-Dhâriyât 51/56)1

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh (728H) also said,

"The root meaning of Ibâdah, is also humility. It is said when a path is humiliated, trampled previously by feet, "Tarîq'un Mu'abbad (a subjugated path)." However, Ibâdah which is commanded encompasses the meanings of humiliation and love. Therefore, it encompasses the pinnacle of submission to and love of Allâh."2

1- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 10/149-150.

2- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 10/153.

The Reality of Shirk (Polytheism)1

Ibn'ul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah Rahimahullâh

The reality of Shirk is comparing oneself to the Creator and likening the creation to Him. This is the reality of Tashbîh (likening the creation to Allâh); affirming Allâh's perfect Attributes that He and His Messenger described Him Subhânahu with is not Tashbîh. So the one whose heart Allâh has caused to invert, whose insight He blinded, and whom He turned upside-down by means of confusion in the affair, deeming Tawhîd to be Tashbîh and deeming Tashbîh to be glorification and obedience, such person has reversed the truth. Hence, the Mushrik is someone who likens the creation to the Creator in matters that are specific to Divinity. Amongst the things that are specific to Divinity is oneness in possessing harm, benefit, provision, and deprivation.

This necessitates supplication, fear, hope, and reliance being devoted to Him alone. Therefore, whoever devotes these to any one of the creation has likened it to the Creator and has deemed that something that does not possess benefit, harm, death, life, or resurrection for himself, let alone possessing these for someone else, is like the One who owns every affair. The reigns of all affairs is in His Hands and all affairs return to Him. Whatever He wills takes place and whatever He does not will does not take place. There is none who can deprive what He gives, and there is none who can give if He has deprived. On the contrary, if He opens the door of Mercy for His servant, none other than Him can withhold it, and if He withholds it, none other than Him can release it upon such person.

So it is from the most heinous of likening to liken that which is incapable and destitute by nature to the One who is able to do all things and self-Sufficient.

From amongst what is specific to divinity is ultimate perfection from every angle, the one who does not possess any deficiency from any one of many angles. This necessitates all of worship, glorification, respect, fear, invocation, hope, penitence, repentance, reliance, requesting aid, and the pinnacle of humility alongside the pinnacle of love being directed to Him alone. Intellectually, religiously, and innately, all of these are obligatory to be directed to Him alone. It is also intellectually, religiously, and innately forbidden for these to be directed to other than Him. Therefore, whoever offers one of these to someone other than Him has resembled this other entity with the One Who has no similar, equal, or partner. This is the vilest and most invalid form of resemblance. Due to the severity of its vileness and its inclusion of the pinnacle of oppression, Allâh Subhânahu has informed His servants that He shall never forgive it, even though He Has prescribed mercy for Himself.

Also, amongst what is specific to divinity is servitude which stands upon two legs which are the pinnacle of love alongside and the pinnacle of humility and servitude cannot stand upright without these two. This is complete worship. The variation in levels amongst the creation with this regards depends on their variation with regards to adhering to these two foundations. Whoever offers their love, submission, and humility to other than Allâh has likened that being to Him in one of Allâh's pure rights. It is impossible for any of the divine legislations to bring this. Its vileness is deep-rooted in every innate and intellect. But the devils have altered the innate and intellects of much of the creation, corrupted them, and distanced them from their innate and intellects.

Those whom the best reward of Allâh has been prescribed for, continued upon the first innate. Thereafter, Allâh sent His Messengers to them and revealed His books to them that correspond to their innates and intellects. By this, they increased in light upon light. "Allâh guides to His Light whom He wills." (an-Nûr 24/35)

When one recognizes this, then he will also recognize that from amongst what is specific to divinity is prostration. Thus, whoever prostrates to other than Allâh has likened that creation to Him.

Amongst what is specific to divinity is reliance. Thus, whoever relies upon other than Allâh has likened this creation to Him.

Repentance is also amongst what is specific to divinity. So whoever repents to other than Allâh has likened this creation to Him.

Likewise, from amongst what is specific to divinity is taking an oath by His name in honor and glorification of Him. So whoever takes an oath by other than Allâh has likened that creation to Him.

This is regarding Tashbîh.

As for likening oneself to Allâh, then whoever is arrogant and proud; calls people to praise him through extoling him, glorifying him, submitting to him, having hope in him, and calls their hearts to fear, hope, seek security and aid from him has likened himself to Allâh and he has challenged Allâh in His Lordship and Divinity. Hence, he is deserving of the pinnacle of degradation and pinnacle of humiliation from Allâh and for Allâh to lay him beneath the feet of His creation.

In the Sahîh, it is reported that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Allâh Azza wa Jalla says: Honor is My Robe and Pride is My Cloak. Whoever challenges Me regarding one of them, I shall punish them."2

Since it is the case that the one illustrates with his hands is the most severely punished among people on the Day of Resurrection due to his likening of himself to Allâh in producing, what should be thought about one who likens himself to Allâh in His Lordship and Divinity? Likewise, the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"The most severely punished people on the Day of Judgment are the illustrators, it will be said to them: Give life to what you have created."3

It is also reported in the Sahîh that the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"Allâh Azza wa Jalla said: Who is more unjust than one who tries to create a creation like Mine? Let him create an atom or a grain of wheat!"4

Here, Allâhu Taâlâ indicated what is greater and bigger than it while making mention of the atom and grain.

The intended point here is that if this is the condition of those who have likened themselves to Allâhu Taâlâ in producing an illustration, then how would the condition be of those who liken themselves to Him in what is specific to His Lordship and Divinity?

The same applies for one who likens himself to Him in a name that only Allâh is deserving of, such as Malik'ul Amlâk (King of Kings) or Hakim'ul Hukkâm (Judge of Judges) and the likes.

It has also been established in the Sahîhayn (of al-Bukhârî and Muslim) that the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

"The most disgraceful name in the sight of Allâh is when a man who is named Shâhânshâh, meaning King of Kings. There is no King other than Allâh."5

Another wording of the narration states,

"The man who angers Allâh the most is a man who is named Malik'ul Amlâk."6

This is the hatred and anger of Allâh towards anyone who likens himself to Him regarding a name that only befits Allâh. Allâh Subhânahu alone is the King of Kings and He alone is the Judge of Judges. It is He who rules over all judges and passes His judgment on all judges, not anyone else.

1- Ibn'ul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Ad-Dâ'u wa'd Dawâ, Dâru Atâ'ât'il Ilm, 313-318.

2- With similar wording, Muslim, Hadîth no. 2620.

3- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 5950-5951; Muslim, Hadîth no. 2108-2109.

4- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 7559; Muslim, Hadîth no. 2111.

5- Al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 6205-6206; Muslim, Hadîth no. 2143.

6- Muslim, Hadîth no. 2143.

اَلْأَصْلُ الْجَامِعُ لِعِبَادَةِ اللهِ وَحْدَهُ1

تَأْلِيف: الشَّيْخُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْوَهَّابِ رَحِمَهُ اللهُ تَعَالَى

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

فَإِنْ قِيلَ: فَمَا الْجَامِعُ لِعِبَادَةِ اللهِ وَحْدَهُ؟ قُلْتُ: طَاعَتُهُ بِامْتِثَالِ أَوَامِرِهِ وَاجْتِنَابِ نَوَاهِيهِ.

فَإِنْ قِيلَ: فَمَا أَنَوَاعُ الْعِبَادَةِ الَّتِي لاَ تَصْلُحُ إِلاَّ لِلّٰهِ تَعَالَى؟ قُلْتُ: مِنْ أَنْوَاعِهَا: اَلدُّعَاءُ وَالْاِسْتِعَانَةُ وَالْاِسْتِغَاثَةُ، وَذَبْحُ الْقُرْبَانِ، وَالنَّذْرُ، وَالْخَوْفُ، وَالرَّجَاءُ، وَالتَّوَكُّلُ، وَالْإِنَابَةُ، وَالْمَحَبَّةُ، وَالْخَشْيَةُ، وَالرَّغْبَةُ وَالرَّهْبَةُ، وَالتَّأَلُّهُ، وَالرُّكُوعُ، وَالسُّجُودُ، وَالْخُشُوعُ، وَالتَّذَلُّلُ، وَالتَّعْظِيمُ الَّذِي هُوَ مِنْ خَصَائِصِ الْإِلٰهِيَّةِ.

وَدَلِيلُ الدُّعَاءِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلّٰهِ فَلاَ تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللّٰهِ أَحَدًا.﴾ [الجن:18]

وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ.﴾ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ: ﴿وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ.﴾ [الرعد: 14]

وَدَلِيلُ الْاِسْتِعَانَةِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ.﴾ [الفاتحة: 4]

وَدَلِيلُ الْاِسْتِغَاثَةِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَاسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ.﴾ [الأنفال: 9]

وَدَلِيلُ الْذَّبْحِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ. لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذٰلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ.﴾ [الأنعام: 162-163] وَدَلِيلُ النَّذْرِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا.﴾ [الإنسان: 7]

وَدَلِيلُ الْخَوْفِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿إِنَّمَا ذٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلاَ تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ.﴾ [آل عمران: 175]

وَدَلِيلُ الرَّجَاءِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُوا لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا وَلاَ يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا.﴾ [الكهف: 110]

وَدَلِيلُ التَّوَكُّلِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَعَلَى اللّٰهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ.﴾ [المائدة: 23]

وَدَلِيلُ الْإِنَابَةِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ.﴾ [الزمر: 54]

وَدَلِيلُ الْمَحَبَّةِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلّٰهِ.﴾ [البقرة: 165]

وَدَلِيلُ الْخَشْيَةِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿فَلاَ تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ.﴾ [المائدة: 44]

وَدَلِيلُ الرَّغْبَةِ وَالرَّهْبَةِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ.﴾ [الأنبياء: 90]

وَدَلِيلُ التَّأَلُّهِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَإِلٰهُكُمْ إِلٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الرَّحْمٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ.﴾ [البقرة: 163]

وَدَلِيلُ الرُّكُوعِ وَالسُّجُودِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ارْكَعُوا وَاسْجُدُوا وَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَافْعَلُوا الْخَيْرَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ.﴾ [الحج: 77]

وَدَلِيلُ الُخشُوعِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَإِنَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَمَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ خَاشِعِينَ لِلّٰهِ لاَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللّٰهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً.﴾ [آل عمران: 199] اَلْآيَة وَنَحْوُهُا.

فَمَنْ صَرَفَ شَيْئًا مِنْ هٰذِهِ الْأَنْوَاعِ لِغَيْرِ اللّٰهِ تَعَالَى فَقَدْ أَشْرَكَ بِاللهِ غَيْرَهُ.

فَإِنْ قِيلَ: فَمَا أَجَلُّ أَمْرٍ أَمَرَ اللهُ بِهِ؟ قِيلَ: تَوْحِيدُهُ بِالْعِبَادَةِ، وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ بَيَانُهُ. وَأَعْظَمُ نَهْيٍ نَهَى اللهُ عَنْهُ: الشِّرْكُ بِهِ، وَهُوَ: أَنْ يَدْعُوَ مَعَ اللهِ غَيْرَهُ، أَوْ يَقْصِدَهُ بِغَيْرِ ذٰلِكَ مِنْ أَنْوَاعِ الْعِبَادَةِ. فَمَنْ صَرَفَ شَيْئًا مِنْ أَنْوَاعِ الْعِبَادَةِ لِغَيْرِ اللهِ تَعَالَى فَقَدِ اتَّخَذَهُ رَبًّا وَإِلٰهًا، وَأَشْرَكَ مَعَ اللهِ غَيْرَهُ، أَوْ يَقْصِدُهُ بِغَيْرِ ذٰلِكَ مِنْ أَنْوَاعِ الْعِبَادَةِ. وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ مَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ هٰذَا هُوَ الشِّرْكُ الَّذِي نَهَى اللهُ عَنْهُ، وَأَنْكَرَهُ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ.

وَقَدْ قَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿إِنَّ اللّٰهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذٰلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللّٰهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا.﴾ [النساء: 116] وَقَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿إِنَّهُ مَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللّٰهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنْصَارٍ.﴾ [المائدة: 72]

وَاللهُ أَعْلَمُ.

1- مُؤَلَّفَاتُ الشَّيْخِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْوَهَّابِ، 379/1-381.

اَلْأَصْلُ الْجَامِعُ لِعِبَادَةِ اللهِ وَحْدَهُ

The Comprehensive Foundation of Worshipping Allâh Alone1

Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhâb Rahimahullâh

In the name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

If it is said, "What composes worshipping Allâh alone?" I would have said, "Obeying Allâhu Taâlâ through abiding by His commands and refraining from what He has forbidden."

If it is said, "What are the types of Ibâdah (worship) which are not allowed to be directed to any other besides Allâh?" I would have said,

"Amongst the types of Ibâdah which are specific to al-Ilâhiyyah (Divinity) are: ad-Du'â (supplication/worship), al-Isti'ânah (seeking aid), al-Istighâthah (seeking rescue), Dhabh'ul Qurbân (sacrificing an animal), an-Nadhr (vowing), al-Khawf (fear), ar-Rajâ (hope), at-Tawakkul (reliance), al-Inâbah (penitence), al-Mahabbah (love), al-Khashyah (awe), ar-Raghbah (aspiration), ar-Rahbah (apprehensive fear), at-Ta'alluh (exaltation, deification), ar-Rukû (bowing), as-Sujûd (prostration), al-Khushû (submissive humility), at-Tadhallul (submissiveness), and at-Ta'dhîm (glorification).

The evidence for ad-Du'â (supplication, being a type of Ibâdah) is His Taâlâ's statement,

"And the Masâjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allâh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allâh." (al-Jinn 72/18)

And His Taâlâ's statement,

"For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way..." (ar-Ra'd 13/14)

Until His Taâlâ's statement,

"And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain." (ar-Ra'd 13/14)2

The evidence for al-Isti'ânah (seeking aid, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help." (al-Fâtihah 1/4)

The evidence for al-Istighâthah (seeking rescue, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"(Remember,) when you sought help from your Lord, and He answered you..." (al-Anfâl 8/9)

The evidence for ad-Dhabh (sacrifice, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Say: "Truly, my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allâh, the Lord of the Âlamîn (Cherisher of the Worlds i.e. mankind, Jinns and all that exists). He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims." (al-An'âm 6/162-163)

The evidence for an-Nadhr (vowing, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"They (are those who) fulfill (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be widespread." (al-Insân 76/7)

The evidence for al-Khawf (fear, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"That is only shaytân (satan) who frightens (you) of his supporters. So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (truly) believers." (Âl-i Imrân 3/175)

The evidence for ar-Rajâ (hope, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"... So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/110)

The evidence for at-Tawakkul (reliance, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"... and put your trust in Allâh if you are indeed believers." (al-Mâ'idah 5/23)

The evidence for al-Inâbah (penitence, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And return in penitence to your Lord and submit to Him..." (az-Zumar 39/54)

The evidence for al-Mahabbah (love, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allâh as Andâd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allâh), they love them as they love Allâh. But those who believe, love Allâh more (than anything else)..." (al-Baqarah 2/165)

The evidence for al-Khashyah (awe, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"So do not have awe of the people but have awe of Me!" (al-Mâ'idah 5/44)

The evidence for ar-Raghbah (aspiration) and ar-Rahbah (apprehensive fear, being types of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"... Verily, they used to hasten to good deeds and supplicate Us in aspiration and apprehensive fear, and they were to Us humbly submissive." (al-Anbiyâ 21/90)

The evidence for at-Ta'alluh (exaltation, deification, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And your Ilâh (deity) is One Ilâh (i.e. Allâh). Lâ ilâha illâ Huwa (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except He), ar-Rahmân (the Most Gracious), ar-Rahîm (the Most Merciful)." (al-Baqarah 2/163)

The evidence for ar-Rukû (bowing) and as-Sujûd (prostration, being types of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"O you who believe! Bow down, prostrate yourselves, worship your Lord, and do good so that you may be successful." (al-Hajj 22/77)

The evidence for al-Khushû (submissive humility, being a type of Ibâdah) is the statement Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And there are, certainly, among the Ahl'ul Kitâb (People of the Book i.e. Jews and Christians), those who believe in Allâh, in the revelation to you, and in the revelation to them; bowing in submissive humility to Allâh: They will not sell the verses of Allâh for a little price!" (Âl-i Imrân 3/199) This Âyah and its likes...

Whoever directs anything from these Ibâdah to other than Allâhu Taâlâ, then he has associated a partner with Allâh."

If it is said, "What is the greatest of commands Allâh commanded with?" it is said,

"It is unifying Allâhu Taâlâ in Ibâdah (directing Ibâdah only to Him), as explained above. And the greatest prohibition which Allâhu Taâlâ prohibited from is Shirk (associating partners) to Him. And Shirk is, calling upon (worshipping) others alongside Allâhu Taâlâ or directing other than this (Ibâdah) from the types of Ibâdah to other than Him Taâlâ. Whoever directs anything from the types of the Ibâdah to other than Allâhu Taâlâ has taken it (the thing that he directed his Ibâdah to) as a Rabb and an Ilah (other than Allâh) has associated another as a partner with Allâh. Directing other than this from the types of Ibâdah to other than Him Taâlâ (is also the same). The Âyât (verses) which provide evidence that this is the Shirk which Allâhu Taâlâ prohibited from and condemned the Mushrikûn for were mentioned above.

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Indeed, Allâh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allâh has certainly gone far astray." (an-Nisâ 4/116)

And Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"Indeed, he who associates others with Allâh -Allâh has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers." (al-Mâ'idah 5/72)

Wallâhu A'lam (And Allâh knows best)!.."3

1- Mu'allafât'ush Shaykh, 1/379-381; ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 1/155-158.

2- The Âyah reads in full,

"For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way. Their case is like the one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not. And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain." (ar-Ra'd 13/14)

3- In the copy found in ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, after the Âyah al-Mâ'idah 5/72, the pamphlet ends with Salawât (sending salutations) to Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam,

"May Allâh's Peace be upon Muhammad (Âmîn)!.."

Two Kinds of Kufr, Shirk, Fisq & Dhulm

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah1

There is the essence of Îmân and there is its branch. Kufr is the opposite to Îmân in every concept. The essence of Îmân is affirmation and confirmation, and perfecting the actions with the heart and the body is its branch. The opposite of affirmation and confirmation which is the essence of Îmân is to deny Allâh and what He has said, and to abandon confirming Him and His words.

The opposite of Îmân which is action and not affirmation is not the type of Kufr which is to deny Allâh and makes a person leave the religion, but it is a Kufr which renders the actions worthless.

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Muhammad bin Yahyâ and Muhammad bin Râfi narrated to us. (He said:) Abd'ur Razzâq narrated to us. (He said:) Ma'mar informed us on the authority of Ibnu Tâwûs who narrated from his father that he said: Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ was asked about Allâhu Taâlâ's statement:

"And whosoever does not judge by what Allâh has revealed; such are the Kâfirûn (disbelievers)."(al-Mâ'idah 5/44)

Ibnu Abbâs said, "This is denying it."

Ibnu Tâwûs Rahimahullâh said, "They are not like those who deny Allâh, His angels, His books, and His messengers."

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Muhammad bin Yahyâ narrated to us. (He said:) Abd'ur Razzâq narrated to us from Sufyân, from a man, from Tâwûs, from Ibnu Abbâs that he said, "This is Kufr which does not take one out of the fold of the religion."

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Ishâq narrated to us. (He said:) Wakî informed us on the authority of Sufyân from Ibnu Jurayj from Atâ that he said, "It is Kufr which is lesser than Kufr, Dhulm (oppression) which is lesser than Dhulm, and Fisq (corruption) which is lesser than Fisq."

Muhammad bin Nasr said, "They said: Atâ has said the truth. As sometimes, a Kâfir is called a Dhâlim (oppressor), just as a disobedient Muslim is called a Dhâlim. There is Dhulm which takes one out of the fold of Islâm and there is Dhulm which does not."

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm." (al-An'âm 6/82)
On another occasion He has said:

"Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is a grave Dhulm." (Luqmân 31/13)

He mentioned the agreed-upon Hadîth by Ibnu Mas'ûd Radiyallâhu Anh which is reported by al-Bukhârî and Muslim that he said, "When the words,

"They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm" (al-An'âm 6/82) was revealed, it was hard upon the companions of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and they said, "Who of us is there who has not done any Dhulm to himself!" So Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, "This is not what is meant here. Have you not heard the words of the pious slave?

"Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is a grave Dhulm." (Luqmân 31/13) It is merely Shirk."

Muhammad bin Yahyâ narrated to us. (He said:) al-Hajjâj Ibn'ul Minhâl narrated to us from Hammâd Ibnu Salamah, from Alî bin Zayd from Yûsuf bin Mihrân that Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ said,

"Whenever Umar Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh entered his house, he would open the Mushaf and recite from it. One day, he entered his house and began reciting, and came to this verse: "They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm." (al-An'âm 6/82) He recited till the end of the verse. Then, he put on his shoes, took his cloak, and went to Ubayy bin Ka'b. He said, "O Abu'l Mundhir, earlier, I came upon this verse, "They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm." (al-An'âm 6/82) "We see that we do Dhulm and similar things?" Ubayy bin Ka'b Radiyallâhu Anh said, "O Commander of the Faithful! This is not what is meant here. Allâhu Taâlâ said, "Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is a grave Dhulm." (Luqmân 31/13) The intent here is only Shirk."

Muhammad bin Nasr said: Likewise, Fisq is of two kinds: One which takes one out of the fold of the religion, and another which does not. A Kâfir is called a Fâsiq, just as a Muslim who is a Fâsiq is called a Fâsiq. Allâhu Taâlâ mentioned iblîs and He said, "He did Fisq against the command of his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/50) This Fisq was Kufr on his part. Allâhu Taâlâ has also said, "But as for those who do Fisq, their abode is the Fire." (as-Sajdah 32/20) Here, Allâh is referring to the Kuffâr. Allâh's statement is an evidence for this, "Every time they wish to come out from it, they will be returned to it while it is said to them: Taste the punishment of the Fire that you used to deny." (as-Sajdah 32/20) The Fâsiq from among the Muslims is named a Fâsiq and this does not take them out of the fold of Islâm. Allâhu Taâlâ said, "And those who accuse chaste women and then do not produce four witnesses - lash them with eighty lashes and do not accept from them testimony ever after. And those are those who are Fâsiq." (an-Nûr 24/4) Allâhu Taâlâ also said, "The Hajj is (to be performed in) the months that are well-known. So whoever undertakes Hajj in them, there should be no sexual relations, no Fisq, no quarrel in the Hajj." (al-Baqarah 2/197) The scholars have said in explanation of the term Fisq mentioned here: It is sin.

They said: Once Dhulm is of two kinds and Fisq is of two kinds, Kufr is also of two kinds. One Kufr takes a person out of the fold of the religion while the other does not. Similarly, Shirk is of two kinds: One is Shirk in Tawhîd which takes a person out of the fold of the religion while the other is Shirk in deeds which does not take a person out of the fold of the religion. This is Riyâ (showing off). Allâhu Taâlâ has said, "So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/110) Here, He intends showing-off with righteous deeds. The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, "Augury is Shirk."

1- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 7/324-329.


If we are to explain the above-mentioned section of this treatise so that it is better understood, as previously mentioned, the salvation and eternal bliss of individuals is dependent on learning the knowledge about it and applying the learned knowledge in accordance with it. This ruling is as specific to women as it is to men. In many rulings, obligations, avoidance of the forbidden, and other responsibilities, women are equal to men. Learning about religious matters, especially about Tawhîd and creed, is also within this scope, and it is a duty that falls on both men and women regardless of their profession, position, or nationality.

The first amongst the issues essential to learn and act upon while fulfilling its requirements is that Allâh is the only Lord who created all beings and that after He created them, He sent guides and did not abandon them unattended. There is no religion nor path other than the path of the Messenger of Allâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, which leads to Allâh, His pleasure, and His Paradise after Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was sent. He Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam was sent as a light when the whole world was in darkness. He sowed the seed of dawn and the light of his invitation shone. Thus, the earth began to shine with the guidance of its Lord, and the darkness disappeared until it dazzled illuminating the path of those who want to follow the right path. Evidence was established against those who stray from the right path.

The second issue mentioned by the Shaykh is that Allâhu Taâlâ ordered all creatures with slavery, which is worshipping Him and not associating partners with Him, from Âdam Alayh'is Salâm until the termination of humanity in this world. It is He who created everything. The jinn and humans are among His creations. Allâh has given them intelligence with the ability to distinguish good from evil, right from wrong, and obliges His servants with Tawhîd, meaning to worship only Him, without associating anything with Him.

In his explanation of the 21st verse of the second chapter of the Qur'ân, Sûrat'ul Baqarah, "Worship your Lord!" Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ said, "The meaning of all that is mentioned in the Qur'ân regarding Ibâdah is Tawhîd."1 Again, according to what is reported, he interpreted this phrase in the verse as "Make Tawhîd of (unify) your Rabb (Lord)!"2

The individual who directs his worship to others, that is, a Mushrik (polytheist), directs his worship to idols, statues, angels, trees, stones, and similar beings, or to ideologies, meaning he directs his worship to other than Allâh, or he directs his worship to both Allâh and beings other than Allâh. This is greater shirk that makes one a Mushrik and it is an action not forgiven without repentance. In fact, Allâh Almighty states the following,

"Indeed, Allâh does not forgive associating partners with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills." (an-Nisâ 4/48)

When the polytheist dies upon this condition, all of his actions go to vain. Almighty Allâh says,

"And it was already revealed to you and to those before you that if you should associate (anything) with Allâh, your deeds would surely become worthless, and you would surely be among the losers." (az-Zumar 39/65)

As seen, Tawhîd, which is the mutual call of the prophets, is unification of Allâh in worship. The prophets did not simply convey this to their people with an absolute expression, saying "Worship Allâh." On the contrary, by worshiping Allâh, they taught their people not to associate anything with Him in worship, because this is the key to salvation. Allâh is not in need of the worship of His servants; on the contrary, the servants are in need of Him. Tawhîd is the foundation and origin of religion, the key to paradise, and the main reason people are saved from hell. Due to Tawhîd, a person's property, blood, and chastity are safeguarded. It is the greatest bond that binds humanity together, despite different races, languages, and distant lands. It is the greatest bond that creates unity creating brotherhood and harmony.

The third issue mentioned by the Shaykh is the restriction of befriending those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger. It is one of the requirements of Tawhîd to love the people of Tawhîd, the allies of Allâh, and befriend them, and to hate the enemies of Allâh, the people of Shirk, and to have hostility towards them.

The essence of Hanîfiyyah is to worship only Allâh, without associating partners with Him, and to stay away from Shirk. The worship of a person who worships Allâh but does not make his religion specific to Him will not be of any use. If a person who worships Allâh, fasts, performs pilgrimage, prays, performs Umrah, gives alms, pays Zakâh, and obeys a great deal, does not do these things sincerely for the sake of Allâh, if he contaminates it with shirk such as praying to someone other than Allâh, asking for help from anyone other than Allâh, or sacrificing for someone other than Allâh, that person's worship is not specific to Allâh. On the contrary, he is a Mushrik and is not upon Hanîfiyyah, the religion of Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm. For Hanîfiyyah to take place, the servant needs to recognize and know his Lord, His religion, and His Prophet alongside acting upon its requirements.

This world is the abode of deeds; as for the hereafter, it is an abode of reward for that person, being Paradise or Hellfire. Therefore, those who obey Allâh will enter Paradise, and those who disobey Allâh will enter Hell. This is the line separating the believer from the disbeliever.

1- Tafsîr'ul Baghawî, Dâru Taybah print, 1/71.

2- Imâm at-Tabarî, Tafsîr'ut Tabarî, Ahmad Shâkir print, 1/362.

The Text:


May Allâh have mercy on you, know that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female, to learn these three issues and to act according to them:

The First Issue

That Allâh has created us, sustains us, and has not left us neglected. On the contrary, He has sent a messenger to us; whosoever obeys him will enter al-Jannah and whosoever disobeys him will enter an-Nâr (the fire i.e., Hell).

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Indeed, We have sent to you a Messenger as a witness upon you just as We sent a messenger to Pharaoh. But Pharaoh disobeyed the messenger, so We seized him with a severe punishment." (al-Muzzammil 73/15-16)

The Second Issue

Allâhu Taâlâ is not pleased with anyone being associated with Him in worship, be it a Muqarrab (close) angel or a Mursal Nabî (Nabî sent as a Rasûl), [let alone other than them]1.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"And the Masâjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allâh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allâh." (al-Jinn 72/18)

The Third Issue

Whosoever shows obedience to the Rasûl and unifies Allâh alone (believes in the Oneness of Allâh), it is not permissible for him to show Muwalât (to befriend) those who oppose Allâh and His Rasûl, even if they were his closest kin.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"You will not find a people who believe in Allâh and the Last Day having affection for those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger, even if they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred. Those - He has decreed within their hearts faith and supported them with spirit from Him. And We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. Allâh is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him - those are the party of Allâh. Unquestionably, the party of Allâh - they are the successful." (al-Mujâdilah 58/22)

May Allâh guide you in obeying Him, know that al-Hanîfiyyah, which is the Millah (religion) of Ibrâhîm Alayh'is Salâm, is devoting the Dîn (religion) to Allâh while worshipping Him alone. This is what Allâh has enjoined upon all people and He has created them for this. As Allâhu Taâlâ stated,

"I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me." (adh-Dhâriyât 51/56)

The meaning of "...they worship Me..." is, "They should make Tawhîd of (unify) Me..."

The greatest of that which Allâh has ordered is Tawhîd. Tawhîd is devoting Ibâdah to Allâh Subhânahu.

The greatest of that which He has prohibited is ash-Shirk. Shirk is directing Du'â to (worshipping) others with Allâh.

The evidence is the statement of Allâhu Taâlâ,

"Worship Allâh and associate nothing with Him." (an-Nisâ 4/36)

If it is said to you, "What are the three foundations that are incumbent upon a person to know?" Say:

The slave knowing his Rabb (Lord), his Dîn (religion), and his Nabî (Prophet) Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

1- The phrase between parentheses is found in ad-Durar'us Saniyyah.

Statements by the Scholars Regarding Shirk and Its Types

Ibnu Qutaybah Rahimahullâh said,

"Shirk to Allâh is ascribing a partner unto Him."1

Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said:

"The basis of Shirk is to equate Allâhu Taâlâ with His creation in some aspects that He alone deserves."2

"Whosoever equates Allâh with something else in one of Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ's specific qualities, then he is a Mushrik (polytheist)."3

Ibn'ul Mibrad Rahimahullâh said,

"Mushrik is someone whom Shirk has occurred from. Shirk is to associate something to Allâh in worship."4

Sulaymân bin Abdillâh Rahimahullâh said,

"Shirk is to liken the creation to the creator -Exalted and Sanctified be He- in the specific qualities of Ilâhiyyah."5

Imam ash-Shawkânî Rahimahullâh said,

"Shirk is to perform an act that is specific to Allâh Subhânahu wa Taâlâ to other than Allâh."6

1- Ibnu Qutaybah, Gharîb'ul Qur'ân, thq: Ahmad Saqar, p. 27.

2- Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Istiqâmah, 1/344.

3- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 13/19.

4- Ibn'ul Mibrad, ad-Durr'un Naqiyy, 2/105.

5- Sulaymân bin Abdillâh, Taysîr'ul Azîz'il Hamîd, p. 88.

6- al-Fath'ur Rabbânî, 1/339.

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ للهِ وَحْدَهُ، وَالصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَى مَنْ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَهُ، وَبَعْدُ
Hypocrisy and the Characteristics of the Hypocrites
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh1

Major and Minor Hypocrisy

Since Allâhu Taâlâ sent Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and honoured him with Hijrah (migration) and victory, the people have become three groups:

1.   A Group of Mu'minûn (pl. of Mu'min; believers): these are those who believed in Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam both in the Dhâhir and the Bâtin (externally and internally).

2.   A Group of Kuffâr (pl. of Kâfir; disbelievers): these are those who openly manifest their rejection of Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

3.   A Group of Munâfiqûn: Those who externally (seem to) believe in Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam while they don't believe in him inwardly (in their inner world).

This is why Allâhu Taâlâ opened Sûrat'ul Baqarah with four verses regarding the descriptions of the Mu'minûn2, two verses regarding the descriptions of the Kuffâr3, and thirteen verses regarding the descriptions of the Munâfiqûn.4 Every single one from Îmân, Kufr, and Nifâq have pillars and divisions, as the Qur'ân and the Sunnah have denoted, and just as Amîr'ul Mu'minîn Alî bin Abî Tâlib Radiyallâhu Anh explained it in the Hadîth narrated from him regarding Îmân, its pillars, and its branches.

From the types of Nifâq is an-Nifâq'ul Akbar (Major Hypocrisy), and its perpetrators will be in the lowest depths of an-Nâr (the fire i.e., Hell-fire)5, like the Nifâq of Abdullâh bin Ubayy and others. To manifest belying the Rasûl, rejecting some of what the Rasûl came with, hating the Rasûl, lacking the belief of the necessity of following the Rasûl, rejoicing at the downfall of the Dîn (religion) of the Rasûl, or feeling sad at the victories of his Dîn, and so on are traits that can only be found in an enemy of Allâh and His Rasûl Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

These traits were present at the time of the Rasûl Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam and they do not seize to exist after him. Rather, it increased greatly after his time. This is because the requirements of Îmân were stronger in his time. If Nifâq was still present (in that era) while the requirements of Îmân were stronger, it is more befitting for the existence of Nifâq in a later era wherein Îmân is weaker.

Just as the Rasûl Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam knew some of the Munâfiqûn, he did not know others. As Allâh clarified this in His statement,

"And among those Bedouins who are around you there are hypocrites, and among the people of Madînah as well. They are adamant on hypocrisy. You do not know them. We know them." (at-Tawbah 9/101)

Likewise were his successors and heirs who came after him; they knew some of the Munâfiqûn while they did not know others. There are many Munâfiqûn collectively among the groups who ascribe themselves to Islâm, constituted of the laymen and elite. They are called "az-Zanâdiqah." The scholars have disagreed regarding externally accepting their repentance. This is because they are not known to repent; since they always manifest Islâm.

These types are frequently found within the philosophers who are astrologers, etc. Then it is found within doctors, less so in scribes. They are also found within the Sûfîs and jurists, and they are also found within warriors and commanders. They are also found among the common people. However, they are very common among the sects of the people of Bid'ah, especially among the Râfidhah, because the amount of heretics and Munâfiqûn found among them is not found among the followers of other sects. This is why the Kharmiyyah, Bâtiniyyah, Qarâmitah, Ismâ'îliyyah, Nusayriyyah, and similar Zindîq Munâfiqûn attribute themselves to the Râfidhah.

In these times, many of these Munâfiq people undoubtedly lean towards the state of these Tatars. The reason for this is that the Tatars do not enforce the Islâmic Sharî'ah upon them. On the contrary, the Tatars leave them as they are. Others flee from the Tatars only because of their corrupt conduct in this world, taking possession of their property, shedding blood, and taking captives; they do not flee for the sake of religion.

This is a type of an-Nifâq'ul Akbar (The Major Hypocrisy).

When it comes to an-Nifâq'ul Asghar, it is the Nifâq in al-A'mâl (pl. Amal i.e., deeds) and its likes, such as to lie while speaking, to prove treacherous when he makes an agreement, to betray when entrusted, or to resort to obscene speech when he disputes. For, it is mentioned in the Sahîhayn (i.e., the two Sahîh; Sahîh'ul Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim) on the narration of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he stated,

«The signs of the Munâfiq are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes an agreement, he proves treacherous; and when he is entrusted, he betrays.»6

It is also narrated in an authentic narration,

«Even if he offers the Salâh (daily obligatory prayers), fasts, and claims that he is a Muslim.»7

It is mentioned in the Sahîhayn on the narration of Abdullâh bin Amr Radiyallâhu Anh who narrated from the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam that he stated,

«Whoever has the following four (characteristics) will be a pure Munâfiq and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of Nifâq until he gives it up. When he speaks, he lies. When he makes an agreement, he proves treacherous. When he makes a promise, he breaks it. When he disputes, he resorts to obscene speech.»8

The Characteristics of the Munâfiqûn

Turning away from Jihâd (striving/fighting in the cause/path of Allâh) is also from this category, since it is from the traits of the Munâfiqûn, because the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam stated,

«Whoever dies without having fought or thought of fighting (did not aspire to fight in the path of Allâh) has died upon a branch of Nifâq.» Narrated by Muslim.9

Allâh revealed the Sûrah Barâ'ah (at-Tawbah), called "al-Fâdihah (the Exposer)" because it exposed the Munâfiqûn. According to what the Sahîhayn recorded from Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anh that he said,

"It is al-Fâdihah (the Exposer); it continued to reveal as "And from amongst them, from amongst them" until the people began to think that nobody will be left (unexposed) except that he is mentioned in it."10

It is narrated on the authority of al-Miqdâd Ibn'ul Aswad Radiyallâhu Anh that he said,

"It is Sûrat'ul Bahûth (The Chapter on Probing), since it probes into the secrets of the Munâfiqûn."

It is narrated on the authority of Qatâdah Rahimahullâh that he said,

"It is al-Muthîrah (the revealer), since it brought forth the shame of the Munafiqûn."

It is narrated on the authority of Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anh that he said,

"This Sûrah is al-Mub'athirah (the scatterer)."

Ba'tharah (scattering) and Ithârah (revealing) are close in meaning.

It is narrated on the authority of Ibnu Umar Radiyallâhu Anh that he said,

"This Sûrah is al-Muqashqishah. This is because it purifies from the disease of hypocrisy."11

When a sick is healed from a disease, it is said Taqashqasha.

Al-Asma'î said,

"The two Sûrahs of Ikhlâs (purity; i.e. al-Kâfirûn and Ikhlâs) were called al-Muqashqishatân because both of them purify hypocrisy."12

This Sûrah was revealed on the final (military) campaign of Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam on the Tabûk Expedition, ninth year of the Hijrah. Islâm had been honoured and enlightened. Allâh exposed in this Sûrah the condition of the Munâfiqûn and described them with cowardliness and abandoning Jihâd. He also described them with miserliness in spending in the path of Allâh and stinginess towards wealth. These two are grave diseases: Cowardliness and miserliness. The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said,

«The most evil (two qualities) in a person is an alarming stinginess and unrestrained cowardice.»13

This is an authentic Hadîth.

For this reason, these two diseases may be among the major sins that require entering the Hellfire. Just as the following statement of Allâhu Taâlâ indicates to this,

"And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allâh has bestowed on them of His Bounty (Wealth) think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them. The things which they covetously withheld shall be tied to their necks like a collar on Yawm'ul Qiyâmah (the Day of Resurrection)..." (Âl-i Imrân 3/180)

In addition, He Taâlâ stated,

"And whoever turns his back to them on such a day -unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allâh. And his abode is Jahannam (Hell); what an evil destination!" (al-Anfâl 8/16)

As for Allâhu Taâlâ characterizing them with cowardice and being terrified, He Taâlâ stated,

"And they take an oath by Allâh that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are terrified. If they could find a refuge or caves or any place to enter, they would turn to it while they run heedlessly." (at-Tawbah 9/56-57)

Allâh Subhânahu mentioned that even though they take an oath that they are from the believers, they are not from them, however, they fear the enemy.

This is why "If they could find a refuge" (at-Tawbah 9/57) They would take refuge in fortresses and shelters which those who abandon Jihâd flee to.

"... or caves..." (at-Tawbah 9/57) Maghârât is the plural form of Maghârah (cave). Caves were named with this title due to the one who enters it seeping away in it, meaning hiding in it, as water seeps away.

"...or any place to enter..." (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, these are places which are difficult to enter, either due to the narrowness of its door or another reason. It means a place they will enter. Even if entering it would be with difficulty and hardship;

"...they would..." (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, (they would escape therein) from Jihâd.

"...turn to it while they run heedlessly..." (at-Tawbah 9/57), meaning, they would run a running that nothing can turn them back, just like a running horse which cannot be turned back once its bridled when it carries weight.

This is a characteristic that suits many people in our case and in cases before and after it.

Likewise, Allâhu Taâlâ stated in the Sûrah of Muhammad Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam,

"Then, once a decisive Sûrah is revealed, and fighting (in Allâh's way) is mentioned in it, you notice those who have disease in their hearts, looking to you like one who is faint because of death. So, destruction is very close to them." (Muhammad 47/20)

Meaning, away with them!

"Obedience and good words. So, had they been truthful to Allâh when the matter had become serious, it would have been much better for them." (Muhammad 47/21)

Allâhu Taâlâ also stated,

"The believers are only the ones who have believed in Allâh and His Rasûl and then doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives in the cause of Allâh; they are the ones who are truthful." (al-Hujurât 49/15)

Allâhu Taâlâ has restricted the Mu'minûn to those have Îmân and those who do Jihâd. Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"Those who believe in Allâh and the Last Day would not ask you permission to be exempted from fighting with their wealth and their lives, and Allâh is Knowing of al-Muttaqûn (the pious). It is only those who believe not in Allâh and the Last Day and whose hearts are in doubt that ask you permission (to be exempted from fighting). So in their doubts they waver." (at-Tawbah 9/44-45)

This is a notification from Allâh that a Mu'min (Believer) does not seek permission from the Rasûl (to be exempted) to abandon Jihâd, for only those who do not have Îmân seek permission from him to be exempted. If this is the case, what is the situation of those who abandon Jihâd without permission?

One who ponders over the Qur'ân will see that the like of these statements help one another on this meaning.

Allâhu Taâlâ has said regarding their characteristic of stinginess,

"And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allâh and in His Rasûl (Messenger Muhammad); and they do not come to the Salâh (daily prayers) other than in a state of laziness; and that they do not contribute other than in a state of unwillingness." (at-Tawbah 9/54)

This is the situation of those who contribute unwillingly; how about those who refuse to contribute from the beginning?

Allâhu Taâlâ has also said,

"And among them there are those who find fault with you in (the distribution of) alms. So, if they are given something out of it, they are pleased, and if they are not given from them, they at once get enraged." (at-Tawbah 9/58)

Allâhu Taâlâ also said,

"And among them there are those who made a pledge with Allâh: If He gives us (wealth) out of His grace, then, surely we shall give alms and shall be among the righteous. But when He gave them (wealth) out of His grace, they became stingy about it, and went back turning their faces away." (at-Tawbah 9/75-76)

Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

As Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"(They lash you) with sharp tongues, indisposed toward (any) good." (al-Ahzâb 33/19)

Such lashing with sharp tongues occurs through various aspects:

The Munâfiqûn would sometimes say to the Mu'minûn,

"This has befallen us because of your misfortune. Indefinitely, you are the ones who called the people to this Dîn. You fought and opposed them due to this Dîn."

This is what the Munâfiqûn would say to the Mu'minûn from amongst the Sahâbah.

Sometimes, they would say,

"Until now, you indicated that we stay here and be steadfast at this place which is unprotected and feared of being attacked by the enemy, however, if we had traveled before this, this would not have stricken us."

Sometimes, they would say,

"You want to disperse your enemies although you are little in number and weak. Your religion has deluded you."

As Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"When the hypocrites and those who have a malady in their hearts said, "The belief of these people has deluded them." And whoever places his trust in Allâh (becomes victorious, because) Allâh is Mighty, Wise." (al-Anfâl 8/49)

Sometimes, they would say,

"You are out of intellect and absent-minded. You want to destroy yourselves and those people with you."

Sometimes they would say similar words, which are severely evil.

Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Then Allâhu Taâlâ stated,

"They think that the Confederates have not yet withdrawn, and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, seeking news about you (from a far place); and if they (happen) to be among you, they would not fight but little." (al-Ahzâb 33/20)

Allâh Tabâraka wa Taâlâ has characterized them with three characteristics:

The First Characteristic: Due to their extreme fear, they think the Confederates have not (yet) withdrawn from the city; this is the condition of the coward who has disease in his heart, for the hearts of such people are embarked upon confirming the frightening news and belying the news of trust.

The Second Characteristic: When the Confederates come, they would wish that they were not amongst you, rather they wish that they were in the desert among the Bedouins, inquiring (from afar) about your news asking, "What news is there regarding Madînah, what befell the people?"

And the Third Characteristic: When the Confederates came while they are amongst you, they would not fight except for a little.

These three characteristics suit most of the people in this expedition as is known from themselves and those whom are informed of them know.

1- This is the translation of portions related to hypocrisy and the characteristics of the hypocrites excerpted from a long treatise found within Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 28/424-267. This treatise was also related by Ibnu Abd'il Hâdî in al-Uqûd'ud Durriyyah, Dâru Âlam'il Fawâ'id, 173-226.

2- Allâhu Taâlâ said regarding the characteristics of the Mu'minûn:

"This Book has no doubt in it - a guidance for the God-fearing, who believe in the Unseen, and are steadfast in Salâh (prayer), and spend out of what We have provided them; and who believe in what has been revealed to you and what has been revealed before you; and they have faith in the Hereafter. They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and it is these who are successful." (al-Baqarah 2/2-5)
3- Allâhu Taâlâ said regarding the characteristics of the Kuffâr:

"Surely for those who have disbelieved, it is all the same whether you warn them or you warn them not: they do not believe. Allâh has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, and over their vision is a veil. And for them is a great punishment." (al-Baqarah 2/6-7)

4- Allâhu Taâlâ said regarding the characteristics of the Munâfiqûn:

"And among the people there are some who say: We believe in Allâh and in the Last Day, yet they are not believers. They (think to) deceive Allâh and those who believe, but they deceive not except themselves and perceive (it) not. In their hearts is a disease and Allâh has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies. And when it is said to them: Do not cause corruption on the earth, they say: We are but peace-makers/reformers. Beware, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive not. And when it is said to them: Believe as people have believed, they say: Shall we believe as the foolish have believed? Beware, it is, in fact, they who are foolish, but they do not know. When they meet those who believe, they say: We believe; but when they are alone with their satans, they say: Indeed, we are with you; we were only mocking. Allâh mocks at them, and lets them go on wandering blindly in their rebellion. Those are the ones who have purchased error for guidance, so their transaction has brought no profit, nor were they guided. Their example is that of one who kindled a fire, but when it illuminated what was around him, Allâh took away their light and left them in darkness (so) they could not see. They are deaf, dumb and blind, they shall not return. Or (it is) like a rainstorm from the sky, bringing darkness, thunder and lightning; they thrust their fingers in their ears against the thunderclaps for fear of death, -and Allâh encompasses the disbelievers. The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allâh willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allâh has power over all things." (al-Baqarah 2/8-20)

5- Thus, Allâhu Taâlâ stated,

"Verily, the Munâfiqûn (hypocrites) will be in the lowest depths of the Fire..." (an-Nisâ 4/145)

6- Muslim, Hadîth no. 59.

7- Muslim, Hadîth no. 59.

8- Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 34; Muslim, Hadîth no. 58.

9- With similar wording, Muslim, Hadîth no. 1910.

10- With similar wording, al-Bukhârî, Hadîth no. 4882; Muslim, Hadîth no. 3031.

11- Al-Khâzin, Lubâb'ut Ta'wîl, 2/332; as-Sam'ânî, Tafsîr, 2/284; Ibn'ul Jawzî, Zâd'ul Masîr, 2/230; as-Suyûtî, ad-Durr'ul Manthûr, 4/121; ash-Shawkânî, Fath'ul Qadîr, 2/379; Ibn'ul Faras, Ahkâm'ul Qur'ân, 3/113.

12- Al-Qurtubî, Tafsîr, 20/225; Ibnu Âdil, al-Lubâb fî Ulûm'il Qur'ân, 20/528.

13- Abû Dâwûd, Hadîth no. 2511.
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