دار التوحيد Dr'ul Tawhd

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بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ للهِ وَحْدَهُ، وَالصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَى مَنْ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَهُ، وَبَعْدُ

Witnessing az-Zr[1]

Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا
And (they are) those who do not witness az-Zr, and when they pass near ill speech, they pass by with dignity. (al-Furqn /72)

Ab Bakr al-Khalll narrated in al-Jmi[2] with his Isnd from Muhammad bin Srn regarding the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
And (they are) those who do not witness az-Zr. (al-Furqn /72)

He said, It is ash-Shann (Palm Sunday).

Likewise, he mentioned from Mujhid that he said, It is the festivals of the Mushrikn. Likewise, it is narrated from ar-Rab bin Anas[3] that he said, It is the festivals of the Mushrikn.[4]

What has been narrated from Ikrimah has a similar meaning, he said, It is a game which they had in the era of Jhiliyyah.[5]

Al-Qdh Ab Yal said, It is an issue regarding the prohibition of attending the celebrations of the Mushrikn (pl. Mushrik).

Abush Shaykh al-Asbahn narrated with his Isnd (chain of narration) regarding the conditions of Ahludh Dhimmah from ad-Dahhk regarding the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
And (they are) those who do not witness az-Zr. (al-Furqn /72)

He said, It is the festivals of the Mushrikn.

He also narrated with his Isnd from Ab Sinn from ad-Dahhk,


وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
And (they are) those who do not witness az-Zr. (al-Furqn /72)

It is the speech of Shirk.

He also narrated with his Isnd from Juwaybir from ad-Dahhk,


وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
And (they are) those who do not witness az-Zr. (al-Furqn /72)

He said, It is the festivals of the Mushrikn.

He also narrated with his Isnd from Amr bin Murrah,


لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
They do not witness az-Zr. (al-Furqn /72)

They do not assist the People of Shirk in their Shirk nor do they mingle with them.

He also narrated with his Isnd from At bin Yasr[6] that he said: Umar said, Beware of the jargon of the non-Arabs! Also, beware of entering upon the Mushrikn in their churches on their days of celebration.[7]

The statements of these Tbin It is the festivals of the Kuffr, does not contradict the statement of others, It is Shirk, or A statue which used to exist in the era of Jhiliyyah, the statement of others, It is the gatherings of obscenity, and the statement of others, It is singing. This is because it was the custom of the Salaf to do as such in their Tafsr: A man mentions a type from the types of the nominated thing for the need of the listener, or he draws the listeners attention to it for the (entire) class. Just as if a non-Arab would say, What is Khubz (bread), and he is given a Raghf (loaf of bread) and it is said to him, This is it, while denoting the class, not to the Raghf itself.

However, a group said, What is intended is: Witnessing az-Zr, which is lies. This is controversial as Allhu Tal said,

لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ
They do not witness az-Zr. (al-Furqn /72)

And He didnt say, They do not witness with az-Zr.

The Arabs say, I witnessed such, when they are present at it. Like the statement of Ibnu Abbs, I witnessed d with Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa al lihi wa Sallam.[8] Likewise is the statement of Umar, Ghanmah (booty) is for the one who witnesses the incident.[9] This is often in their speech. As for I witnessed with such, then it means, I informed of it.

The point of the explanation of the above-mentioned Tbin that az-Zr is the misrepresented embellished thing, so much so that it manifests that which is in opposition to what it is upon in reality. From it is the statement of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, The one who boasts regarding (possessing) something that he has not been given is just like one who wears the garment of Zr (falsehood).[10]

This is when he magnifies himself with what he manifests of the thing he does not possess. So the one who bears witness with az-Zr manifests speech which is in a paradox with what is inside. So, this is why the Salaf sometimes explained it with that which manifests its beauty because of a doubt or a temptation and is repulsive inside. Therefore, Shirk and its like manifests its beauty because of a doubt, and singing and its like manifests its beauty because of a temptation. As for the celebrations of the Mushrikn, it brings together the doubt and temptation and it is Btil (false) as there is no benefit in these in the religion. As for what is in it from the immediate pleasure, then it is penalized with torment, thereby becoming az-Zr. Being present at them is witnessing them. When Allhu Tal has praised abandoning witnessing it, which is sheer presence by seeing or listening to it, then how can consent with that which surpasses this from actions which are the act of az-Zr not be sheer presence?

Then this verse itself contains praising and extolling them. This itself denotes awaking the desire of abandoning the witness of their celebrations and other than it of az-Zr. It also withholds turning towards abandoning being present at it. It also denotes the detesting of being present at it because of Allh naming it a Zr.

As for witnessing it being Harm (being derived) from this verse, then it is controversial. It is more meaningful that the verse denotes it is Harm to perform it. This is because Allhu Tal named it a Zr.
 1. Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidh'us Sirt'il Mustaqm, 1/479-483.
 
 2. Al-Jmi is a book wherein al-Khalll gathered together the questions put to Imm Ahmad, his knowledge, views, and statements.
 
 3. Ar-Rab bin Anas al-Bakr -it is said that he was a Hanaf - al-Basr, then al-Khurasn. Al-Ajl and Ab Htim said, He is Sadq (truthful). An-Nas said, He does not have a problem. Ibnu Hibbn mentioned him amongst the Thiqt (reliable transmitters). Some have accused him of Tashayyu (being a Shiite). Ibnu Hajar said in at-Taqrb, He is Sadq, but he has mistakes. The Six Books of Hadth apart from al-Bukhr and Muslim recorded from him. He died in the year 140H. See Tahdhbut Tahdhb, 3/238-239, bio no. 461; Taqrbut Tahdhb, 1/243; bio no. 31.
 
 4. See Ibnu Kathr, Tafsr, 3/328-329.
 
 5. See: al-Qurtub, Tafsr, 13/79-80.
 
 6. At bin Yasr al-Hill al-Madan al-Qdh. He is the Mawl of the wife of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam Maymnah Radiyallhu Anh. He is Ab Muhammad. He was considered Thiqah (reliable) by Ibnu Man, an-Nas, Ibnu Sad, Ab Zurah, and others. The Six Books of Hadth and other books recorded from him. He was a storyteller, worshipper, and virtuous person. He died in Alexandria, in the year 103H, when he was 84 years old. See Tabaqt Ibn Sad, 5/173-174; Tahdhbut Tahdhb, 7/217-218, bio no. 403.
 
 7. Abdur Razzq al-Musannaf, 1/411, Hadth no. 1608; al-Bayhaq, as-Sunanul Kubr, 9/234; also see Kanzul Umml, 3/886, no. 90341, 1/405, no. 1732.
 
 8. Al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 962.
 
 9. Abdur Razzq, al-Musannaf, Hadth no. 9689.
 
 10. Al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 5219; Muslim, Hadth no. 2129-2130.
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Objectionable words and deeds / Re: KITBUL KAB'IR (THE BOOK OF MAJOR SINS)
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 22.02.2021, 03:30:36 AM »
باب ما جاء في غش الرعية
Chapter on What Has Come Regarding Deceiving the Subjects

It is narrated from Maqil bin Yasr Radiyallhu Anh in a Marf Hadth (that Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said),

ما من عبد يسترعيه الله على رعيته فيموت وهو غاش لرعيته، إلا حرم الله عليه الجنة
There is not a slave who was entrusted with the affairs of his subjects by Allh and dies whilst he is deceiving his subjects except that Allh will make Jannah Harm upon him.

In another narration,

فلم يحطها بنصيحته، لم يجد رائحة الجنة
And he does not look after them in with its Nashah (wanting good and correction), will not find the smell of Jannah.

Both of them (i.e. al-Bukhr and Muslim) narrated it.[1]
 1. Al-Bukhr, Hadth no. 7150; Muslim, Hadth no. 142.
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Pamphlets on Tawhd / Re: A COMPILATION OF PAMPHLETS ON TAWHD
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 20.02.2021, 03:02:18 AM »
رِسَالَةٌ أُخرَى فِي كَلِمَةِ التَّوْحِيدِ
(وَكَوْنُهَا تَنْفِى أَرْبَعًا وَتُثْبِتُ أَرْبَعًا)

قَالَ رَحِمَهُ اللهُ تَعَالَى:

اِعْلَمْ رَحِمَكَ اللهُ، أَنَّ مَعْنَى لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ: نَفْيٌ وَإِثْبَاتٌ، تَنْفِى أَرْبَعَةَ أَنْوَاعٍ؛ وَتُثْبِتُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَنْوَاعٍ، تَنْفِي: الْآلِهَةَ، وَالطَّوَاغِيتَ، وَالْأَنْدَادَ، وَالْأَرْبَابَ.

فَالْآلِهَةُ: مَا قَصَدْتَهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ جَلْبِ خَيْرٍ أَوْ دَفْعِ ضُرٍّ، فَأَنْتَ مُتَّخِذُهُ إِلٰهًا.

وَالطَّوَاغِيتُ: مَنْ عُبِدَ وَهُوَ رَاضٍ، أَوْ رُشِّحَ لِلْعِبَادَةِ، مِثْلُ السَّمَّانِ، أَوْ تَاجٍ، أَوْ أَبِي حَدِيدَةٍ.

وَالْأَنْدَادُ: مَا جَذَبَكَ عَنْ دِينِ الْإِسْلاَم ِمِنْ أَهْلٍ، أَوْ مَسْكَنٍ، أَوْ عَشِيرَةٍ، أَوْ مَالٍ فَهُوَ نِدٌّ؛ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللهِ.﴾ [البقرة: 165]

وَالْأَرْبَابُ: مَنْ أَفْتَاكَ بِمُخَالَفَةِ الْحَقِّ وَأَطَعْتَهُ؛ مِصْدَاقًا لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى:

ANOTHER PAMPHLET REGARDING KALIMATUT TAWHD
(LA ILAHA ILLALLH) & FOUR ISSUES THAT IT NEGATES
AND FOUR ISSUES THAT IT AFFIRMS

Shaykhul Islm, Rahimahullhu Tal said,

May Allh have mercy upon you, know that the meaning of La Ilaha Illallh is Nafy (negation) and Ithbt (affirmation). It (La Ilaha Illallh) negates 4 issues and confirms 4 issues as well.

It negates the lihah (pl. Ilah; -fake- deities), the Tawght (pl. Tght; -false- objects of worship), the Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners), and the Arbb (pl. Rabb; Lords/Masters):

The lihah are: That which you direct yourself towards to bring forth goodness and dispel harm. Thus, you take it as an Ilah.

The Tawght are: Those who are worshipped and is pleased by being worshipped or is presented as someone Ibdah (worship) should be directed to. Such as as-Sammn, Tj, or Ab Haddah.[1]

The Andd are: Everything that hinders you from the Dn of Islm; from your family, home, tribe, or wealth is a Nidd[2]. This is due to the statement of Allhu Tal,

And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allh), they love them as they love Allh (al-Baqarah 2/165)

The Arbb are: Those who issue Fatw (pl. Fatw; verdicts) which oppose the truth for you and those who you obey. This is confirming Allhu Tals statement,

﴿اِتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلٰهًا وَاحِدًا لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ.﴾ [التوبة: 31]

وَتُثْبِتُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَنْوَاعٍ:

اَلْقَصْدُ: وَهُوَ كَوْنُكَ مَا تَقْصِدُ إِلاَّ اللهَ.

وَالتَّعْظِيمَ وَالْمَحَبَّةَ؛ لِقَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ:

﴿وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلّٰهِ.﴾ [البقرة: 165]

وَالْخَوْفَ وَالرَّجَاءَ؛ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلاَ كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَإِنْ يُرِدْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَلاَ رَادَّ لِفَضْلِهِ يُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَهُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ.﴾ [يونس: 107]

فَمَنْ عَرَفَ هٰذَا، قَطَعَ الْعَلاَقَةَ مَعَ غَيْرِ اللهِ. وَلاَ تَكْبُرُ عَلَيْهِ جَهَامَةُ الْبَاطِلِ، كَمَا أَخْبَرَ اللهُ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَلَى نَبِيِّنَا وَعَلَيْهِ أَفْضَلُ الصَّلاَةِ وَالسَّلاَمِ، بِتَكْسِيرِهِ الْأَصْنَامِ وَتَبَرِّيهِ مِنْ قَوْمِهِ؛ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى:

﴿قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ.﴾ [الممتحنة :4] اَلْآيَة.

They (the Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allh, and (they also took as their Lord) al-Mash (Messiah), son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded to worship none but One Ilah, La Ilaha Illa Huwa (there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except He). Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him). (at-Tawbah 9/31)

The Kalimah also confirms four issues:

Al-Qasd (directing): It is you not directing to anything except Allh.

At-Tadhm (glorification) and al-Mahabbah (love): This is due to the statement of Allh Azza wa Jalla,

But those who believe, love Allh more (than anything else). (al-Baqarah 2/165)

Al-Khawf (fear) and ar-Raj (hope): This is due to the statement of Allhu Tal,

And if Allh should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him; and if He intends for you good, then there is no repeller of His bounty. He causes it to reach whom He wills of His servants. And He is al-Ghafr (the Forgiving), ar-Rahm (the Merciful). (Ynus 10/107)

Whoever knows this will have cut his relation with other than Allah, and the grim look of al-Btil (falsehood) will have no significance for him. As Allh informed us of Ibrhm, may the Best Peace and Blessings (of Allh) be upon Our Nab (Muhammad) and Him (Ibrhm), regarding him breaking the idols and distancing from his tribe,

Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrhm and those with him, when they said to their people, Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allh, we have rejected you (al-Mumtahinah 60/4)

ANNOTATIONS
 1. These are some tombs or individuals regarded to be pious whom were worshipped during the era of the Shaykh Rahimahullh, Wallhu Alam!
 
 2. Regarding the meaning of Nidd, Ibnul Qayyim Rahimahullh stated the following,

Nidd means Shibh (similar). When it is said so and so is the Nidd and Nadd of so and so. what is meant is that he is the same (equivalent) and similar. (Ibnul Qayyim, Igthatul Luhafn, 2/229)

Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan Rahimahullh stated the following regarding the sections of Nidd,

Know that taking a Nidd is of two sections,

The first: To set it up as a partner to Allh in all types of worship or in some of them -as mentioned before. This is Shirkul Akbar (Major Polytheism).

The second: That which is from the types of Shirkul Asghar (Minor Polytheism), like the statements of a man, What Allh and you wills or Wouldnt it been for Allh and you and minor Riy (showing off that which does not reach the level of Shirkul Akbar). (Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, Fathul Majd, pg. 77)

According to this, everything held equal to Allh in love is accounted as a Nidd. This love is only Shirkul Akbar if this love is an unlimited love merely presented to an Ilah (deity) or love due to its entity.

Abandoning the obligations of Dn because of the love one has for children or wealth etc., is generally an issue of Shirkul Asghar, as Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh mentioned. As it is mentioned in the following yah (verse),

﴿قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ اللّٰهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللّٰهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللّٰهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ.﴾ [التوبة: 24]
Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allh, His Rasl (Messenger), and Jihd (striving hard and fighting) in His Cause, then wait until Allh executes His command. And Allh guides not the people who are al-Fsiqn (pl. Fsiq; the rebellious, disobedient to Allh). (at-Tawbah 9/24)

This yah condemns a group of the Sahbah (Companions), who kept back from Jihd and other deeds because of them passing the love of the eight mentioned articles before the love of Allh.

It is evident that these people are not declared Takfr upon due to this, since what is meant here is not a love that has attained the degree of taking a deity, but it is only that it has exceeded beyond the limits of innate love.

The Shaykh Rahimahullh may also have meant the type of love towards family and wealth that has reached the level of deification -which is Shirkul Akbar. However, in order to make his Tawhd complete, one must abandon all Andd, which he has associated with Allh in some aspects, such as love, whether in the meaning of Shirkul Akbar or in the meaning of Shirkul Asghar.

Wallhu Alam!
4
Pamphlets on Tawhd / Re: A COMPILATION OF PAMPHLETS ON TAWHD
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 20.02.2021, 02:42:28 AM »


رِسَالَةٌ أُخْرَى فِي كَلِمَةِ التَّوْحِيدِ
(وَكَوْنُهَا تَنْفِى أَرْبَعًا وَتُثْبِتُ أَرْبَعًا)
[1]

ANOTHER PAMPHLET REGARDING KALIMATUT TAWHD
(LA ILAHA ILLALLH) & FOUR ISSUES THAT IT NEGATES
AND FOUR ISSUES THAT IT AFFIRMS
[2]





 1. 
اَلْجَوَاهِرُ الْمُضِيَّةُ، 34-35 (فِي: مَجْمُوعَةِ الرَّسَائِلِ وَالْمَسَائِلِ النَّجْدِيَّةِ، 34/4-35).
 
 2. Al-Jawhirul Mudhiyyah, 34-35 (inside Majmatur Rasil wal Masilin Najdiyyah, 4/34-35).
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al-Wal wa'l Bar / ARE THERE DETAILS IN THE RULING OF LOVING A KFIR
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 19.02.2021, 02:43:22 PM »
بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Are there details in the ruling of loving a Kfir?
6
Takfr / Re: IS IZHR (MANIFESTATION) OF DN FROM ASLUD DN?
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 19.02.2021, 02:40:11 PM »
Bismillh.

You may read our response regarding the statement of Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh Rahimahullh at the following link:

CLARIFICATION ON OBSCURE STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING SILSILAH TAKFIR
7
Bid'ah / Mubtadi / SALTUR RAGH'IB
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 18.02.2021, 02:56:58 PM »
بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Saltur Raghib

Imm an-Nawaw Rahimahullh said,

الصَّلَاةُ الْمَعْرُوفَةُ بصلاة الرغائب وهي ثنتى عَشْرَةَ رَكْعَةً تُصَلَّى بَيْنَ الْمَغْرِبِ وَالْعِشَاءِ لَيْلَةَ أَوَّلِ جُمُعَةٍ فِي رَجَبٍ وَصَلَاةُ لَيْلَةِ نِصْفِ شَعْبَانَ مِائَةُ رَكْعَةٍ وَهَاتَانِ الصَّلَاتَانِ بِدْعَتَانِ وَمُنْكَرَانِ قَبِيحَتَانِ وَلَا يُغْتَرُّ بِذَكَرِهِمَا فِي كِتَابِ قُوتِ الْقُلُوبِ وَإِحْيَاءِ عُلُومِ الدِّينِ وَلَا بِالْحَدِيثِ الْمَذْكُورِ فِيهِمَا فَإِنَّ كُلَّ ذَلِكَ بَاطِلٌ

"The prayer which is known as Saltur Raghib, which is twelve Rakahs that are offered between Maghrib and Ish on the night of the first Friday in Rajab, and praying one hundred Rakahs on the night of Nisfu Shabn (halfway through Shabn) are both innovations and repulsive reprehensible acts. No one should be deceived by the fact that they are mentioned in Qtul Qulb and Ihyu Ulmid Dn, or by the Hadth which is quoted in these two books, because all of that is false." (an-Nawaw, al-Majm, 4/56; al-Wanshars, al-Miyr'ul Maghrib, 1/300)

Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said,


" صَلَاةُ الرَّغَائِبِ " بِدْعَةٌ بِاتِّفَاقِ أَئِمَّةِ الدِّينِ لَمْ يَسُنَّهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَلَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ خُلَفَائِهِ وَلَا اسْتَحَبَّهَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الدِّينِ: كَمَالِكِ وَالشَّافِعِيِّ وَأَحْمَد وَأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَالثَّوْرِيِّ وَالْأَوْزَاعِي وَاللَّيْثِ وَغَيْرِهِمْ. وَالْحَدِيثُ الْمَرْوِيُّ فِيهَا كَذِبٌ بِإِجْمَاعِ أَهْلِ الْمَعْرِفَةِ بِالْحَدِيثِ وَكَذَلِكَ الصَّلَاةُ الَّتِي تُذْكَرُ أَوَّلَ لَيْلَةِ جُمُعَةٍ مِنْ رَجَبٍ

"Saltur Raghib is Bidah according to the agreement of the scholars of religion, Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam did not make it a Sunnah nor did one of his Khulaf do so. None of the scholars of religion regarded it Mustahab, such as Mlik, ash-Shfi, Ab Hanfah, at-Thawr, al-Awz, al-Layth, and others. The Hadth that is narrated concerning it is a lie according to the consensus of the scholars who have knowledge of Hadth. Likewise is the Salh which is mentioned to be at the night of the first Friday of Rajab." (Majm'ul Fatw, 23/134)

وَصَلَاةُ الرَّغَائِبِ بِدْعَةٌ مُحْدَثَةٌ لَمْ يُصَلِّهَا النَّبِيُّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - وَلَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ السَّلَفِ،
Saltur Raghib is a newly invented Bidah; it wasnt prayed by the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam nor by anyone from the Salaf. (Ibnu Taymiyyah, al-Fatawa al-Kubra, 5/344)
8

Bismillhir Rahmnir Rahm.

Based on a statement of Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh Rahmatullhi Alayh, some people allege that declaring Takfr upon the Mushrikn is not from Aslud Dn and that the Hujjah (proof) must be established with this regards. Now, Shaykh Sulaymn Rahmatullhi Alayh answers a question directed to him in this regard as follows,


وأما قول السائل: فإن كان ما يقدر من نفسه أن يتلفظ بكفرهم وسبهم، ما حكمه؟
فالجواب: لا يخلو ذلك عن أن يكون شاكاً في كفرهم أو جاهلاً به، أو يقر بأنهم كفرة هم وأشباههم، ولكن لا يقدر على مواجهتهم وتكفيرهم، أو يقول: غيرهم كفار، لا أقول إنهم كفار; فإن كان شاكاً في كفرهم أو جاهلاً بكفرهم، بينت له الأدلة من كتاب الله، وسنة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم على كفرهم، فإن شك بعد ذلك أو تردد، فإنه كافر بإجماع العلماء: على أن من شك في كفر الكافر، فهو كافر.
وإن كان يقرّ بكفرهم، ولا يقدر على مواجهتهم بتكفيرهم، فهو مداهن لهم، ويدخل في قوله تعالى: {وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيُدْهِنُونَ} [سورة القلم آية: 9] ، وله حكم أمثاله من أهل الذنوب. وإن كان يقول: أقول غيرهم كفار، ولا أقول هم كفار، فهذا حكم منه بإسلامهم، إذ لا واسطة بين الكفر والإسلام، فإن لم يكونوا كفاراً فهم مسلمون; وحينئذ فمن سمى الكفر إسلاماً، أو سمى الكفار مسلمين، فهو كافر، فيكون هذا كافراً.
As for the statement of the questioner: What is the Hukm (ruling) if he does not find the power/ability in himself to state their Kufr and revile them?

The response: This does not occur unless he is doubtful of their Kufr or ignorant of their Kufr or he affirms them and their likes being Kfir however he is unable to face them and (declare) Takfr upon them or he says, Other than them are Kuffr; I do not say that they are Kuffr. If he is doubtful regarding their Kufr or ignorant of their Kufr, then their Kufr will be explained to him with evidences from Kitbullh (Book of Allh) and Sunnah of His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. If he doubts after this or hesitates, then he is a Kfir by the Ijm (consensus) of the Ulam. This is on the bases: whoever doubts the Kufr of a Kfir is Kfir himself.

If he affirms their Kufr, but is not able to face them with (declaring) Takfr, then he shows Mudhanah (adulation; flattery, hypocrisy, deceit, compromising ones principles i.e., to give up the Dn in order to obtain what is worldly) to them and is included in the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيُدْهِنُونَ
They wish that you should compromise (in religion out of courtesy) with them, so they (too) would compromise with you. (al-Qalam 68/9)

His Hukm is the same as his likes among the people of sinners, even if he says, I say other than them are Kuffr and I do not say that they are Kuffr. This is his Hukm regarding their Islm, since there is no medium between Kufr and Islm. If it happens that they are not Kuffr, then they are Muslimn. At that time, whoever named Kufr as Islm or named the Kuffr as Muslimn, then he himself is Kfir; this person becomes a Kfir.[1]

With the permission of Allh, this is the more accurate translation of this statement which we have mentioned before. We say with the permission and help of Allh:

What can be said about these words of the Shaykh is the same as what has been said about the other statements of the scholars mentioned above. As we stated about the previous statements, the evidence in the religion is the Nass and Ijm; not the statements of scholars. We have proved with clear evidence that declaring Takfr upon the Mushrikn is from Aslud Dn.

As we have explained on various occasions before, declaring Takfr upon the Mushrikn is included in the Nafy (negative) part of La Ilaha Illallh, contained in La Ilaha. A person who rejects the deities also rejects those who worship those deities, namely the Mushrikn. The person who correctly rejects the Mushrikn has declared Takfr upon them. The opposite is inconceivable, as someone who does not declare Takfr upon them has made them his brothers in religion and his allies. The claim of someone who befriends the Mushrikn to reject their deities is invalid. This is because if he had properly rejected their deities, then he would have had to reject those who worship them. The fact that he does not manifest enmity towards those who worship those deities demonstrates that he does not manifest enmity towards to their deities. Thus, it becomes evident that a person who does not declare Takfr upon the Mushrikn has not fulfilled the element of Nafy.

The state of those who criticize the Mushrikn but do not declare Takfr upon them and continue to regard them as Muslims, wont bypass the situation of the disagreement between people who adhere to different sects in the same religion and continue to call each other Muslim despite criticizing one another. After all this, anyone who says that Takfr is bound by the establishment of the Hujjah, has opposed the word La Ilaha Illallh and the Nass which interprets the word. In fact, understanding the words of Shaykh Sulaymn or another scholar in this manner is contrary to the explicit expressions of the Imms of the Najd call which consider Takfr to be from Aslud Dn.

Apart from the evidence in the Kitb (Book of Allh) and the Sunnah, how can it be that the grandfather of Sulaymn bin Abdillh himself, Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb, has clear statements in his pamphlet named The Essence of the Religion of Islm stating that those who do not declare Takfr upon the Mushrikn cannot enter Islm while Shaykh Sulaymn or someone else opposes the circle of knowledge he adheres to and forms a separate opinion in such a clear issue? Moreover, how can this be while he himself said in the continuation of his statement that those who label the Kuffr as Muslims fall into Kufr by giving the name of Islm to Kufr?

In addition, where in this statement is it mentioned that it is a condition to establish the Hujjah to those who do not declare Takfr upon the Kuffr? It should be known that establishing Hujjah or educating, declaring, etc. before declaring Takfr are Shar terminologies which are related with the rulings of Takfr. Scholars are not random speaking people like us; they deliberately choose their sentences. If the scholar wanted to explain that declaring Takfr upon the Mushrikn is an issue connected to Hujjah, he would have explained this in clearer terms. However, he does not make mention of establishing the Hujjah; he merely says, their Kufr will be explained to him with evidences If he doubts after this or hesitates, then he is a Kfir by the Ijm (consensus) of the Ulam. Now, if I understand this statement as follows, A person who does not declare Takfr upon the Kuffr despite such evidence is a Kfir, that is to say, A person who still doubts the unity of Allh even though its evidences are explained to him is certainly a Kfir. Here, the intention is not to mean that a person cannot be a Kfir before the evidence is established to him, the person still insists on his opinion, although the issue is very clear, etc., so this may well be possible to describe the gravity of the situation.

For, the supposed ruling that a person who does not declare Takfr upon the Mushrikn would not be declared Takfr of until Hujjah is established is not derived from the Mantq of the word, that is, it is not derived from what has been stated; it is derived from its Mafhm, in other words, the meaning understood from the word. Whereas, the Mafhm is not an evidence especially in places where there are clues/evidences which prevent it from being understood in this way. There are many examples regarding this in the Qurn and the Sunnah. For example, it is stated in the 117th verse of Sratul Muminn,

And whoever invokes another god with Allh, while he has no proof for it, his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, the Kfirn will not achieve success.

Now, from the Mafhm of this verse, it can be understood that someone who supplicates to deities other than Allh is not a Kfir if he has an evidence to do so. However, this is impossible due to other relevant evidences. This is because there is no evidence that deities other than Allh may be acquired and even if a person brings forth some invalid evidences, such person cannot avoid being a Kfir because of other evidences indicating that all of the Mushrikn are Kuffr. The details of this issue is found in the books of Uslul Fiqh. Although issues such as whether the Mafhm is considered evidence or when it will be evidence are related to the religious Nass, these rules can ultimately be applied to the words of scholars or any other person.

Thus, even though it is possible to interpret the statement of Shaykh Sulaymn according to its Mafhm as a person who does not declare Takfr upon the Mushrikn will not become Kfir without explaining it, it is not correct to understand this statement as such because of other statements, in other words other clues/evidences, stated by Shaykh Sulaymn and the circle of knowledge he adheres to.

Besides, what is the actual thing those who doubt the Kufr of the Mushrikn have doubts regarding? That is to say, are these doubters regarding the Kufr of the Mushrikn skeptical of Kufr actually being Kufr or are they skeptical of whether or not Kufr actualized in these people? As we have stated above, this is because some people in the era of the scholars of the Najd especially plead for some tomb-worshippers and took the path of making forceful interpretations of their Kufr while alleging that they did not ask the people in the graves for help in actuality but only did Tawassul. Or, there may be obliqueness in the action itself as in the matter of asking for Shafah (intercession). In other words, do those who seek Shafah from the people in the grave do it in a way that is Bidah with some forceful-interpretations or do they do it in a way that is Shirk by recognising the authority of Shafah to belong to them or by attributing some divine attributes to them etc.

It must be noted that the era in which the scholars of the Najd lived in was not like the era we live in. This is because in our era, Kufr has become widespread; man-made laws and secularism, isolating the religion from life, has spread everywhere and there is no obscurity among people that would allow for any misunderstanding in this regard. As for the era of those scholars, there were no man-made laws, or even if they existed, they were recently becoming widespread and Shirk was mostly practiced in the form of worshiping the graves and the dead. This was generally performed by taking shelter behind concepts such as Tawassul, Shafah, etc. In addition to the open types of Shirk performed at the graves, many had obscurity regarding their reality.

So, is the thing which should be explained to those who are skeptical regarding the Kufr of the Mushrikn -mentioned in the statement of the Shaykh- the nature of the actions of these men or is it that these actions are Shirk per se?

If it is assumed that the Shaykh mentioned establishing the Hujjah before declaring Takfr, then this first possibility may be the case. In other words, the nature of the acts of Kufr practiced by the Mushrikn will be explained to those who doubt the Kufr of the Mushrikn. Of course, this declaration will be based on the Kitb and the Sunnah, that is, the difference between the actions of the Mushrikn and true concepts such as Tawassul and Shafah will be revealed.

If it is the second possibility, an issue arises here: if a person knows what those who seek help from the dead do inside out but does not call them Mushrikn then this person is someone who does not know what Shirk is and cannot distinguish between Shirk and Tawhd. If this person labels their actions Shirk but does not call them Kuffr because of their ignorance etc., his situation is even worse as he calls someone whom he knows to worship idols a Muslim! So how can such a person be Muslim?

It is known that a person must reject Shirk in order to become a Muslim, and someone who does not know Shirk, who is unaware that Shirk is in opposition with mn (faith), who is unaware that Shirk cannot co-exist with mn, and therefore calls the people of Shirk Muslim is someone who does not know Islm and mn. If it is pondered upon thoroughly, the path of those who regard ignorance to be an excuse in ash-Shirkul Akbar (Major Polytheism) is the same as those who regard ignorance to be an excuse in declaring Takfr upon the Mushrikn. This is because in either case, those who do not know Shirk and Tawhd and the difference between the two are considered Muslims.

As a matter of fact, today, most of those who raise these doubts trying to dilute the principle of whoever does not declare Takfr upon a Kfir is a Kfir are people who, formerly, used to recognise ignorance to be an excuse in Shirk and would not declare Takfr upon the Mushrikn. As knowledge spread, they began to admit that the people of Shirk should be declared Takfr upon, but, in order to save their past, this time they started to make excuses for those who do not declare Takfr upon the Mushrikn, which is another dimension of the issue.

In short, the words of Shaykh Sulaymn is a probable statement, just like the other statements brought on this issue by skeptics; however, something that is probable cannot be brought as evidence. Wallhu Alam.
 1. Ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 8/160-161.
9

Our People, Do You Know Why We Declare Takfr Upon You?[1]

Shaykhul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh

The Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullhu Tal also said:

What is the Dn which Allh sent Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam with? And what did Allh criticize his people and sons of his uncles with? What did they deny? Were they denying Allh, or did they know Him?

As for what he (Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam) commanded them with, it is worshipping Allh who is One and has no partners, and to not take other Ilhs (deities) with Allh. He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam also prevented them from worshipping created beings from amongst the Malikah (pl. of Malak; angel), the Anbiy (pl. of Nab; prophet), the Slihn (pl. of Slih; the pious, righteous), the stones, and the trees, as Allh Tal said,


وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ
We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him, There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone). (al-Anbiy 21/25)

The statement of Allhu Tal,


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tght. (an-Nahl 16/36)

The statement of Allhu Tal,


وَاسْأَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا أَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ دُونِ الرَّحْمَنِ آلِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ
And ask those We sent before you of Our messengers; have We made besides the Most Merciful deities to be worshipped? (az-Zukhruf 43/45)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْأِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ
I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me. (adh-Dhriyt 51/56)

It should be known with all of this that: Allh Subhnahu wa Tal created the creation only that they should worship Him and so that they affirm His unity, and He sent the Rusul (pl. of Rasl; messengers) to his slaves so they command them with this.

As for what we contradict them, and what we declare Takfr upon them, it is only (them) ascribing partners to Allh. For example, them making Du (supplicating) to a Nab from amongst the Anbiy or an angel from amongst the angels, Nahr (slaughtering an animal) to it, Nadhr (vowing) to it, making Itiqf (seclusion) at its grave, making Ruk (bowing) or Sujd (prostration) to it with Khudh (humility), or requesting it to fulfill needs or to relieve distress. This is the Shirk of Quraysh which with it Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam declared Takfr upon them and fought against them. And none from amongst the Kuffr said that other than Allh created them, provides them, or takes care of the affairs. Rather, all of them confess that the one who does this is Allh, they recognized Allh with this. Allhu Tal says in the yah while mentioning them,


قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ
Say, Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? (Ynus 10/31)[2]

He said in the yh,

قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا
Say, To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know? (al-Muminn 23/84)[3]

He said in the yh,

وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ
If you were to ask them, Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon? (al-Ankabt 29/61)[4]

(However,) this confession does not enter them into Islm. This did not make it Wjib (compulsory) to stop fighting and declaring Takfr upon them. However, their Kufr is what they believe in, which we have mentioned. Verily, they used to worship the angels, the Anbiy, the Jinn, the planets, and representatives drawn upon their graves while they were saying,

مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَى
We only worship them that they may bring us near to Allh. (az-Zumar 39/3)

وَيَقُولُونَ هَؤُلاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ
And they say, These are our intercessors with Allh. (Ynus 10/18)

So Allh Subhnahu wa Tal sent the Rusul prohibiting from directing Du to somebody other than Him; prohibiting from the Du of Ibdah (worship), and the Du of Istigthah (seeking help). Allhu Tal said,


قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنْكُمْ وَلَا تَحْوِيلًا
Say, Invoke those you have claimed (as gods) besides Him, for they do not possess the (ability to) remove harm from you, nor to change it.

Until His statement,


إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا
Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is ever feared. (al-Isr 17/56-57)[5]

A group from amongst the Salaf said, A group of people directed Du to al-Mash (s) Alayhis Salm, Uzayr Alayhis Salm, and the angels. So Allh told them: These are My slaves as you are My slaves, they seek My mercy as you seek My mercy, and they fear My punishment as you fear it.

When the Mumin knows that these people who Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam fought with and declared Takfr upon knew Allh, feared Him, and hoped from Him, however, they only made Du to these things (other than Him), only to come closer to Him and for intercession, and while knowing what we mentioned, this became Kufr to Allh; he should know if he is following the Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, that the thing that is compulsory upon him is being distant from Shirk, devoting the Dn entirely to Allh, denying these actions, declaring Takfr upon those who act by it, rejecting those who are upon these acts, having hatred and enmity for it, and waging Jihd until the Dn in its entirety becomes for Allh. As Allh Subhnahu wa Tal said,

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ
Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrhm and those with him, when they said to their people, Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allh. (al-Mumtahinah 60/4)

It is narrated in the Hadth,


أوثق عرى الإيمان: الحب في الله، والبغض في الله
The strongest handhold of mn is loving for Allh and hating for Allh.[6]

It is also narrated in the Hadth,


المرء على دين خليله، فلينظر أحدكم من يخالل
Man is upon the religion of his friend. So, each one of you should be weary of who he befriends.[7]

Do not verify anyone except with what you hear, or what he related to you without lying. Verify when a news reaches you about a person before you reject him, especially if you know that he loves the Dn, (lives) accordingly with the Dn, and strives in it. Allh is al-Hd (the Guider), and all praise is due to Allh, the Lord of the universe
 1. Ad-Durarus Saniyyah fil Ajwibatin Najdiyyah, 1/144-146.
 
 2. The yah in full reads,

قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ
Say, Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will say, Allh. Say, Will you not then show piety (to Him)? (Ynus 10/31)
 
 3. The yt in full reads,

قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلَا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ
Say, To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know? They will say, To Allh. Say, Then will you not take heed? Say, Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say, They (all) belong to Allh. Say, Then will you not fear Him? Say, Who is it in whose hands is the governance of all things, who protects (all), but is not protected (of any), if you know? They will say, They (all) belong to Allh. Say, Then how are you deluded? (al-Muminn 23/84-89)
 
 4. The yah in full reads,

وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ فَأَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ
If you were to ask them, Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon? They will surely reply, Allh. How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)? (al-Ankabt 29/61)
 
 5. The yt in full reads,

قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنْكُمْ وَلَا تَحْوِيلًا أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَى رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا
Say, Invoke those you have claimed (as gods) besides Him, for they do not possess the (ability to) remove harm from you, nor to change it. Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, (striving as to) which of them would be nearest, and they hope for His mercy and fear His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is ever feared. (al-Isr 17/56-57)
 
 6. Ab Dwd at-Taylas, Musnad, Hadth no. 783; Ibnu Ab Shaybah, Musnad, Hadth no. 321; Ibnu Ab Shaybah, Musannaf, Hadth no. 30421, 30443, 34338; al-Marwaz, Tadhmu Qadris Salh, Hadth no. 399; with similar wording in Ahmad, Musnad, Hadth no. 18524.
 
 7. At-Tirmidh, Hadth no. 2378; Ab Dwd, Hadth no. 4833.
10
I'tiqd Terms / MAHABBAH (LOVE) AND ITS TYPES
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 13.02.2021, 06:52:10 PM »

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اَلْحَمْدُ للهِ وَحْدَهُ، وَالصَّلاةُ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَى مَنْ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدَهُ، وَبَعْدُ

Mahabbah (Love) and Its Types

In this article, we will try to summarize the types and degrees of love without delving into much detail Inshllh. Of course, while doing this, regarding this issue we will touch upon some misconceptions or issues considered to be incorrect or incomplete in Ilm. We would like to begin by quoting the statements of Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh regarding the types of love in his treatise entitled Some Benefits From Sratul Ftihah. In fact, this treatise will be a type of explanation to the statements of the Shaykh Rahimahullh found in this pamphlet Inshllh.

Shaykhul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullah says,


﴿اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ. اَلرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ. مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ.﴾ [الفاتحة: 1-3]
All praise is due to Allh, Lord of the worlds. The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. The Master of the Day of Judgement. (al-Ftihah 1/1-3)

These three verses encompass three issues:

In the first verse {which is:
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ.All praise is due to Allh, Lord of the worlds. (al-Ftihah 1/1)}

There is Mahabbah. This is because Allh is the Bestower of bounties/favors, and that the Bestower is loved to the extent of his bestowal of favors. Mahabbah is divided into four types:

(The First Type is) Mahabbah containing Shirk: These (those who suffer from love containing Shirk) are those whom Allh Azza wa Jalla states the following regarding,


﴿وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ.﴾ [البقرة: 165]
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allh), they love them as they love Allh.

To His statement,


﴿وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ.﴾ [البقرة: 167]
And they will never get out of the Fire. (al-Baqarah 2/165-167)

The Second Type of Mahabbah: Loving Btil (falsehood) and its people, and having Bughd (hatred) towards the Haqq (truth) and its people. This is the characteristic of the hypocrites.

The Third Type of Mahabbah: Inherent (Fitr) love, this is ones love for his wealth and offspring. When such love does not divert one from obedience to Allh nor assist in committing the prohibitions of Allh, then it is Mubh (permissible).

The Fourth Type of Mahabbah: Loving the people of Tawhd, and hating the people of Shirk. This is the strongest handhold of mn (faith) and is the greatest thing the servant worships His Rabb (Lord) by.

The words of the Shaykh Rahimahullh end here. With the permission of Allh, the details of this concise explanation by the Shaykh is as follows:

First of all, we can divide what we call Mahabbah (love) into two categories:

1- Inherent (Fitr) love: This is love outside the will of the human being and is love stemming from the Fitrah, in other words from creation, regardless of the religion and creed of the person.

2- Shar/willing love: This is the types of love within the will of the human being which are commanded by or negated by the Sharah.

The details of these categories is as follows:


1- Inherent (Fitr) love:

The Shaykh Rahimahullh said with this regards,

Inherent (Fitr) love, this is ones love for his wealth and offspring. When such love does not divert one from obedience to Allh nor assist in committing the prohibitions of Allh, then it is Mubh (permissible).

For example, these are types of desirous love for certain foods and drinks, people from the opposite gender, or for things in the form of wealth and money. Allh the Almighty says in this regard:

﴿زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ وَالْبَنِينَ وَالْقَنَاطِيرِ الْمُقَنْطَرَةِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ وَالْخَيْلِ الْمُسَوَّمَةِ وَالْأَنْعَامِ وَالْحَرْثِ ذَلِكَ مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَاللَّهُ عِنْدَهُ حُسْنُ الْمَآبِ.﴾
Beautified for people is the love of that which they desire - of women and sons, heaped-up sums of gold and silver, fine branded horses, and cattle and tilled land. That is the enjoyment of worldly life, but Allh has with Him the best return (i.e., Paradise). (l-i Imrn 3/14)

Likewise, the love for some people such as ones mother, father, spouse, child, relative, fellow countryman, someone who does good for him, that develops involuntarily is also within this scope. Therefore, Allhu Tal stated the following about the death of the uncle of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam Ab Tlib upon Kufr,


﴿إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ.﴾
Indeed, you do not guide whom you love, but Allh guides whom He wills. And He is most knowing of the (rightly) guided. (al-Qasas 28/56)

Ibnu Kathr Rahimahullh said regarding this verse,


وَقَدْ ثَبَتَ فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ أَنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ فِي أَبِي طَالِبٍ عَمّ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَقَدْ كَانَ يَحوطُه وَيَنْصُرُهُ، وَيَقُومُ فِي صَفِّهِ وَيُحِبُّهُ حُبًّا [شَدِيدًا] طَبْعِيًّا لَا شَرْعِيًّا
It was established in the Sahhayn that this verse was revealed concerning Ab Tlib, the paternal uncle of Raslullh. He used to protect Raslullh, support him, and stand by him. Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam loved Ab Tlib dearly, but this love was a Fitr (innate) love, (born of kinship), not a love that was Sharan (religious).[1]

Therefore, it is revealed that Ab Tlib was intended by the expression found in the verse whom you love. Although he was a Kfir, it was stated that Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam had Mahabbah for him, in other terms loved him. However, there was no condemnation for this. This is a type of Fitr (inherent) love.

People cannot resist this type of love even if they want to, as these are things which exist in ones Fitrah. For this reason, things which are within the scope of Fitr love are not essentially within the scope of Harm and Hall, which we call Afli Mukallafn. The reason why the Shaykh called it Mubh love is because there is no aspect of Harm or condemnation in this, otherwise, there is no obligation in this regard as they are outside ones will. As Allh stated in the last verse of Sratul Baqarah, Allh does not charge a soul except (with that within) its capacity. (al-Baqarah 2/286) A person does not have to try to suppress this feeling, it will even need a futile effort as it is against ones nature. In addition, this love which exists in the Fitrah of a human being is a love for the type of things which are mentioned and not mentioned here. Therefore, just as the things which are loved being Harm or Hall does not have an effect on this love, the person who is loved being Muslim or Kfir also does not have an effect. For example, the Fitrah of a human being is inclined to the opposite gender. Here, what is Fitr is the love for the opposite gender. Therefore, if a person unwillingly feels this love towards a Muslim or a Kfir foreign woman whom he is not married to, that is, a person who is Harm for him, he will not be responsible for the feeling. However, whenever he redacts his love/passion into writing, words, and actions by his own will, the Sharah comes into play here. Likewise, this issue is valid after a Muslim man marries a Kfir women who is from the Ahlul Kitb (People of Book). A person cannot be condemned for having love for the femininity of his wife from the Ahlul Kitb, as this is something which develops completely out of the will of a person, and trying to prevent a person from having love for the person he is married to is likewise a futile effort. However, when this turns into actions which are in the will of a person such as taking the Kfir wife as a Wal and a confidant, choosing her over the Muslims, giving her a share of inheritance etc., the Sharah comes into play, and gives the ruling of a Kfir or a sinner to the person depending on the deed he does. Likewise, if other sexual affections come to a position which prevents a person from the way of Allh and obligatory deeds, then condemnation will occur. As is mentioned in the verse below:


﴿قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ.﴾
Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allh, His Rasl (Messenger), and Jihd (striving hard and fighting) in His Cause, then wait until Allh executes His command. And Allh guides not the people who are al-Fsiqn (pl. Fsiq; the rebellious, disobedient to Allh). (at-Tawbah 9/24)

The eight matters mentioned in this verse are things that people have Fitr/inherent love for. What is condemned here is not the love felt for them, but that they are reasons for avoiding Jihd and other righteous deeds in the way of Allh. The Shaykh Rahimahullh also denoted to this issue.

In summary, inherent/involuntary/Fitr love is like this. As we have pointed above, this type of love is beyond the scope of the Sharah as the Sharah only deals with what a person does out of their own will. Therefore, the rulings of the Sharah such as Kufr, Harm, or Fardh (obligatory) are not incumbent upon things within the scope of Fitr (inherent) love. These are the rulings about willful love. Likewise, the rulings regarding friendship and enmity which are called al-Wal wal Bar or Muwlt and Mudt are not related to Fitr love, however, they are related to types of willing love. Therefore, the thing which concerns the Mukallaf (obligated one) is willful love. We will discuss this in the next heading and expand on its types Inshllh.


2- Willing Love and its Types:

This is the type of love within the will of the human being. This has subcategories such as Kufr, Shirk, Harm, and Fardh. Now, I would like to take each of them in hand:

a) Love which is Shirk. The Shaykh Rahimahullh said,


Mahabbah containing Shirk: These (those who suffer from love containing Shirk) are those whom Allh Azza wa Jalla states the following regarding,

﴿وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللّٰهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّٰهِ.﴾ [البقرة: 165]
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allh), they love them as they love Allh.

To His statement,


﴿وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ.﴾ [البقرة: 167]
And they will never get out of the Fire. (al-Baqarah 2/165-167)

As it is renowned, Shirk is giving to another that which belongs specifically to Allhu Tal. Therefore, the term which appears in various forms such as love which is Shirk, Shirk in love, and the love of Shirk is giving love that is unique to Allh to other than Allah. The love that is unique to Allh can be defined as the love of divinity or love of Ibdah (worship). As was denoted by Ibnu Abil Izz Rahimahullh in his commentary on the creed of at-Tahw, Ibdah (worship) is comprised of the perfection of love and its ultimate point of love.[2] Ibnu Kathr also denoted this when defining Ibdah in the interpretation of Sratul Ftihah. In this case, full and unrestrained love means worship and servitude. If a person loves any being because of their essence, it means that he is displaying servitude to him. Love because of ones essence means unrestrained and unconditioned love displayed towards someone. When a person loves something else, they love it with limited love. If such person is a Muslim, he loves the thing for Allh and as much as Allh allows. If such person is a non-Muslim, then he loves the thing in proportion to his interests and lust; however, as soon as he starts to suffer from this mentioned-being, his love turns into hate. A Muslims love for Allh is not like this. A Muslim loves Allh because of His Dht (Essence); he does not abandon his love of Allh no matter what happens to him, as there are no conditions in his love for Allh. Anyone who loves other than Allh in this manner will have adopted this being as a deity, in other terms, has worshiped him. In short, love which is Shirk is loving other than Allh akin to Him, loving like loving Allh.

In the past and present, most of Shirk originates from this Shirk of Love. In fact, it is often the case that some creatures are loved more than Allh. For example, as a result of loving some Tawght (pl. of Tght) more than Allh, the judgments they place and views they hold are placed higher than the rules of Allh. Love is something that occurs in the heart, anyway. Its manifestation is in deeds, especially in obedience. A person displays their love for the Deity they love by obeying it.

Now, I would like to make some important remarks on this Shirk of Love.

The First: As we have mentioned before, love which is Shirk cannot be mentioned in things that are in the scope of Fitr (inherent) love. This is because Fitr love has nothing to do with a persons belief. That is to say, Allh says in the above-mentioned Sratut Tawbah verse 24 regarding the eight things that people love inherently, If these are dearer to you than Allh, His Rasl (Messenger), and Jihd (striving hard and fighting) in His Cause, then wait until Allh executes His command. And Allh guides not the people who are al-Fsiqn (pl. Fsiq; the rebellious, disobedient to Allh). (at-Tawbah 9/24) This verse was revealed about those who remained behind from Jihd because of love for goods, children, etc. As it is clearly understood from the expression in the verse, the love of these people for these eight matters exceeded the love of Allh. The sign of this is that these people abandoned Allhs command and preferred these things to the love of Allh. However, despite this, it cannot be said about these people that they took these beloved things as their deities. For, there is no love of worship that is directed here to a deity including elements such as Khush (submissive humility), Tadhm (glorification), and Dhillah (submissiveness). On the contrary, here, it is the case that Fitr love prevents the implementation of the orders of Allh. That is why it cannot be called love of Shirk. Even if it is given such a name, it can merely be called ash-Shirkul Asghar (minor polytheism) because it resembles the love shirk that brings one out of the religion in some ways. It is certain that this kind of love will not take one out of the fold of the religion. This is because most of the forbidden things occur as a result of such worldly love being placed above the love of Allh. If this were Kufr, there would not be anyone who sinned and was not a Kfir, which is false.

The Second: The nature of the being to which the love of Shirk is directed to is insignificant. If a person loves someone whether a Muslim or a Kfir like he loves Allh, then he will fall into the Shirk of Love. Therefore, it is incorrect to describe the Wal directed to the Kuffr as the Shirk of Love. Loving the Kuffr is sometimes Kufr and sometimes Harm. An explanation for this will come below. It is incorrect to call this Wal as Shirk, since this is not directly related to adopting a deity other than Allh. Every Shirk is Kufr, but not all Kufr is Shirk. Although there are some scholars who do say that every Kufr is Shirk, the correct view is that there is a difference between the two. In this regard, loving the Kuffr in terms of religion takes the name of Kufr. It would not be correct to call it Shirk of Love, as it would cause confusion between the issues.

b) Love that is Kufr: Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh said on this issue,


The Second Type of Mahabbah: Loving Btil (falsehood) and its people, and having Bughd (hatred) towards the Haqq (truth) and its people. This is the characteristic of the hypocrites.

This love is the subject of the great Wal which excludes one from the religion. Loving Kufr, loving the Kuffr and the Tawght in terms of creed, and valuing their religion and deities is included in this scope.

Imam at-Tabar said regarding the explanation of the statement found in the surah al-Midah verse 51 And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is (one) of them,


فإن من تولاهم ونصرَهم على المؤمنين، فهو من أهل دينهم وملتهم، فإنه لا يتولى متولً أحدًا إلا وهو به وبدينه وما هو عليه راضٍ. وإذا رضيه ورضي دينَه، فقد عادى ما خالفه وسَخِطه، وصار حكُمه حُكمَه
For verily, whoever takes them as allies and helps them against Muminn (pl. Mumin; believers) is from their religion and nation. For nobody takes another person as their ally except by being pleased with him, his religion, and the way he is upon. So when a person is pleased with a person and his religion, then he becomes enemies of those who oppose him and is discontent with them. Thus, his judgment will be like the judgment of the person whom he has taken as an ally.[3]

This is the definition of Wal which is Kufr. This is also the definition of love which is Kufr. Likewise, intentionally loving the Harm -apart from inherent inclination- and recognising them as beautiful falls within the scope of the Kufr of Love. Therefore, in the famous Munkar Hadth narrated in the Sahh, it is said, There is no faith, not even as much as a mustard grain, beyond manifesting enmity with heart. If a person does not manifest enmity to something which has been established in the Sharah to be Harm and considers it to be something normal which there is nothing wrong to do, he becomes a Kfir, even if a person does not give it the label of Hall.

As was afore-mentioned, we do not think it is correct to give the name of the Shirk of Love to the Kufr of Love.  If this occurs from someone who claims to adhere to Islm, it can be called the Nifq of Love. It is this Kufr and Nifq of Love which most verses about Wal make mention of, as Wal is a term inclusive of love. The most obvious from the Nass (textual proofs) with this regards is as follows,


﴿لَا تَجِدُ قَوْمًا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ يُوَادُّونَ مَنْ حَادَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوْ كَانُوا آبَاءَهُمْ أَوْ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ.﴾
You will not find a people who believe in Allh and the Last Day having affection for those who oppose Allh and His Messenger, even if they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred. (al-Mujdalah 58/22)

The word Mawaddah (affection) used in the verse is sometimes synonymous with Mahabbah (love). However, as was denoted by the commentator on the creed of at-Tahw, Ibnu Abil Izz Rahimahullh, Mawaddah is the finest and purest type of Mahabbah, and is the innermost of Mahabbah, in other terms, love.[4] That is why the word Mahabbah (love) is sometimes used for inherent love, while the word Mawaddah is rather used for willing/Shar love. This verse clearly shows that loving the Kuffr is incompatible with mn. Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh says the following about this verse,


فأخبر سبحانه أنه لا يوجد مؤمن يواد كافرا؛ فمن واد الكفار فليس بمؤمن
Thereby, Allh Subhnahu informed that there exists no Mumin (believer) who displays Mawaddah towards a Kfir. So whoever displays Mawaddah towards the Kuffr is not a Mumin.[5]

One cannot love the group of Kuffr in general or a particular person among them, even if he is ones closest relative. If this love is due to love or consent of the Kufr of the Kfir, then this is a love which is Kufr, as was noted by Imm at-Tabar. However, it should be noted here that one does not have to carry the same creed as a Kfir in order to fall into Kufr in this type of Wal. The past and present Jahmiyah erred in this regard. For example, even if a person does not belong to the same religion as Jews or Christians, giving them the essence of Wal, helping them against Islm and Muslims, and joining their ranks is enough to become a Kfir. Just as the Munfiqn (pl. Munfiq; hypocrites) in the era of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam were accused of Kufr for their ties of friendship and love with the Jews, even though they did not belong to their religion. Allh Azza and Jalla revealed Sratul Midah, verse 51 and the following verses about Abdullh bin Sall and his followers who did so. In this verse, the following is stated,


﴿يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ.﴾
O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are (in fact) allies of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is (one) of them. Indeed, Allh guides not the wrongdoing people. (al-Midah 5/51)

In the explanation of this verse, Ibnu Kathr narrates from Ibnu Ab Htim who narrated from Ibnu Srn, he narrated that Abdullh bin Utbah that he said,


لِيَتَّقِ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ يَهُودِيًّا أَوْ نَصْرَانِيًّا، وَهُوَ لَا يَشْعُرُ. قَالَ: فَظَنَنَّاهُ يُرِيدُ هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ
Let one of you beware that he might be a Jew or a Christian, while unaware. (Ibnu Srn) said: We thought that he was referring to this verse.[6]

This narration clearly shows that love and Wal which are Kufr does not only consist of entering the religion of the Kuffr, on the contrary, even if they do not belong to their religion, everyone who befriends and allies them in a complete manner will be counted among them. If it were just to adopt the Jewish or Christian creed, it would be absurd to mention becoming a Jew or a Christian without realizing it, as this is done deliberately. It would also be unnecessary to mention a separate type of Kufr which is adopting the Kuffr as allies, as adopting a Kufr creed is something that is Kufr in itself. If what is meant by Wal is merely adopting Kufr with ones heart, what is the point of dwelling on it? So Wal is separate from having the creed of Kufr and Shirk, and it is a disaster afflicting one who does not have this belief. For this reason, explaining the Kufr type of Wal to be loving the Kufr which the Kuffr are upon is a statement which needs elaboration, although it is not wrong. It is Wjib to display enmity towards the Kuffr in terms of religion, and whoever refrains from displaying enmity in a way that shows he does not have enmity to their Kufr will commit the Wal which is Kufr, whether he enters their religion or not. And Allh knows best.

If love for the Kuffr does not reach the level of being pleased with their religion, it will be Harm love or Wal which is not in opposition with the essence of belief, but is to its perfection. Explanations about this will come in the next section.

c) The Type of Love that is Harm: The statements of the Shaykh Rahimahullh regarding loving Btil and the people of Btil also encompasses this type of love that is Harm. Some types of love pertaining to the love towards the Kuffr do not reach the level of disbelief but are prohibited. What is meant by this is the love for the Kuffr, which are not of a religious nature but of a worldly nature. This type of Harm Wal is something that some Khawrij groups in the past and present do not accept. In particular, many of the contemporary Khrijites, claiming that they cling to the Dhhir (apparent meaning) of some verses such as al-Mujdalah 22 or al-Midah 51, which we have mentioned above, do not accept anything called Wal which is Harm, as they do claim that a person who loves the Kuffr is a Kfir in all circumstances. They only exclude the Fitr (inherent) love mentioned above. Accordingly, to love a Kfir because of kinship and other ties is an inherent and permissible love, otherwise, any love directed to a Kfir is Kufr. Likewise, according to them, it is permissible to give favours and grants to a Kfir who has not waged war on Islm, otherwise anyone who practices a form of Wal and friendship to the Kuffr is a Kfir. Since they approach the issues of mn and Kufr with a Bidah Manhaj distant from the Salaf, and because they view issues particularly with a neo-Khrijite Manhaj who does not accept the existence of a third class, such as a Fsiq amid pure mn and pure Kufr, they cannot even imagine the existence of Wal and affection that is not permissible nor Kufr. Many of them do not even know that scholars categorise as such. According to this mentality, all the Nass regarding taking the Kuffr as Awliy (pl. Wal; allies) are general. Therefore, if a deed that a person does for the Kuffr is defined as Wal in the Nass and is prohibited, this person is a Kfir because he has taken the Kuffr as his Awliy. For example, they consider all types of Wal as Kufr, such as showing love and friendship to the Kuffr for worldly purposes, helping them for worldly purposes, taking them as confidants, giving them the secrets of Muslims, giving them custody, that is, the right to speak, in matters such as marriage. Allhu Alam, today almost all of the circles that refer themselves to Tawhd understand Wal this way and even base all their creed on this invalid al-Wal wal Bar understanding. Because their creed, maybe even their Takfr of todays Tawght and their partisans is based on this, they are meticulous and make forceful, invalid interpretations of all the Nass and narrations that oppose this principle.

Whereas, the fact that there are some types of Wal that do not exclude one from the religion is one of the most obvious issues of the Ahlus Sunnah. After making mention of Suratul Mujdalah, verse 22, Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh says,


وقد تحصل للرجل موادتهم لرحم أو حاجة فتكون ذنبا ينقص به إيمانه ولا يكون به كافرا كما حصل من حاطب بن أبي بلتعة لما كاتب المشركين ببعض أخبار النبي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ .﴾
Sometimes, affection may arise in a person due to kinship or need. Although this is a sin that reduces his belief, a person does not become a Kfir with it. Just like what happened with Htib bin Ab Baltaah when he wrote the news of Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam to some of the Mushrikn. Allh Azza wa Jalla revealed the following verses regarding the issue,

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ .﴾
O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as friends, showing affection towards them. (al-Mumtahinah 60/1)[7]

In the continuation of the verse mentioned by Shaykhul Islm, it states,


﴿تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوِدَّةِ.﴾
You show affection to them in secret.

This verse, which begins with O believers, in which some believers are accused of showing affection/love to the Kuffr and hiding affection/love to the Kuffr is clear Hujjah against the people of falsehood who claim that all love other than the innate love for the Kuffr is Kufr. For, Allhu Tal condemned them because of this love but did not declare Takfr upon them. If what is mentioned here were inherent love of kinship, there would be no condemnation. This love is a prohibited love, but it is not Kufr. The fact that this verse was revealed about Htib writing a letter and that the letter is specifically meant by the love does not necessarily mean that the love mentioned in this verse consists only of conveying news to the Kuffr.

For, as it is known in Usl, the peculiarity of the cause does not prevent the generality of the ruling, that is, the verse being revealed about the spying of Htib Radiyallhu Anh does not prevent it from being applied to other types of Wal. Therefore, al-Fayym (d.770) explained this verse in his book titled al-Misbhul Munr,


فالمفعول محذوف والتقدير تسرون إليهم أخبار النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - بسبب المودة التي بينكم وبينهم
The Mafl (object) in the verse is omitted. The implication is You are giving away the news of the Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam as secret due to the affection between you and them.[8]

In fact, the full translation of the verse is You are hiding with affection for them. Here, the Mafl, that is, the object affected by the verb which is the news, is not mentioned. Thus, it is understood that the news about the conquest of Mecca is not love itself nor its cause, but rather the result. A bond of love was formed between Htib and the Mushrikn, which led him to write a letter to the Mushrikn. As a matter of fact, when the reason of revelation and wording of the verse are examined, it is easily understood that Htib did this in order to protect his relatives in Mecca and to establish a relationship between him and the Mushrikn.

The fact that some contemporaries claim Takfr was not declared upon Htib as a peculiar situation is a deviance that even surpasses the Jahmiyyah.

For, they try to explain this claim that Htibs deed was Kufr, but he was not declared Takfr of due to his forceful interpretation or ignorance, him being from the people of Badr, Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam being informed of the mn present in Htibs heart, all of which are more Btil than one another and have no basis from the Salaf. All of these are words which emanate from those who do not know what mn and Kufr is. Kufr does not have any exception save Ikrh (coercion), and whoever alleges that a person who commits Kufr will not be declared Takfr upon for any reason other than Ikrh has exited the fold of Islm. Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said in as-Srimul Masll,


من تكلم بالتكذيب والجحد وسائر أنواع الكفر من غير إكراه على ذلك فإنه يجوز أن يكون مع ذلك في نفس الأمر مؤمنا ومن جوز هذا فقد خلع ربقة الإسلام من عنقه
Anyone who sees it possible for a person who speaks rejection, denial, and other forms of Kufr without being coerced to be a Mumin (believer) at the same time has removed the yoke of Islm from his neck.

After saying these words, he says in the continuation of the subject,


ولا يجوز أن يقال: إنه في الباطن يجوز أن يكون مؤمنا ومن قال ذلك فقد مرق من الإسلام
It is not permissible to say, This person who speaks Kufr can actually be a Mumin (believer) in his inner realm. Whoever says that has renounced Islm.

He then mentions the verse 106 of Sratun Nahl as evidence.[9]

The definition of the Kufr type of Wal is clear and has been discussed in the light of the words quoted above from Imm at-Tabar. Apart from this, every inclination and love for the Kuffr for worldly reasons is in the same scope of Harm Wal, just like the deeds of Htib, because the cause is the same. In all of these, the person has established friendship with the Kuffr after Islm, not by being pleased with Kufr, but for worldly interests in some ways. As information has been previously given about the story of Htib Radiyallhu Anh, I suffice by alluding to it. Those who want detailed information can visit the following hyperlink:

Clearing the Doubts Regarding the Incident of Haatib bin Abi Baltah (radiyallahu anh) Being an Example for Jahl (Ignorance) as an Udhr (Excuse) in the Matters of Aslud Din (Fundamentals of the Religion Islam)

Thus, the love which is Harm is the worldly love shown to the Kuffr and also to the Munfiqn, the Fussq, and the Mubtadin within the Muslimn. Because the Nass regarding Wal such as, O you who believe! Take not as Bitnah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends, etc.) (l-i Imrn 3/118) is general in cautioning from befriending every category of people except the believers, those who do not fulfill the Wjib of mn, even if he is from the Muslim Ahlul Qiblah, are taken as enemies from this aspect. However, the enmity towards the sinful and Mubtadi Muslims is in proportion to their sins and are loved in the proportion of their mn. Whereas the Kfir is taken as an absolute enemy.

In addition to this, the love felt for Harm which goes beyond the Fitr inclination but does not reach Itiqd characteristics is also included in the scope of Harm love. For example, being addicted to alcohol; if a person uses his will, he can get rid of this, thereby, this cannot be called Fitr love. As long as this love of alcohol does not reach the level of considering it permissible and something good, it cannot be called love which is Kufr. Therefore, it becomes a type of love that is Harm. In summary, love that is Harm is as such. It is incorrect to limit this only to the love for Harm deeds committed by Kuffr or Fussq; but the worldly Wal and friendship manifested towards a Kfir person in a manner which we have mentioned is also within this scope.

Speaking of which, let us also indicate that it is extremely false and Kufr for some people to portray the enmity of the Kuffr merely as a religious enmity, and especially to claim that to love the essence and not the religion of the Kfir who has not waged war against Islm is okay. Statements such as show enmity towards the action of the person, not the person himself and the likes that are said by the speakers and preachers of today is not even permissible to say regarding the sinful Muslimn, let alone regarding the Kuffr. Such statements are irrational to the mind as are false according to the Sharah. The Nass that prohibit friendship with the Kfir and Fsiq are general, and as stated above, the prohibition encompasses both the deeds of these people and the doers of the deed. A contrary claim means the denial of the Nass regarding the prohibition of establishing friendship with these people.

d) The Type of Love that is Fardh: It is as Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh coined it,


Loving the people of Tawhd, and hating the people of Shirk. This is the strongest handhold of mn (faith) and is the greatest thing the servant worships His Rabb (Lord) by.

It is obligatory to love Islm and the Muslims, and the bases of this love is the Aslud Dn. In other words, a Mumin loves the religion of Islm, its rulings, and the Ummah of Islm in general. A person who does not fulfill this cannot be a Muslim. It is for this reason that the Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan Rahimahullh whilst explaining the conditions of La Ilaha Illallh, stated that one of the conditions of La Ilaha Illallh -that is not valid except by it- is Mahabbah (love). And in another place which he elaborates upon this, he says the following,

Recognition and acceptance will not be a reality for the person who utters La Ilaha Illallh without the existence of Mahabbah (love) for matters which it denotes from Ikhls and the rejection of Shirk. Whoever loves Allh also loves his Dn (religion), and whoever does not love Him also does not love his Dn. As Allhu Tal said,


﴿وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلّٰهِ.﴾ [البقرة: 165]
And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andd (pl. Nidd; rivals, equals, partners to Allh), they love them as they love Allh. But those who believe, love Allh more (than anything else) (al-Baqarah 2/165)

Thus, the love of the believers is only for Allh and His Dn. They love Allh and His Dn, made friendship for Allh and His Dn, loved what Allh loved, and they disliked what Allh disliked. The Hadth came as follows,


وَهَلِ الدِّينُ إِلاَّ الْحُبُّ وَالْبُغْضُ؟
Is the Dn (religion) anything but Hubb (love) and Bughd (hate)?

[In his interpretation of Srah l-i Imrn, verse 31, Ibnu Ab Htim related this from ’ishah Radiyallhu Anh and related from Abu Zurah that the Hadth is Munkar (denounced) because of the narrator Abdul Al in the chain of the Hadth.]

For this reason, it is obligatory to have love for the Rasl more than having love for the servants self, child, father, and all people.

Again, the Shahdah of la Ilaha Illallh requires the Shahdah of Muhammad being the Rasl of Allh and it encompasses following him. As Allhu Tal said,


﴿قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.﴾ [آل عمران: 31]
Say, If you love Allh then follow me, Allh will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allh is al-Ghafr (the Oft-Forgiving), ar-Rahm (the Most Merciful). (l-i Imrn 3/31)

The quote from Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan Rahimahullh ends here.[10]

As it is Fardh to love the Muslim community, it is obligatory to love the individual Muslims. However, someones mn will decrease in the proportion of his failure in loving the individual Muslims. This is the reason why Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, None of you have believed so long as you dont love each other. What is negated here is the perfection of mn, not its essence. However, those who do not love the Muslims, those who despise those who carry the Aqdah of Tawhd have lost the essence of mn, just like the hypocrites.

In summary, this is what we have to say about love and its varieties. This division can also be conceived and contemplated regarding Bughd and enmity, which are the opposites of love. May our Rabb make us amongst His slaves who have perfect love in His path and perfect Bughd in His path, mn. khiru Dawn Anil Hamdulillhi Rabbil lamn.
 1. Ibnu Kathr, Tafsrul Qurnil Adhm, Dru Taybah, 6/246.
 
 2. Ibnu Abil Izz, Sharhut Tahwiyyah, Muassasatur Rislah, 2/546.
 
 3. At-Tabar, Jmiul Bayn f Tawlil Qurn [Tafsr], Muassasatur Rislah, 10/400.
 
 4. Ibnu Abil Izz, Sharhut Tahwiyyah, Muassasatur Rislah, 1/166.
 
 5. Ibnu Taymiyyah, Iqtidhus Sirtil Mustaqm, 1/551.
 
 6. Ibnu Kathr, Tafsrul Qurnil Adhm, Dru Taybah, 3/132.
 
 7. Majmul Fatw, 7/522.
 
 8. Al-Fayym, al-Misbhul Munr 1/273.
 
 9. Ibnu Taymiyyah, as-Srimul Masll, p. 523-524.
 
 10. Ad-Durarus Saniyyah, 2/254.
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