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TWO KINDS OF KUFR, SHIRK, FISQ & DHULM | SHAYKH IBNU TAYMIYYAH RAHIMAHULLÂH

Started by Subul’us Salâm, 20.09.2022, 00:17

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Subul’us Salâm


Two Kinds of Kufr, Shirk, Fisq & Dhulm

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah1

There is the essence of Îmân and there is its branch. Kufr is the opposite to Îmân in every concept. The essence of Îmân is affirmation and confirmation, and perfecting the actions with the heart and the body is its branch. The opposite of affirmation and confirmation which is the essence of Îmân is to deny Allâh and what He has said, and to abandon confirming Him and His words.

The opposite of Îmân which is action and not affirmation is not the type of Kufr which is to deny Allâh and makes a person leave the religion, but it is a Kufr which renders the actions worthless.

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Muhammad bin Yahyâ and Muhammad bin Râfi narrated to us. (He said:) Abd'ur Razzâq narrated to us. (He said:) Ma'mar informed us on the authority of Ibnu Tâwûs who narrated from his father that he said: Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ was asked about Allâhu Taâlâ's statement:

"And whosoever does not judge by what Allâh has revealed; such are the Kâfirûn (disbelievers)."(al-Mâ'idah 5/44)

Ibnu Abbâs said, "This is denying it."

Ibnu Tâwûs Rahimahullâh said, "They are not like those who deny Allâh, His angels, His books, and His messengers."

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Muhammad bin Yahyâ narrated to us. (He said:) Abd'ur Razzâq narrated to us from Sufyân, from a man, from Tâwûs, from Ibnu Abbâs that he said, "This is Kufr which does not take one out of the fold of the religion."

Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullâh said in continuation:

Ishâq narrated to us. (He said:) Wakî informed us on the authority of Sufyân from Ibnu Jurayj from Atâ that he said, "It is Kufr which is lesser than Kufr, Dhulm (oppression) which is lesser than Dhulm, and Fisq (corruption) which is lesser than Fisq."

Muhammad bin Nasr said, "They said: Atâ has said the truth. As sometimes, a Kâfir is called a Dhâlim (oppressor), just as a disobedient Muslim is called a Dhâlim. There is Dhulm which takes one out of the fold of Islâm and there is Dhulm which does not."

Allâhu Taâlâ said,

"They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm." (al-An'âm 6/82)
   
On another occasion He has said:

"Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is a grave Dhulm." (Luqmân 31/13)

He mentioned the agreed-upon Hadîth by Ibnu Mas'ûd Radiyallâhu Anh which is reported by al-Bukhârî and Muslim that he said, "When the words,

"They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm" (al-An'âm 6/82) was revealed, it was hard upon the companions of the Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam, and they said, "Who of us is there who has not done any Dhulm to himself!" So Rasûlullâh Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, "This is not what is meant here. Have you not heard the words of the pious slave?

"Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is a grave Dhulm." (Luqmân 31/13) It is merely Shirk."

Muhammad bin Yahyâ narrated to us. (He said:) al-Hajjâj Ibn'ul Minhâl narrated to us from Hammâd Ibnu Salamah, from Alî bin Zayd from Yûsuf bin Mihrân that Ibnu Abbâs Radiyallâhu Anhumâ said,

"Whenever Umar Ibn'ul Khattâb Radiyallâhu Anh entered his house, he would open the Mushaf and recite from it. One day, he entered his house and began reciting, and came to this verse: "They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm." (al-An'âm 6/82) He recited till the end of the verse. Then, he put on his shoes, took his cloak, and went to Ubayy bin Ka'b. He said, "O Abu'l Mundhir, earlier, I came upon this verse, "They who believe and do not mix their belief with Dhulm." (al-An'âm 6/82) "We see that we do Dhulm and similar things?" Ubayy bin Ka'b Radiyallâhu Anh said, "O Commander of the Faithful! This is not what is meant here. Allâhu Taâlâ said, "Indeed, Shirk (ascribing partners to Allâh) is a grave Dhulm." (Luqmân 31/13) The intent here is only Shirk."

Muhammad bin Nasr said: Likewise, Fisq is of two kinds: One which takes one out of the fold of the religion, and another which does not. A Kâfir is called a Fâsiq, just as a Muslim who is a Fâsiq is called a Fâsiq. Allâhu Taâlâ mentioned iblîs and He said, "He did Fisq against the command of his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/50) This Fisq was Kufr on his part. Allâhu Taâlâ has also said, "But as for those who do Fisq, their abode is the Fire." (as-Sajdah 32/20) Here, Allâh is referring to the Kuffâr. Allâh's statement is an evidence for this, "Every time they wish to come out from it, they will be returned to it while it is said to them: Taste the punishment of the Fire that you used to deny." (as-Sajdah 32/20) The Fâsiq from among the Muslims is named a Fâsiq and this does not take them out of the fold of Islâm. Allâhu Taâlâ said, "And those who accuse chaste women and then do not produce four witnesses - lash them with eighty lashes and do not accept from them testimony ever after. And those are those who are Fâsiq." (an-Nûr 24/4) Allâhu Taâlâ also said, "The Hajj is (to be performed in) the months that are well-known. So whoever undertakes Hajj in them, there should be no sexual relations, no Fisq, no quarrel in the Hajj." (al-Baqarah 2/197) The scholars have said in explanation of the term Fisq mentioned here: It is sin.

They said: Once Dhulm is of two kinds and Fisq is of two kinds, Kufr is also of two kinds. One Kufr takes a person out of the fold of the religion while the other does not. Similarly, Shirk is of two kinds: One is Shirk in Tawhîd which takes a person out of the fold of the religion while the other is Shirk in deeds which does not take a person out of the fold of the religion. This is Riyâ (showing off). Allâhu Taâlâ has said, "So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/110) Here, He intends showing-off with righteous deeds. The Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, "Augury is Shirk."




1- Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 7/324-329.
"If the ignorant persists, gets haughty, is determined upon his transgression and misguidance, chooses blindness over guidance, and if what he falls into and disputes with regards to is Shirk Akbar (major Shirk) that brings the person who commits it out of the fold of the faction of Muslims to the party of polytheists, then in this case, the just verdict is the sword!" (al-Fath'ur Rabbânî min Fatâwâ'l Imâm ash-Shawkânî, 1/185)

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